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Treatment of Child and Adolescent Problems
Thyroid Problems Treatment
Thyroid Disorder Treatment
Paediatric Critical Care
Treatment of Childhood Infections
Child Nutrition Management
Growth And Development Including General Paediatri
Management of New Born Care
Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (Pgd)
Congenital Ear Problem Treatment
Treatment of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome In Adolesce
Treatment of Thyroid Disease in Children
Cleft Lip Treatment
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Patient Review Highlights
Gas or flatulence is a condition where the microorganisms present in the intestines break down the food and release excessive gases such as carbon dioxide and methane, which is usually let out from the anus. It can lead to pain in the stomach and an uneasy feeling in the body.
1. When foods that are not digested properly are broken down
2. Lactose intolerance
3. Swallowing air
4. Certain foods not being absorbed properly in the digestive system
5. When a child does other activities, while eating, then it can cause gas to accumulate air in the intestines leading to gas
6. The sweeteners present in chewing gums can get trapped in the intestines and ferment into gas
7. Vegetables such as cauliflower and broccoli can cause gas
8. Soft drinks that cause phosphoric acid can also lead to gas
9. Some children are sensitive to fat and fiber, and consuming these nutrients can lead to gas
The symptoms of gas pain in children are cramps in the stomach region along with diarrhea. It can also lead to irregular eating, being fussy about food and pulling up the legs to the belly.
Treatments and preventive measures
1. Consuming food containing probiotics such as yoghurt and soy can help in treating gas
2. Eliminating vegetables such as broccoli and cauliflower from your child's diet
3. Decreasing the amount of milk in the diet
4. Limiting consumption of chewing gums as they contain artificial sweeteners , which cause gas
5. A hot drink such as tea made from herbs like peppermint can help in easing the symptoms of gas
6. Encouraging your child to exercise can help in preventing gas
7. Getting your child to drink water in proper amounts
8. Consuming a healthy diet of vegetables and fruits
Cyclic vomiting syndrome (CVS) is characterized by periodic bouts of nausea and vomiting that happens at cyclical intervals. It affects all ages, but is more common in children. The condition is quite stereotypical in that there are paroxysms or bouts of vomiting that is recurrent and follows days of normal health.
Causes: There is no definite reason identified, but it is said to have a strong hereditary correlation. Studies have shown mitochondrial heteroplasmic (abnormal growth of mitochondria, which is a cellular component) to be one of the factors that can lead to CVS. The genetic correlation, however, is very difficult to establish, specifically because vomiting and nausea are common symptoms that occur with most conditions in children. And CVS is most commonly noted with conditions like infections and emotional excitement. Infection could be either tooth decay or sinusitis or anything else. Lack of sleep, anxiety, holidays, allergies, overeating, certain foods, menstruation - a host of factors have been shown to induce CVS. There is also a strong association with migraine and conditions that lead to excessive production of stress hormones.
Symptoms: The syndrome (a group of symptoms) usually has 4 phases:
- Symptom-free interval phase: The child is completely normal in this phase, which happens in between bouts.
- Prodromal phase: Prodrome is an indication that a disease or a condition is about to happen. In CVS, this is usually nausea and abdominal pain that can last from a few minutes to a few hours. Treatment in this phase can curb the disease. However, there could be some children in whom this may not manifest and the child may directly start with vomiting.
- Vomiting phase: Repeated bouts of paroxysmal vomiting happen associated with nausea, exertion, fatigue, and drowsiness.
- Recovery phase: As the nausea and vomiting begin to subside, which may take a couple of days, the child returns back to normal slowly. However, the lethargy and energy levels will take a couple of days to return to normal.
Treatment: Treatment again depends on the severity and the phase at which it is being recognized. If a child has repetitive bouts, then the parent and the doctor would have identified a pattern to it.
- If the causative agent has been identified, for instance, infection or migraine, then managing that takes care of the CVS also.
- If identified during the prodromal phase, again it can be managed with suitable anti-emetic medications.
- If identified after full onset, rest and sleep and medications to control nausea and vomiting are required. Adequate hydration with electrolyte replenishment and sedatives can provide additional support.
However, in most cases of childhood CSV, the pattern will be identified and that helps in better management, both the child/parent and the podiatrist.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Stomach aches or abdominal pains are one of the most frequently reported health complaints faced by children. Children below the age of twelve are known to suffer from recurrent stomach pain. While pains such as these lead to momentary discomfiture, they also lay the path for graver worries if neglected for too long. Your child may feel sick and bunk school for two days; rest and home care can restore his or her health, but that in no way, is the best suited way of dealing with the situation. If tummy aches resurface over a certain period of time, parents should be cautious enough to look for the root cause and should try to eliminate it accordingly.
