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Management of Abortion
Caesarean Section Procedure
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Termination Of Pregnancy Procedure
Treatment Of Pregnancy Problems
Well Woman Healthcheck
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Treatment Of Medical Diseases In Pregnancy
Treatment Of Menstrual Problems
Intra-Uterine Insemination (IUI) Treatment
Medical Termination Of Pregnancy (Mtp) Procedure
Gynecology Laparoscopy Procedures
Pap Smear Procedure
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I am married 21 years old female. I am 10 weeks pregnant. I am sleeping alot from past 1 week. Is there any disadvantage of sleeping alot. Can you give me some diet tips for a healthy baby. And how to be during pregnancy? Thank you in advance.
Hello sir/madam I am 25years old I had a doubt! One week ago I had protected sex, after attaining orgasm I removed my male part from her female part, but mine is not attached with condom. Even though the entire semen is stagnant in condom I still afraid is there any chance of getting pregnant? Because while removing condom from her part I see the outside layer with white greasy substance in outside of condom. Was that my semen or condom lubricant? Or any other? I'm afraid because this was my first experience for both of us. Please help me to resolve this issue. Thank you.
Sona is trying to conceive for around 6-7 months but failed. She has one baby of 3 years. Her husband suffered from vericocil is this is d cause of failure.
M a grl. I face a problem in my vagina. I fell sensation nd burning in my vagina. Its is since lst 2 months. Its also hard to release toilet. Its a symptom of diabetes? Suggest any medicine or cream to solve it.
Iq the intelligence quotient as measured by intelligence tests are being carried out by trainned psychologists.
There are several misconceptions related to intelligence and mental status.
1. For Eg. - The belief that since one is very intelligent he can't be mentally ill. This is not true. Illness and intelligence are different things. But it is true that an intelligent but sick is in a better position than retarded. Intelligent one will have more adaptive and survival skills.
2. Less intelligence is a sign of week mind or more chance to be mentally ill. This is absolutely wrong. Intelligence varies among people but majority are average.
3. Mental retardation is a state of iq less than average say below 70. Does not mean that they are ill. With good diet and trainning they can be helped to live and can be taught jobs depending on the level of retardation.
4. Love, care and trainning can make one the best. Some times less intelligent are the most useful and of help in need of time. So be away from misconceptions.
I have taken eova tablet on my 2 nd day of last period. On 9 th Day I have taken HCG. Injection. My last period has started on 29 th of August. Today I am feeling cramping on lower stomach like period pain. If period comes then can we take another course of eova?
I got my BHCG test result, in that it came sample highly lipemic, what does it mean and does it affect my result?
With increasing globalization and lifestyle changes, even general practitioners are getting more and more young patients willing to adopt contraceptive measures. An optimum clinical choice of contraceptive can only be done through a mutual discussion between the physician and patient taking into consideration both clinical aspects and patient's choice. This article gives a brief general summary of the methods of contraception.
Contraception is the process of taking steps to ensure about not becoming pregnant after having sex. There are different types of contraceptive measures. They all have pros and cons. Different methods will be right for different couples, or right at different times in life.
Types of contraceptives:
* percentages mentioned within brackets are failure rates
It involves the use of estrogen and progesterone to prevent fertilization; associated with a 2-3% failure rate.
Oral contraceptive pills suppress the action of fsh/lh from the pituitary gland, they also suppress the lh surge, alter the cervical mucosa to inhibit penetration by spermatozoa, and they inhibit atrophic change in the endometrium.
Complications: venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, cva, mi, htn, amenorrhea, cholelithiasis, hepatocellular adenoma. Risks increase with smoking.
Contraindications: dvt, pe, cvd, cva, pregnancy, cancer, abnormal lfts
Monophasic (fixed combination: take estrogen and progesterone on days 1-21 and placebo on days 22-28. Increased estrogen increases the side effects of a headache, weight gain, nausea, and edema decreased estrogen and progesterone increase the risk of breakthrough bleeding and increases the failure rate.
Multiphasic: low-dose estrogen with varying doses of progesterone on days 1-21.
Progestin-only pills: not as effective and can cause breakthrough bleeding.
Levonorgestrel: lasts up to five years.
