Lybrate.com has a number of highly qualified Gynaecologists in India. You will find Gynaecologists with more than 41 years of experience on Lybrate.com. You can find Gynaecologists online in Pune and from across India. View the profile of medical specialists and their reviews from other patients to make an informed decision.
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In Vitro Fertilization (Ivf) Treatment
Caesarean Section Procedure
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Termination Of Pregnancy Procedure
Treatment Of Pregnancy Problems
Well Woman Healthcheck
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Treatment Of Medical Diseases In Pregnancy
Treatment Of Menstrual Problems
Intra-Uterine Insemination (IUI) Treatment
Medical Termination Of Pregnancy (Mtp) Procedure
Gynecology Laparoscopy Procedures
Pap Smear Procedure
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Patient Review Highlights
What is a hysterectomy and why do you need it?
A hysterectomy is a surgical procedure to remove the uterus, which is a muscular organ that carries and nourishes the baby during pregnancy. This surgery may be done to remove all or parts of the uterus; if there are any associated problems in fallopian tubes/ ovaries, they may also be removed simultaneously, during hysterectomy.
Types of hysterectomy procedures
Hysterectomy may be done through surgical cuts in the belly, known as abdominal hysterectomy or through vaginal hysterectomy where the uterus is removed through the vagina. Majority of the hysterectomies are now done with laproscope, due to the advantage of faster recovery. Which procedure is chosen will depend on why the hysterectomy is being performed along with the medical history of the patient.
Depending on the reason of the surgery, removal of the whole uterus or just parts of it may be required. The types of surgery are:
- Partial hysterectomy is the removal of just the uterus while keeping the cervix in place
- Total hysterectomy is the removal of the uterus and cervix
- Radical hysterectomy is the removal of the uterus, ovaries, fallopian tubes, lymph nodes, cervix and the upper part of the vagina, and is generally only advised in cases of cancer
- Oophorectomy is the removal of ovaries and it may be done with a hysterectomy
Why is it needed?
There may be many reasons to have a hysterectomy and some of them include:
These may be very uncomfortable and painful, sometimes caused by other diseases. A hysterectomy may be opted for when all other treatments have failed to treat this condition.
It is a condition where the tissue lining the uterus also grows on the ovaries, fallopian tubes, or pelvic or abdominal organs. It causes severe abdominal pain, heavy periods and sometimes even infertility.
When the tissues and ligaments supporting the uterus become weak, the uterus may slip down from its normal position and descend into the vagina. It can result in urinary incontinence (leakage of urine), pressure in the pelvis and problems in bowel movements.
Cancer of the uterus, ovaries, fallopian tube, cervix or the lining of the uterus (endometrium)
A hysterectomy may be recommended for these types of cancers. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
What all women should know about IUI
Intrauterine insemination or IUI is a form of artificial insemination that involves the sperm being placed inside the uterus of a woman for bringing about fertilization. The aim of this procedure is to enhance the number of sperms that successfully reach the fallopian tubes and fertilize an egg, thereby increasing your chances of getting pregnant. Depending on the cause of your infertility, the procedure can be synchronized with fertility drugs or your ovulation cycle.
When should you go for IUI?
While reduced sperm mobility or a low sperm count may be the reason this procedure is opted for, there are certain conditions that may cause you and your partner to opt for IUI:
- If the cause of your infertility doesn't have any medical explanation
- Problems with ejaculation affecting the release of semen
- Problems associated with cervical mucus can hinder the journey of the sperm from the vagina to the fallopian tubes
- Scarring of the cervix due to past surgical procedures, rendering the sperm unable to enter the uterus
At the same time, the procedure is not recommended for women who suffer from:
- A disease of the fallopian tubes
- Past episodes of pelvic infections
- Mild to severe endometriosis (a condition wherein the womb's lining grows outside it)
What happens after IUI?
The procedure takes up only a few minutes of your time and causes very little discomfort. Following the procedure, you'll be told to lie on your back for a short period of time, after which you can get back to your normal routine the same day. You can expect instances of light spotting, which will go away after two days.