Widely noticed causes of stomach aches in children:
- Unhygienic food can affect the child’s digestive system.
- Intolerance to a certain food item should not be overlooked.
- Perpetual anxiety can make the tummy twist and turn.
- Urinary Tract Infections can also lead to acute abdominal pain.
- Serious factors such as gallstones or appendicitis could also be present. Immediate expert consultation is advised in such a case.
- Caffeine and packaged soft drinks can be harmful.
- Butter, ghee and other greasy products can trigger tummy aches.
Ways to treat tummy aches in children:
- Keep children away from gas producing food items: Food that is hard to digest should be avoided. Lentil soup or dal should only be consumed in limited amounts to prevent the formation of gas. Don’t let your child have too many nuts regularly.
- Keep them hydrated: Fluid intake should be monitored. A child should drink at least six to seven glasses of water per day. Fruit juices or soups can also be given to them alongside main meals. This helps digestion.
- Do not stack up food in one go: Eating a lot in one meal is a bad way of satisfying hunger. Have smaller meals in more numbers. Six to eight meals will keep your child full and will also eliminate chances of acid reflux which happens either due to an empty stomach or too much piling up of greasy food.
- Timely check - up with the doctor: If tummy aches refuse to go away, take your child to a doctor for a thorough check- up. Administer medicines as prescribed by the physician. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Sometimes, the groin and scrotum swell due to the buildup of water like fluid in one or both the testicles. This is known as hydrocele. This condition is not at all painful, but can be uncomfortable at times. In newborn babies, there is an opening between the abdomen and the scrotum; it naturally closes with the passage of time, therefore it’s generally nothing to worry about.
Symptoms of hydrocele:
Scrotum can get enlarged at times
Swelling and redness are common in hydrocele
Also, pressure can be felt at the base of your child’s penis
Pain doesn’t normally occur but in some cases, might occur as your child gets older
How does in occur in babies?
When you are in the last stage of your pregnancy, the baby’s testicles descend from its abdomen to the scrotum. So the fluid in the sac stays within the scrotum and the opening closes naturally after some time.
Can it be treated?
This condition is not usually hazardous to health and is treated usually, if there is immense pain. It can also cut out the blood supply; in this case, it has to be treated as soon as possible. If your child experiences such symptoms, you should take him to a doctor for a physical examination. During this examination, the doctor will shine light near the scrotum.
If it appears as a solid mass, then the assumption is that there is no watery fluid; hence, hydrocele has not occurred. There is a procedure in which the hydrocele is burst open with a small needle, but sometimes, it might relapse. In such a case, surgery is the only reliable option. These symptoms can also persist if your child is diagnosed with hernia. Hence, in such a situation, a surgery would solve both the conditions. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Sometimes, during consumption of certain food items many children get itchy throat, eyes, ears, asthma, sneezing, rashes, diarrhea and eczema. This can be due to food intolerance in children. It is a form of allergic disease in children. Every 1 out of 10 children suffer from food intolerance. These days, food allergies are becoming more and more common in children who are allergic to nuts, milk and eggs. In some cases it can also be life threatening. This condition is known as anaphylaxis. Milk and egg allergies are more common throughout the world.
Symptoms of food intolerance:
Your bowels start becoming irritable.
Stomach starts to ache.
Cough and cold is a common symptom.
Itchy skin rash
Causes of food intolerance in children:
There are enzymes in your body, which help you to digest the food you consume. Some enzymes in your body are insufficient; which further causes food intolerance in children. For instance, lactose intolerance causes spasms, stomach aches, diarrhea and so on so forth.
Some food products can also cause food intolerance such as undercooked beans containing aflatoxins can cause extreme stomach infections in children.
Some children are also intolerant to certain food products which have salicylates such as majority of fruits, vegetables, herbs and also additives. Processed food contains a high amount of salicylates.
Children can be allergic to antioxidants like artificial food coloring, artificial flavoring and preservatives.
What to do if you think your child has food intolerance?
Take your child for a skin prick test. In this test, the skin is pricked with a thin needle and when the blood oozes out, supplements of different food products are put in that area. If that particular area becomes reddish and begins to itch, your child has allergy to that certain food product
A blood test should be done. It verifies the level of lgE present in your blood and finds out if your child is suffering from food intolerance or not.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Iron is an essential nutrient and mineral that is required by adults and children alike. Iron helps move oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body and helps muscles store and use oxygen. It is especially important for children because it aids development and prevents anaemia. Untreated iron deficiency in children can cause physical and mental delays. It can lead to less healthy red blood cells in the child's blood stream which will cause a delay in the growth of physical and mental faculties.