Medroxyprogesterone: lasts three months.
Decreases the risk of ovarian and endometrial cancer and decreased the risk of ectopic pregnancy.
It involves the insertion of a small device into the uterus with the hopes of inhibiting implantation, altering tubal motility, or inflaming the endometrium.
Intrauterine contraceptive devices are associated with a relatively low failure rate (2-4% pregnancy rate) but do suffer from a higher rate of complications (e. G, four times increased the risk of ectopic pregnancy).
Intrauterine device (iud) with progestogen: it releases progesterone and must be replaced annually.
Iud with copper-t: it contains copper and can last up to 4-6 years.
Increased blood loss and duration of menses, increased dysmenorrhea
Expulsion of iud, pregnancy, perforation of the uterine wall when inserted, increased risk of tubo-ovarian abscess (esp. Among younger nulliparous females with greater than ;1 sex partner). Pid is not as common with the newer iuds but still a significant risk factor.
Indicated for: multiparous women greater than 35 years who smoke.
Concerns about pelvic infections and subsequent fertility often limit the use of iucds to women who are at low risk for sexually transmitted disease and to those less likely to desire further children, i. E, monogamous multigravid patients.
It involves the use of an artificial device to inserted into the vagina or fitted to the penis with the intent to retain the products of intercourse.
Condoms: condoms have a 2% failure rate in consistent couples and a 10% failure rate in occasional users. They are best indicated for std prevention.
Vaginal diaphragms: they have a 15-20% failure rate, but when combined with a spermicidal jelly and left in for 6-8 hours post-coitus failure rate declines to 2%. Diaphragms are associated with side effects of bladder irritation and cystitis, also colonization with s. Aureus if left in too long.
Cervical caps: they must be properly fitted and can be left in for a longer time than the diaphragm.
It has a 15- 20% failure rate and involves the use of sponges and spermicides.
Spermicides contain surfactants to disrupt cervical membranes; placed in the vagina up to 30 minutes before intercourse.
It involves the avoidance of intercourse from an onset of menses to 2-days post ovulation.
This method involves manipulation of parts of male and female anatomy such that conception is prevented by failure and gametes to combine.
Vasectomy: lesser than 1% failure and can be successfully reversed in some cases.
Tubal ligation: lesser than 1% failure rate. Increase risk of ectopic.
Emergency contraception pills - emergency contraception can be used if one had sex without using contraception; or if someone had sex but there was a mistake with contraception.
Emergency contraception options are usually very effective if started within 3-5 days of unprotected sex. The earlier you take this pill, the more effective it is. It works either by preventing or postponing ovulation or by preventing the fertilized egg from settling in the womb (uterus).
A proper patient counseling informing the success rate and complication of contraception should be an integral part of the treatment regime.
Can I use condoms daily to prevent pregnancy? Will it damage her vagina or my penis? Kindly let me know if there is any other effective way of avoiding pregnancy is without any side effects? Thanks.
There are three main types of eating disorders. These are bulimia nervosa, anorexia nervosa and binge eating. Anorexia nervosa is an exaggerated fear of gaining weight all the way to the point when the patient becomes abnormally thin. Bulimia nervosa is eating too much and then vomiting it out on a regular basis. Binge eating is when an individual eats an excessive amount of food in one go. All three types of eating disorders have adverse effects on pregnancy.
Here is how eating disorders affect pregnancies:
1. Unplanned pregnancies: Women with eating disorders are much more likely to have an unplanned pregnancy. This is true both for women who had eating disorders in the past as well as women who have eating disorders at the moment. In a study by University College London and King's College London consisting of 11000 women showed, only 28% of women reported that they had an unplanned pregnancy without suffering from any eating disorder as compared to the 41% who did have an eating disorder at some point in their life. The reason for this is that women tend to think that they do not need contraceptives due to an irregular menstrual cycles, which is one of the consequences of eating disorders during pregnancy.
2. Happiness about their pregnancy: The same survey of 11000 women conducted by University College London and King's College London reported that 71% of women were happy about their pregnancies. However, the number would have been a lot higher if there were fewer women with eating disorders. It has been said that 10% of women were unhappy to discover they were pregnant, if they had an eating disorder in the past as compared to 4% who never had an eating disorder.
