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What is the name of the blood test which predicts breast cancer .approx cost and can we do it in any pathology lab.
My father is 77 years old. On 15th. Of November he was operated for prostate which was 34 gms. In his biopsy we came to know about carcinoma of Gleason scale 4+3=7 after a month of waiting we got PSA of 9.372.Please let me know the prognosis of it's spreading to other parts and how much aggressive it can be. Earlier our Doctor suggested a 'Watchful Wait'in his case. I want to know is it alarming? He has diabetes which is controlled by Reclide tablet and for BP he takes Ciladuo (BD). Thanks.
My father has enlarged prostate and liver. He has the habit of alcohol and smoking. What might be the further complication.
Which stage lung cancer is this? Help me stage it please, living in constant fear. Upper love of right lung 4.2*3.7*4 cm Pet scan - right paratracheal, pretracheal, precarinal, subcarinal, AP windoe, right prevascular, right hilar, right supraclavicular nodes show increased FDG uptake, largest 4.4 cm,max SUV 13.92 in right paratracheal node. Nothing else is affected.
Breast cancer is a form of cancer which develops from the breast tissue. Breast cancer is indicated by signs such as a lump in the breast, changes in breast shape, fluid flowing from the nipple, dimpling of skin, or the development of red scaly patches. Breast cancer is a fatal form of cancer in women and immediate diagnosis is required on observing the symptoms.
Diagnosis of breast cancer
Other than the regular breast screening, the diagnosis of breast cancer involves the following steps and methods:
- Seeing your general practitioner (GP): It is very important to visit your GP soon after noticing the symptoms of breast cancer. Your GP will examine you properly and in case your symptoms need more assessment, he/she will refer you to a breast cancer clinic.
- Mammogram and breast ultrasound: You will be required to have a mammogram, as recommended by a specialist breast unit. This is an X-ray of the breasts. An ultrasound scan may also be required. Breast ultrasound should be undertaken only if you are less than 35 years of age. This is because, young women have denser breasts and a mammogram is not as effective as ultrasound in the diagnosis of breast cancer. In ultrasound, high frequency sound waves are used for obtaining an image of your breasts. It is observed to notice any abnormality or lumps. A breast ultrasound is also important for determining whether a lump is solid or contains liquid.
- Biopsy: In this diagnosis process, a sample of the tissue cells is taken from the breasts and tested under a microscope to find out if it is cancerous. A scan and needle test for the lymph nodes present in your armpit is also done to check whether they have also been affected. A biopsy is undertaken in several ways, depending upon the condition and severity. A needle aspiration biopsy is used for testing a sample of your breast cells without the removal of the tissues. This is the most common form of biopsy and it is also used for draining a small fluid-filled lump or benign cyst. During the process, you will be given a local anesthetic. Usually, a needle biopsy is carried out guided by an X-ray, ultrasound and an MRI scan as well. This helps in distinguishing it from non-invasive changes such as ductal carcinoma in situ.
Another form of biopsy used for the diagnosis of breast cancer is called vacuum assisted biopsy or mammotome biopsy. In this process, a needle gets attached to a suction tube, which helps in obtaining the sample and for clearing the bleeding.