Risk factors for iron deficiency in children
Infants and children at highest risk of iron deficiency include:
- Babies who are born prematurely or have a low birth weight
- Babies who drink cow's milk before age 1
- Breast-fed babies who aren't given complementary foods containing iron after age 6 months
- Babies who drink formula that isn't fortified with iron
- Children ages 1 to 5 who drink more than 24 ounces (710 milliliters) of cow's milk, goat's milk or soy milk a day
- Children who have certain health conditions, such as chronic infections or restricted diets
- Children ages 1 to 5 who have been exposed to lead
- Adolescent girls also are at higher risk of iron deficiency because their bodies lose iron during menstruation.
Symptoms of iron deficiency anaemia
The signs and symptoms of iron deficiency anaemia in children may include:
- Pale skin
- Fatigue or weakness
- Slow cognitive and social development
- Inflammation of the tongue
- Difficulty maintaining body temperature
- Increased likelihood of infections
- Unusual cravings for non-nutritive substances, such as ice, dirt or pure starch
Prevent iron deficiency in children
Take steps to prevent iron deficiency in your child by paying attention to his or her diet. For example:
- Breast-feed or use iron-fortified formula. Breast-feeding until your child is age 1 is recommended. If you don't breast-feed, use iron-fortified infant formula.
- Encourage a balanced diet. When you begin serving your baby solids, typically between ages 4 months and 6 months, feed him or her foods with added iron, such as iron-fortified baby cereal. For older children, good sources of iron include red meat, chicken, fish, beans and dark green leafy vegetables. Between ages 1 and 5, don't allow your child to drink more than 24 ounces (710 milliliters) of milk a day.
- Enhance absorption. Vitamin C helps promote the absorption of dietary iron. You can help your child absorb iron by offering foods rich in vitamin C, such as melon, strawberries, kiwi, broccoli, tomatoes and potatoes.
- Consider iron supplements. If your baby was born prematurely or with a low birth weight or you're breast-feeding a baby older than 4 months and he or she isn't eating two or more servings a day of iron-rich foods, talk to your child's doctor about oral iron supplements.
Make sure that you watch out for the tell tale signs of iron deficiency and take the necessary precautions to avoid the same. If you wish to discuss about any specific child related problem, you can consult a specilized pediatrician and ask a free question.
i am experiencing a Severe lower abdomen pain n lower back pain with a heavy White watery discharge which is continuous from yesterday morning m using a sanitary pad to avoid the wetness n feeling very low I have taken tab. Buscopan but no improvement.
An infant is usually called a bundle of joy and with good reason. There are simple and carefree, and bring a smile to your face with their antics. However, the mood and health of an infant can be tarnished due to an issue which is known as galactosemia.
What is Galactosemia?
When a baby has galactosemia, he or she will have a problem when it comes to digesting galactose, which is something that is present not only in milk but in all milk products. Galactose is a sort of sugar, just like fructose and glucose is. As a matter of fact, lactose, which is what milk has, is, in fact, a combination of glucose and galactose. Also, when lactose is processed, it is broken down by the human body into its constituents.
The condition is something that is passed down through the genes of the parents of the baby. The condition would occur if the gene which causes a tendency for a baby to have galactosemia is present not only in one parent but both of them. A baby who has the condition will be lacking an enzyme which is known as the GALT enzyme. The enzyme could also not be functioning as it should be under normal circumstances.
When it comes to the problem, it is very important, to say the least, to detect it sooner rather than later as if there is a build-up of unprocessed galactose which is allowed to occur, it can affect the baby adversely and in some cases, it can also be threatening to the life of the baby!
How does it affect a baby?
The problems which can erupt due to galactosemia include issues which affect organs such as the brain, eyes, liver and kidneys. It is interesting to take note of the fact that these are all organs which either have something to do either processing the blood or are heavily dependent on it. While a baby is not in the position in which he or she can communicate the issues that are being faced, when keeping an eye out for galactosemia, the signs which are displayed include an irritability of the baby as well as lacking consumption of the milk of the mother.
Even though galactosemia may not be the case, a doctor should be consulted as the exacerbated issue can include seizures and jaundice. It is to be kept in mind that galactose is something that can be found not only in the milk of the cow but also human milk as well as the milk of other animals such as goats.
A baby should be breastfeed for at least the first few months after birth. Breastfeeding has a number of benefits for both the mother and child. Apart from being the best source of nutrition for the baby, it also helps the mother and child bond.
Here are a few benefits of breastfeeding your baby.