3. Consider pregnancy a 'personal sacrifice': It has also been said that women who have had or have eating disorders during or before their pregnancy tend to consider pregnancy as a 'personal sacrifice' much more often than women who have no history or eating disorders.
Even though mostly, eating disorders affect pregnant women mentally rather than physically, it is crucial that women try to fix this problem before their pregnancy so they actually can enjoy having a baby. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a gynaecologist.
I'm five month pregnant and I take bed rest for cervical cerclage. But now I hv a problem. Very big gas trouble is harassing me. What can I do. Very big back pain also with me. Pls help me to recover that.
Hello sir/mam my mother has blood circulation problem. 16 years before she affected by this and went to unconsufdcious stage after that she does not affect but we have a one family doctor he told her to take tablets for life long.(zeptol 400 mg and lacosam 100 and trapex. She is taking this tablet (zeptol 400 mg) for past 16 year. And now she is affected by sugar and cholesterol and till now she is taking this tablets. If she take this for life long. Is it right ? Or wrong.in future any side affects will occur or not. Pls help to take solution for this.
A cataract is a clouding of the normally clear lens of your eye. For people who have cataract, seeing through cloudy lenses is a bit like looking through a frosty or fogged-up window. Clouded vision caused by cataract can make it more difficult to read, drive a car (especially at night) or see the expression on a friend's face. Cataract often develops slowly and doesn't disturb your eyesight early on. But with time, cataract will eventually interfere with your vision.
At first, stronger lighting and eyeglasses can help you deal with cataracts. But if impaired vision interferes with your usual activities, you might need cataract surgery. Fortunately, cataract surgery is generally a safe, effective procedure.
Causes of Cataracts: Cataracts happens when protein builds up on the lens of your eye, making it cloudy. This prevents light from passing clearly through the lens, causing some loss of vision. New lens cells form on the outside of the lens, and the older cells are compacted into the center of the lens, forming the cataract.
Types of cataract include:
- Age-related cataract: These cataracts form because of of aging.
- Congenital Cataract: Babies are sometimes born with cataracts as a result of an infection, injury, or poor development before they were born, or they may develop during childhood.
- Secondary Cataract: These develop as a result of other medical conditions, like diabetes, or exposure to toxic substances, certain drugs (such as corticosteroids or diuretics), ultraviolet light, or radiation.
- Traumatic cataract: These form after an injury to the eye.
Other thing that can raise your risk of getting cataract includes cigarette smoke, air pollution and heavy drinking.
Symptoms of Cataracts:
- Clouded, blurred or dim vision
- Increasing difficulty with vision at night
- Sensitivity to light and glare
- Seeing 'halos' around lights
- Frequent changes in eyeglass or contact lens prescription
- Fading or yellowing of colors
- Double vision in a single eye
- Surgery: Surgical removal of a cataract is the first and foremost way of dealing with it. The clouded lens is usually removed and is then replaced with a new, artificial lens that will give you improved vision.
- Visual Aids: These aids include lens and eye glasses that will help you see better after the surgery. Cataract glasses usually come in thick and heavy structure. Also, intraocular lens and contact lens can be used by adults who have undergone the surgery. The constant need to remove, clean and re apply makes it inappropriate for young children. Low vision aids can be used before surgery as well, to ensure that best use of the remaining vision is made with the help of video enlargement software and other adaptive means.
- Medication: The use of eye drops and other medication can also help in improving vision without the actual surgery for cataract removal. This is a short term solution that can be prescribed by the ophthalmologist whom you visit. The doctor will usually study the extent of the damage and prescribe this kind of medication for cases that are mild. But finally, surgery will have to be carried out as the progression of the cataract is guaranteed in all cases.
- Soft Lighting: At home and at work, you can make use of soft lighting so that there is less pressure on the eye lens. Also, soft lighting will help you see better without the glare blocking your vision in case of the presence of a cataract.
- Avoiding Intricate Work: One must avoid hobbies and work that require unblinking attention or many hours as this can put a strain on the eyes and even lead to severe headaches. This includes painting, embroidery and carving related activities.
Dealing with a cataract is a matter of going in for surgery and making certain lifestyle changes to avoid injuries due to impaired vision.
