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In my right breast since morning not a pain that is some like (jum, jum) not continuously 10 seconds are 20 seconds what to do this problem I am scary pls help me.
Hello sir, I have a small lumps in inner tongue area and feel something stuck in my upper throat . Have browsed internet and worried about oral cancer I used to smoke rarely and usually maintain low oral hygiene , I don't hav any symptom of oral cancer as shown in net but it's been for two weeks now Started feeling this lumps when one day I had stomach upset.
Hi, My wife is having rectal cancer and she has just started immunotherapy. Meanwhile she is bleeding with the motions. How to stop this?
The rising incidences of cancer have made it important for us to be vigilant about our health. It has been proven medically that if cancer is detected at an early stage -stage I & II , then the chances of cure and treatment along with full recovery are very high. For early cancer detection & for people at greater risk of cancer, PHC-Preventive Health Care plays a major role. Preventive Health Check is particularly important for the people who have a family history of cancer.
Almost all cancers are caused by damage or mutation in their genes, which, may be acquired from environmental exposure, dietary factors, hormones or through normal aging. In 90% of cases, these genes are not passed from parents to children. These are known as sporadic mutations and the cancers that they cause are called as sporadic cancers. But 5-10% of cancers are caused by gene mutations which are inherited from one or both parents & passed on to the children .These are hereditary or germline mutations & these cancers are known as hereditary or familial cancers.
People /children, who carry gene mutations have a higher risk of developing cancer at an earlier age or at some point in their life time.
Some of the common such cancers, which run in families, are:
- Breast cancer
- Ovarian cancer
- Colo-rectal cancer (cancer of large intestine )
- Prostate cancer
Breast, ovary & colo-rectal carcinoma have well established gene mutation studies.Mutation of BRCA 1 & BRCA2 Genes is responsible for 85% of hereditary breast cancers.
Estimated life time risk for developing breast cancer in woman with BRCA1 & BRCA2 mutation is 56-87% & risk for developing-bilateral /contralatral breast cancer is about 20-40%. These statistics make a preventive health check for women with breast cancer history in their family a necessity. Mutation in these genes confers about 20-40% increased life time risk for developing ovarian cancer. Hence the presence of gene mutation for breast cancer can trigger ovarian cancer.
However as stated above, other environmental and lifestyle factors can also cause breast cancer other than genetic BRCA1 & BRCA 2 gene mutations.
- Increasing age
- Early menarche
- Late menopause
- First birth after the age of 30
- Atypical lobular hyperplasia or Atypical ductal hyperplasia
- Prior breast biopsies
- Long term postmenopausal estiogen replacement
- Early exposure to ionizing radiation
Other Familial Cancers:
Familial cancer syndromes associated with colo-rectal cancers are familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP).It is an autosomal dominant inherited syndrome with more than 90% penetrance, manifested by hundreds of polyps developed by late adolescence .The risk of developing invasive cancer is almost 100% .So such patients should start getting colonoscopy at an earlier age- say by 20yr of age & should undergo Total Collectomy on development of significant polyps .
Cancer Assessment & Conclusion:
For breast cancer risk assessment, we have the GAIL model & IBIS model, which take into consideration ,all the risk factors, apart from BRCA1 & BRCA 2 gene mutation. These models calculate the over all life time risk of development of breast cancer for any lady. For this, you have to consult a specialist experienced in area of hereditary cancers, cancer risk assessment, genetic counseling & testing.
To conclude, all people with cancers in their family should undergo genetic testing & counseling, to detect high risk individuals should take adequate measures & treatment.
A small pimple is growing on my breast area. At the tip of my nipples. Its getting swelling and paining too. I don't feel comfortable to share ot with my family. please Help me with it.
Testicular cancer is a rare and serious disease in which malignant or cancer cells form in one or both tissues of testicles. It is the most common type of cancer in the males aged between 20 to 30 years. Testosterone and sperms are produced in the testicles of the males. Almost all testicular cancerous cells begin from germ cells. There are two types of germ cell tumors - Seminomas and Non-Seminomas respectively.
Seminomas and non-seminomas occur almost about equally. But a mixture of the two types of cells is treated as non-seminomas only. Further, the seminomas and non-seminomas are subdivided. The seminomas are divided into classical seminoma and spermatocytes-seminoma. And the non-seminomas are further divided into embryonal carcinoma, yolk sac carcinoma, choriocarcinoma and teratoma.
What causes testicular cancer?
The exact cause of testicular cancer is unknown. Researchers have not been able to find out the reason that causes it. However, there are certain risk factors that increase the chances of having testicular cancer. An undescended testicle might be the cause of testicular cancer. Abnormal testicle contributes to the risk factors of the disease. If anyone has had the disease previously in the family, then it increases the risk factor. Also, research shows that white people are 4.5 times at more risk for testicular cancer than black people.
What are the symptoms?
Some may experience no symptoms of it at all, while others have symptoms like aching, the swelling in the scrotum, and sudden weight gain. A lump might also be noticed on either side of the testicles if affected by this disease. Hence, if these symptoms are observed, it is important to get a diagnosis by a medical expert. The symptoms are not yet clearly stated by the researchers, but the above-mentioned symptoms are said to be prevalent in people with testicular cancer.Do not try any measures to diagnose on your own, refer to the concerned doctor as this is a serious disease.
How to diagnose testicular cancer?
If a person, experiences any of the above-mentioned symptoms, the person must seek the medical help immediately. The doctor will prescribe a few tests to diagnose the condition. The tests include an Ultrasound to get the image of Scrotum and testicles and a few blood tests to know the levels of tumor markers in the blood. If these tests confirm a lump then a surgery is done to remove the lump and further test if the lump is cancerous. Also, the type and the stage of the cancer is determined.
What are the treatment options?
Treatments are decided depending on the stage and type of cancer. The different treatment options available are Surgery to remove testicles, Surgery to remove the nearby lymph nodes, Radiation therapy, and Chemotherapy. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!