Menstruation is a cyclical process when at a certain time of the month, the lining of the uterus is shed and vaginal bleeding occurs. Sometimes there can be abnormalities in this cycle. Irregular periods in women are abnormal variations in the length, volume, duration and quality of menstrual cycle. Irregular periods aren't uncommon among menstruating women.
Abnormalities in periods can be of the following nature:
- Varying time between successive periods
- Loss of more or less blood than usual
- Varying length of your periods
Based on these categorizations, the different types of periods are:
- Irregular menstrual bleeding - Irregular menstrual bleeding is characterized by bleeding that takes place for more than 20 days in a solitary cycle, which can lengthen over a period of a year.
- Absent menstrual bleeding - In this type of menstrual bleeding, a woman does not get her period at all within a span of 90 days.
- Heavy menstrual bleeding - This involves excessive blood loss that may intervene with a woman's physical, psychological and social quality of life.
- Heavy and prolonged menstrual bleeding - This is less common than heavy menstrual bleeding and is different from in terms of duration. A different type of therapy is required to treat the condition as it is more severe in nature.
- Light menstrual bleeding - Light menstrual bleeding is characterized by less blood loss than usual.
Irregular periods can be caused due to several reasons. Some of them are:
- Switching from one birth control pill to another or taking certain medication
- Excessive exercising
- Breastfeeding or pregnancy
- Polycystic ovary disease (PCOS)
- Uterine fibroids
- Getting an IUD (intrauterine device)
- Gradual thickening of uterine lining or the development of polyps on the uterine lining
- Scarring of the lining of the uterus can also be a possible cause
Changes in the body's level of hormones can also disrupt a woman's periods. Estrogen and progesterone are the chief hormones that play a crucial part in the menstrual cycle and influence the flow as well, thereby giving rise to abnormalities if their balance is disturbed.
When it comes to treating irregular periods, modifying your lifestyle, treating the underlying issue behind an irregular cycle, changing your birth control pills (if that is the cause), opting for hormone therapy or even surgery are viable treatment options.
There are two main ways of finding out if you are pregnant - getting your blood tested, and doing home pregnancy urine test. In order for these tests to give you a clear picture, you need to wait until the right time i.e. until you've missed your period. However, there are several early signs of pregnancy that can give you an indication that you might be expecting.
1. Shortness of breath - Do you find yourself losing your breath on the stairs or when you walk for a long period of time, more than you usually do? This could be a sign of pregnancy since the fetus needs oxygen, leaving you feeling a little breathless even when you mildly exert yourself.
2. Sore breasts - If your breasts suddenly start feeling a little heavy or you feel like they have grown and your areolas seem slightly darker, it could be one of the first signs that you are pregnant.
3. Fatigue - The increase in hormones in your body during a pregnancy could lead to you feeling a lot more tired. If you end up exhausted after a normal day this could be because women tend to feel extreme tiredness during their first trimester of pregnancy.
4. Nausea - Around 6 weeks into a pregnancy (sometimes earlier), women tend to feel nauseous. This usually subsides as you enter into your second trimester. Feeling nauseous could be a sign of pregnancy. You can treat it by eating things that help settle your stomach like crackers and soda.
5. Frequent Urination - If you notice yourself needing to urinate more than usual, it could be a sign of pregnancy. This happens because your body is now producing extra fluids that cause your bladder to work extra.
6. Headaches - An early sign of pregnancy is experiencing frequent headaches. This happens because your body is now suddenly dealing with a lot of excessive hormones. To deal with the headaches make sure you take a pregnancy safe painkiller instead of a normal one.
Everybody has a way of expressing itself if only we take the time out to listen. If we really pay attention to these tiny reactions, detecting a pregnancy early, that is even before you skip that period is possible.
I'm 6 week pregnant by ivf and fresh bleeding with clot. I'm on inj. Gestone and Fragmin and tab. estradiol and Duphaston. After bleeding Dr. Ask for inj proluton depot 500. Bleeding stop but brown discharge on wipe come is it OK or something wrong.
What causes infertility?
It is important to understand what fertility is for a person or couple to know when it is time to seek help. Infertility refers to the inability to conceive after having regular unprotected sex for a period of 12 months or so. The complex process of ovulation and fertilization need to work right in order to become pregnant.