- Nutrition: No formula can be compared to the nutrition provided by a mother’s milk. The first milk produced by a mother’s breasts is known as colostrum which is rich in antibodies and proteins. Breast milk is made up of the perfect mix of proteins, vitamins and essential fats. It is also easier to digest as compared to formula feeds.
- Immunity boost: A mother’s milk is rich in antibodies and helps strengthen the newborn child’s immunity. These antibodies also help lower the baby’s risk of developing asthma or allergies later in life. Babies that are breastfed are also said to have a lower risk of suffering from ear infections, respiratory problems and diarrhoea. It also plays an important role in lowering chances of sudden infant death syndrome. Breastfeeding is also said to protect babies from certain types of cancer in infancy and later stages,
- Bonding: While being breastfed, a baby is held close to the mother and has skin to skin contact. This makes the baby feel secure and helps him or her to bond with the mother. For the mother, this process can also help fight postpartum depression and help reconnect with the baby.
- Healthy weight: Babies who are breastfed are said to be less likely to develop obesity. This is because breast milk has lower levels of insulin as compared to formula and babies who are breastfed have higher level of appetite and fat regulating hormone called leptin. As they grow, these babies put on a healthy amount of weight, but refrain from overeating and have healthier eating patterns. This helps maintain a healthy BMI and prevents diseases like diabetes etc.
- Boosts intelligence: Studies show that babies who were breastfed for the first six months have a higher IQ than those who were not. Thus, breastfeeding is said to play a significant role in cognitive development. There are two main reasons for this. Firstly, breast milk is said to fatty acids that are not available in formulas, Secondly, the emotional bonding between mother and child is also said to contribute towards boosting IQ levels. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a pediatrician.
Bedwetting or nocturnal enuresis, refers to the unintentional passage of urine during sleep. Enuresis is the medical term for wetting, whether in the clothing during the day or in bed at night. Another name for enuresis is urinary incontinence. For infants and young children, urination is involuntary. Wetting is normal for them. Usually, most of kids are dry by day 2-3 yrs and dry by night by 3-5 yrs. Daytime control is usually achieved first, while nighttime control comes later.
The age at which bladder control is expected varies considerably. Some parents expect dryness at a very early age, while others not until much later. Such a time line may reflect the culture and attitudes of the parents and caregivers.
Factors that affect the age at which wetting is considered a problem include the following:
- The child's gender: Bedwetting is more common in boys.
- The child's development and maturity
- The child's overall physical and emotional health. Chronic illness and/or emotional and physical abuse may predispose to bedwetting.
No one knows for sure what causes bed-wetting, but various factors may play a role:
- A small bladder: Your child's bladder may not be developed enough to hold urine produced during the night.
- Inability to recognize a full bladder: If the nerves that control the bladder are slow to mature, a full bladder may not wake your child, especially if your child is a deep sleeper.
- A hormone imbalance: During childhood, some kids don't produce enough anti-diuretic hormone (ADH) to slow nighttime urine production.
- Stress: Stressful events, such as becoming a big brother or sister, starting a new school, or sleeping away from home, may trigger bed-wetting.
- Urinary tract infection: This infection can make it difficult for your child to control urination.
- Sleep apnea: Sometimes bed-wetting is a sign of obstructive sleep apnea, a condition in which the child's breathing is interrupted during sleep.
- Diabetes: For a child who's usually dry at night, bed-wetting may be the first sign of diabetes.
A structural problem in the urinary tract or nervous system. Rarely, bed-wetting is related to a defect in the child's neurological system or urinary system.
- Wetting during the day
- Frequency, urgency, or burning on urination
- Straining, dribbling, or other unusual symptoms with urination
- Cloudy or pinkish urine, or blood stains on underpants or pajamas
- Soiling, being unable to control bowel movements
Most kids are fully toilet trained by age 5, but there's really no target date for developing complete bladder control. Between the ages of 5 and 7, bed-wetting remains a problem for some children. After 7 years of age, a small number of children still wet the bed.
When to see a doctor: Most children outgrow bed-wetting on their own, but some need a little help. In other cases, bed-wetting may be a sign of an underlying condition that needs medical attention.
Consult your child's doctor if:
- Your child still wets the bed after age 7
- Your child starts to wet the bed after a few months or more of being dry at night
- Bed-wetting is accompanied by painful urination, unusual thirst, pink or red urine, hard stools, or snoring
- Self-Care at Home
Here are some tips for helping your child stop wetting the bed. These are techniques that are most often successful
- Reduce evening fluid intake.
- The child should urinate in the toilet before bedtime.
- A system of sticker charts and rewards works for some children.
- Make sure the child has safe and easy access to the toilet.
Some believe that you should avoid using diapers or pull-ups at home because they can interfere with the motivation to wake up and use the toilet. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a pediatrician.