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Possibly the most common skin problem in the world, acne is the inflammation of the skin pores when excess oil and dead skin cells clog them. Acne can manifest in many forms such as blackheads and whiteheads, and papules among others. More than the acne, the scars they leave behind tend to cause the most grief as they look quite unsightly. There are multiple modern dermatological treatments which can help you resolve this problem. Some of the treatments that are commonly used are mentioned below –
Chemical Peels: This is one of the most common methods used for the treatment of acne scars. Specially mixed chemical formulations are used to dissolve away the top layer of the skin which contains most of the scars. Once the top layer goes away, the new layer of skin which regenerates doesn’t have the scars.
Light Therapies and Laser Treatments: There are many types of laser and light therapies which use a focused light to burn away the top layer of the skin to regenerate it and reduce the scar. Certain specialized lasers use high-intensity pulses to treat raised acne scars specifically.
Dermabrasion and Microdermabrasion: One of the most popular and commonly found treatments, is dermabrasion. This method uses an electrical machine that removes the top layer of skin which is akin to sanding. However, this is a fairly invasive option and will require some time for recovery. A less invasive procedure is microdermabrasion which uses finer instruments for this purpose and tends to have lesser downtime.
Dermal Filler Injections: These injections are used to plump up certain areas of skin which need to be treated. Most of them work on the principle of boosting collagen which is responsible for healing the skin. Once boosted, collagen works to fill gaps and regenerate new skin. However, most of these are temporary and only last for about a year or so.
Incisions Under the Skin: Sub-cision or subcutaneous incision uses a tuned surgical probe to separate the scar tissues of acne from the normal skin. This will result in the skin to rise and thus flatten the dent of the acne scar.
Autologous Fat Transfer: A form of therapy which is becoming popular very quickly, this method uses fat taken from one area of your body and injected into the scar area. This results in raising the depressed areas of the skin and flattening the scars. However, fat is easily absorbed within the body and thus the effect may diminish within some time. You may be needed to redo the procedure over regular periods.
Cryotherapy: The area around the scar is frozen in a targeted manner which results in the scar tissue falling over and exposing newer skin which is smooth and devoid of scarring.
Topical Creams: These are the most commonly available over the counter solutions for acne scars which help reduce their appearance.
If you see continual and long-term white patches of depigmentation on your skin, it could be vitiligo. Vitiligo is a condition that appears when melanocytes in your skin are no more alive. This bunch of cells is responsible for producing the melanin pigment that endows the skin with its colour as well as protects it from the harmful UV rays. The area which may be affected by this dermatological disease varies from person to person, and it can also affect the hair, mouth and eyes as well. In most cases, the vitiligo affected area stays discoloured for the rest of the patient’s life.
Various types of vitiligo and their symptoms
Scientists have classified vitiligo into two types: segmental and non-segmental. The non-segmental vitiligo is the most common variant and 90 percent of vitiligo affected patients suffer from this kind of disorder. In this disease, the patches take place with little symmetry on both sides of the body. It can be further broken down into 5 sub-divisions.
- Generalised vitiligo: It can occur at any part of the body without any rules, and this is by far the most common type.
- Acrofacial vitiligo: It is mostly seen on the toes and fingers.
- Mucosal vitiligo: In this condition, the discolouration normally takes place around the lips and mucous membranes.
- Universal vitiligo: This is the rarest type of vitiligo where the whole body is covered in white patches.
- Focal vitiligo: This is most commonly found in children. The children have white and scattered patches across the body.
Possible treatments for vitiligo
Though there are no treatments possible that will re-pigment your skin to its original colour, there are several remedies that aid in decreasing the visibility of white patches on the affected areas of the skin. Some of them include:
- Phototherapy with UVB radiation: This is a common form of treatment where the affected area is exposed to UVB radiation and can be performed at home too. If you have large white spots across the body, it is important to have the treatment performed by an expert at any healthcare centre.
- Phototherapy with UVA radiation: In this treatment, a drug is first administered for increasing skin’s sensitivity to this radiation. Then the affected area of the skin is exposed to high doses of UVA radiation.
- Skin camouflage: In mild cases of vitiligo, cosmetic creams and make-up can be used to camouflage the affected area. It can last for about 12- 18 hours when applied in proper techniques.
In case you are suffering from vitiligo, it is crucial to speak with an expert and opt for the best means to curb down the impact of vitiligo.
Jock itch can be defined as a fungal infection affecting the skin, especially around the inner thighs, genitals, buttocks or the groin region. Also called ‘tinea cruris’, this condition triggers irritation that results from the ring-shaped red rashes that primarily affect the warm and moist regions of one’s body. This condition majorly affects people who sweat excessively, such as athletes or even people who are over-weight. Although it is often bothersome and uncomfortable, jock itch doesn’t bring about severe complications for the affected individual. Jock itch can easily be cured by keeping the groin region dry and applying topical anti-fungal medications.
The main symptoms of Jym itch include itchy and painful rashes in the buttock, inner thigh or the groin region. The rash is usually tan, red or brown in color, slightly scaly and often formed at the edges.
Putting on damp, wet or unlaundered clothing, such as athletic supporter and very tight underwear or wearing them frequently.
Sharing towels that were used by a person suffering from the same condition.
Taking showers irregularly, especially after excessive sweating or exercising.
Living in hot and humid conditions.
Wearing tight clothing.
Immune system disorders.
Anti-fungal creams or lotions can help treat ringworm of the groin. Few examples are Miconazole, Econazole, Clotrimazole and Ketoconazole. These medications should be applied twice a day for about two to four weeks.
In case the eruptions start to ooze fluids or pus, antibiotics may be administered by the doctor.
Measures to prevent recurrence of tinea cruris include weight reduction (if obese), wearing less occlusive clothing, drying thoroughly after bathing, using topical antifungal powders, laundering contaminated clothing, and treating concomitant fungal infection of nail of feet, if present.