I am a 36 years old mother of two children. For last one year I am facing the problem of loose vagina which is affecting my marital life. I also face problem in controlling urine. I tried kegels but in vain. Can I use tightening gels? Please suggest something which will not require going to a doctor.
I am 27 years old married lady. I have big breasts and I am uncomfortable with it. Kindly suggest a safe way.
Hi I have polycystic ovaries. I'm 24 years old got married two months back. Doctor suggested me to take OOSURE Forte tablets for 4 months twice a day. Can I proceed? Please suggest me. Thanks in advance.
Lung cancer is the uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells in one or both lungs. These abnormal cells do not carry out the functions of normal lung cells and do not develop into healthy lung tissue. As they grow, the abnormal cells can form tumors and interfere with the functioning of the lung, which provides oxygen to the body via the blood.
Lung cancer is the most common cause of death due to cancer in both men and women throughout the world. According to the U.S. National Cancer Institute, approximately one out of every 14 men and women in the U.S. is diagnosed with cancer of the lung at some point in their lifetime. Lung cancer is predominantly a disease of the elderly; almost 70% of people diagnosed with lung cancer are over 65 years of age, while less than 3% of lung cancers occur in people under 45 years of age.
What Causes Lung Cancer?
The development of lung cancer is strongly associated with cigarette smoking, approximately 90% of lung cancers are attributable to use of tobacco. Pipe and cigar smoking can also cause lung cancer, but the risk is not as high as with cigarette smoking. Tobacco smoke contains more than 4,000 chemical compounds, many of which are cancer causing (carcinogens). Passive smoking, i.e. the inhalation of tobacco smoke by non-smokers who live or work with smokers, is also an established risk factor for the development of lung cancer.
Genetic susceptibility (i.e. family history) may play a role in the development of lung cancer. Other causes of lung cancer include air pollution (from vehicles, industry, and power generation) and inhalation of asbestos fibres (usually in the workplace).
Lung Cancer Symptoms:
Early symptoms and signs of lung cancer:
There may be no symptoms at the onset of the disease. When present, common symptoms of lung cancer may include:
- Coughing: This includes a persistent cough that doesn't go away or changes to a chronic smoker's cough, such as more coughing or pain.
- Coughing up blood: Coughing up blood or rust-colored sputum (spit or phlegm) should always be discussed with your doctor.
- Breathing Difficulties: Shortness of breath, wheezing or noisy breathing (called stridor) may all be signs of lung cancer.
- Loss of Appetite: Many cancers cause changes in appetite, which may lead to unintended weight loss.
- Fatigue: It is common to feel weak or excessively tired.
- Recurring infections: Recurring infections, like bronchitis or pneumonia, may be one of the signs of lung cancer.
Signs of advanced stages of lung cancer: Advanced stages of lung cancer are often characterized by the spread of cancer to distant sites in the body. This may affect the bones, liver or brain. As other parts of the body are affected, new lung cancer symptoms may develop, including:
- Bone pain
- Swelling of the face, arms or neck
- Headaches, dizziness or limbs that become weak or numb
- Lumps in the neck or collar-bone region
Treatment: Treatment for cancer involves a combination of surgery to remove cancer cells, chemotherapy and radiation therapy to kill cancer cells. Lung cancer is incurable unless complete surgical removal of the tumour cells can be achieved. Surgery is the most effective treatment for lung cancer, but only a few percentage of lung cancers are suitable for surgery i.e. Stage I and II NSCLC and cancer that has not spread beyond the lung.
Radiation therapy may be used for both NSCLC and SCLC and is a good option for people who are not suitable for surgery or who refuse surgery. Chemotherapy is used for both NSCLC and SCLC. Chemotherapy drugs may be given alone or in combination with surgery or radiation therapy. Chemotherapy is the treatment of first choice for SCLC since it has usually spread extensively in the body by the time it has been diagnosed.
Also used in the treatment of lung cancer are targeted therapies. These are drugs (gefitinib and erlotinib) or antibodies (cetuximab, bevacizumab) that block the growth and spread of cancer by interfering with specific molecules involved in tumor growth and progression. They are used in some patients with NSCLC that does not respond to standard chemotherapy.