The common disorders that cause infertility in male and female are listed below:
Causes of male infertility
1. Abnormal sperm production
This can be due to various problems like undescended testicles, genetic defects, health problems including diabetes, infections such as mumps, chronic urinary tract infection especially e. Coli or surgeries on the testicles. Enlarged veins in the testes increase blood flow and heat, affecting the number and shape of sperm.
2. Problems with delivery of sperm
This can happen due to sexual problems, such as premature ejaculation, retrograde ejaculation (semen entering bladder instead of emerging through the penis during orgasm), genetic diseases such as cystic fibrosis, structural problems such as blockage of the part of the testicle that contains sperm or injury to reproductive organs.
3. Overexposure to certain chemicals and toxins
These can include radiation, pesticides, tobacco smoke, alcohol, marijuana and steroids. Frequent exposure to heat can also elevate the testicular temperature, impairing sperm production.
4. Damage related to cancer
This includes radiation and chemotherapy. Cancer treatments can impair sperm production. Removal of one testicle due to cancer may also affect male fertility.
Causes of female infertility
1. Ovulation disorders
This prevents the ovaries from releasing eggs. Examples include hormonal disorder (PCOS, hypothyroidism, hyperprolactinemia), excessive exercise, eating disorders, injuries, cysts be it follicular or endometriotic and ovarian tumors.
2. Uterine abnormalities
This includes problems related to the opening of cervix or abnormalities in the shape of the uterus which includes arcuate or septate uterus or any congenital anomalies like bicornuate uterus or uterine didelphys. Fibroids may distort the uterine cavity interfering with implantation of fertilized egg. Adenomyosis or endometriosis of the endometrium is one the common causes of early infertility.
3. Fallopian tube damage
This usually results from infection of the fallopian tube by a pelvic inflammatory disease caused by sexually transmitted infection, endometriosis or adhesions.
4. Thyroid problems
Disorders of the thyroid gland, either too much thyroid hormone or too little can interrupt the menstrual cycle, leading to infertility in the long run.
Gynaecological problems are all the disorders associated with the female reproductive system. These generally manifest themselves in the reproductive organs situated in the abdominal, pelvic and breast areas of the body. A woman age plays an important role in these cases since the problems are generally associated with hormone changes that take place with ageing.
Such disorders are common and in most cases, arise due to an infection or hormone level fluctuation that usually eases in a few days. Many gynaecological problems are potentially life-threatening and may severely damage fertility, and the chances of procreation. Recognition and early treatment of these problems are thus of utmost importance.
Following are the most common symptoms of gynaecological disorders:
- Vaginal bleeding between periods and during/after sexual intercourse
- Frequent and urgent need to urinate or a burning sensation during urination
- Excessive growth of body hair
- Sores, lumps or boils in the genital or breast area
- Severe pelvic pain that differs from menstrual cramps
- Pain or discomfort during intercourse
- Menstrual periods lasting for more than 7 days
- Itching, burning, swelling, redness or soreness in the vaginal area
- Vaginal discharge with an unpleasant or unusual odour, or of an unusual colour
- While vaginal bleeding and discharge are essential parts of the menstrual cycle, if these happen in excess or at unusual times, it becomes symptomatic of a gynaecological disorder.
The signs of gynaecological problems often resemble that of urological ailments and other medical syndromes. Recognising these symptoms and consulting a gynaecologist immediately ensures quick alleviation of the problem.
Ignoring them will lead to several maladies such as:
- Vulvodynia - This is the term for disorders of the vulva, whose symptoms include pain, itching, swelling and soreness of the vulva.
- Vaginitis - This includes all infections of the vagina, such as herpes, yeast infections, Chlamydia, etc. Problems of the vulva also fall into this category.
- Organ failure - Pelvic pain is a symptom of dysfunction in one of the organs in the pelvic area - uterus, ovaries, fallopian tubes, cervix, lower intestines, or rectum.
- Cancer - In some cases, gynaecological problems refer to various cysts and tumours in the reproductive system, which could develop into cancer.