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Treatment of Child and Adolescent Problems
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Treatment of Childhood Infections
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Growth And Development Including General Paediatri
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Children with constitutional growth delay (CGD), the most common cause of short stature and pubertal delay, typically have retarded linear growth within the first 3 years of life. In this variant of normal growth, linear growth velocity and weight gain slows beginning as young as age 3-6 months, resulting in downward crossing of growth percentiles, which often continues until age 2-3 years. At that time, growth resumes at a normal rate, and these children grow either along the lower growth percentiles or beneath the curve but parallel to normal children.
At the expected time of puberty, the height of children with constitutional growth delay begins to drift further from the growth curve because of delay in the onset of the pubertal growth spurt. Catch-up growth, onset of puberty, and pubertal growth spurt occur later than average, resulting in normal adult stature and sexual development. Although constitutional growth delay is a variant of normal growth rather than a disorder, delays in growth and sexual development may contribute to psychological difficulties, warranting treatment for some individuals. Studies have suggested that referral bias is largely responsible for the impression that normal short stature per se is a cause of psycho-social problems; non referred children with short stature do not differ from those with more normal stature in school performance or socialization. A recent study determined that constitutional growth delay was the most common cause of short stature in children.
My wife gave birth to a baby boy on 20th March 2016. Since inception the baby is ignoring mother's breast feeding, we are feeding him with Similac powder as suggested by our doctor. But we want mother's feeding, please advise what to do?
My little sister is one month short of her 3rd birthday. We stopped feeding her milk from bottle as we came across articles saying it is harmful. Now her diet has reduced a lot and because of that she has become very thin. Also, she is always in a bad mood. Is there something we can do about this?
My 2.5 month old baby feed with bottle. Bec I cant produce enough breastmilk for him. He did not feed with spoon. If I sterilize bottle before and after use properly and use bpa free glass bottle then is it ok to use bottle.
Ive been feeding my baby for a month now but he is not drinking my milk since 4-5 days, I consulted a doctor nearby she is asking me to pump my milk up n throw it away as my chest became heavy as he did not drink my milk, but now again my chest is fine but she asked me to pump n throw it Away, also I do not want to continue feeding as he is not drinking but I read it somewhere as much as il pump milk will produce on its own, how to stop it from producing?
I dint breast feed my baby for past ten days. Today I breast feed her. I dint have any pain or anything. But when I pressed milk came. So I fed her today. Is it okay? Reply fast please.
I have a lung fibrosis, could you please help me out. What are the foods and other precautions should I have to lead better life.
My daughter 4 years old. Everytime we feed her lunch or dinner she tend to vommit. This problem is going on for a couple of months?
My daughter is of 17 months old. Her weight is less then normal. Her weight is 8.5 kg that is not good. I am concerned for her. Since you are a doctor of nutrition, Please prescribed the name of any nutrition that I give her to get better improvement.
My 9 months kid is suffering with cold, cough, poor feed and breathing fast. Last night baby got fever and when we consult doctor immediately. After looking into X- Ray they said Pneumonia. We have admitted baby in hospital and they have started giving Antibiotics, Levolin thru Nebulizer and Saline. Now baby is feeling better but she still gets fever every day in the evening. Its been 2 days since admitted in hospital. My concern is how long it would take and why baby still getting fever. Please help us.
My daughter is 10 months old her skin becomes dry due to winter I wanna use libero lotion is lotion is good to use for my baby skin.
Hi. My son is having tie tongue. He is 3.5 years old. My query is what is the correct age to treat it? What is the correct way to treat it? Is there any other complications in it? What kind of specialist doctor needed to treat it? Pediatric or ENT?
My 4-years old child is very aggressive. He is always breaking something here and there. We are fed up of his behavior. He is excessively active and adamant. How do we teach him manners?
My 2 months baby had a swelling on d eyebrow by birth it was seen now it slightly increased it is in 25pause size when v touch that swelling there is no pain for baby.
In 3.5 years 3 time's my daughter suffering high fever in this time also suffering feet. We take report of EEG and doctor find abnormal activity now I have a second opinion what can I do ?
Epilepsy is a chronic disorder of the brain that affects people worldwide. It is characterized by recurrent seizures, which are brief episodes of involuntary movement that may involve a part of the body (partial) or the entire body (generalized), and are sometimes accompanied by loss of consciousness and control of bowel or bladder function.
Seizure episodes are a result of excessive electrical discharges in a group of brain cells. Different parts of the brain can be the site of such discharges. Seizures can vary from the briefest lapses of attention or muscle jerks to severe and prolonged convulsions. Seizures can also vary in frequency, from less than 1 per year to several per day.
One seizure does not signify epilepsy (up to 10% of people worldwide have one seizure during their lifetime). Epilepsy is defined as having 2 or more unprovoked seizures.
Fear, misunderstanding, discrimination and social stigma have surrounded epilepsy for centuries. This stigma continues in many countries today and can impact on the quality of life for people with the disorder and their families.
Signs and symptoms
Characteristics of seizures vary and depend on where in the brain the disturbance first starts, and how far it spreads. Temporary symptoms occur, such as loss of awareness or consciousness, and disturbances of movement, sensation (including vision, hearing and taste), mood, or other cognitive functions.
People with seizures tend to have more physical problems (such as fractures and bruising from injuries related to seizures), as well as higher rates of psychological conditions, including anxiety and depression. Similarly, the risk of premature death in people with epilepsy is up to 3 times higher than the general population, with the highest rates found in low- and middle-income countries and rural versus urban areas.
A great proportion of the causes of death related to epilepsy in low- and middle-income countries are potentially preventable, such as falls, drowning, burns and prolonged seizures.
Epilepsy is not contagious. The most common type of epilepsy, which affects 6 out of 10 people with the disorder, is called idiopathic epilepsy and has no identifiable cause.
Epilepsy with a known cause is called secondary epilepsy, or symptomatic epilepsy. The causes of secondary (or symptomatic) epilepsy could be:
- brain damage from prenatal or perinatal injuries (e.g. a loss of oxygen or trauma during birth, low birth weight),
- congenital abnormalities or genetic conditions with associated brain malformations,
- a severe head injury,
- a stroke that restricts the amount of oxygen to the brain,
- an infection of the brain such as meningitis, encephalitis, neurocysticercosis,
- certain genetic syndromes,
- a brain tumor.
Epilepsy can be treated easily and affordable medication. Recent studies in both low- and middle-income countries have shown that up to 70% of children and adults with epilepsy can be successfully treated (i.e. their seizures completely controlled) with anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs). Furthermore, after 2 to 5 years of successful treatment and being seizure-free, drugs can be withdrawn in about 70% of children and 60% of adults without subsequent relapse.
Idiopathic epilepsy is not preventable. However, preventive measures can be applied to the known causes of secondary epilepsy.
- Preventing head injury is the most effective way to prevent post-traumatic epilepsy.
- Adequate perinatal care can reduce new cases of epilepsy caused by birth injury.
- The use of drugs and other methods to lower the body temperature of a feverish child can reduce the chance of febrile seizures.
- Central nervous system infections are common causes of epilepsy in tropical areas, where many low- and middle-income countries are concentrated.
- Elimination of parasites in these environments and education on how to avoid infections can be effective ways to reduce epilepsy worldwide, for example those cases due to neurocysticercosis.