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Personality refers to the enduring and habitual patterns of behaviour, cognition, emotion, motivation and ways of relating to others. In simpler terms, it's the persona we have for the world to see and interact with. If these patterns or ways of relating with others become nonadaptive or pathological, a personality disorder develops.
Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) is such a disorder of personality that causes mood swings, self-esteem issues, impulsive behavior and recurrent self-harm behaviour. It is very difficult to lead a normal life with these varied psychological issues.
The symptoms begin to appear from early childhood but they take a serious form only when one reaches adulthood. Issues with behavior and emotion are difficult to treat, people suffering from this illness should be willing to spend a lot of time and be dedicated towards his/her recovery. Through treatments and therapies, they do make significant improvements over time.
The exact cause of borderline personality disorder is not known but various reasons have been hypothesised as possible aetiology. Neuro-chemical disturbance in the brain, genetic vulnerability, some kind of childhood trauma like abandonment, death, neglect and/ or sexual abuse are probable causes of the disease. Prolonged and chronic stress/ anxiety may also lead to triggering of BPD symptomatology in vulnerable individuals later in life.
- Prolonged dysthymia/ sadness
- Feeling lonely/ misfit
- Emotional dysregulation or Frequent mood swings
- Significant interpersonal issues
- Self-Injurious behaviour like making cuts in skin, burning, pricking etc
These symptoms are warning signs of borderline personality disorder and should be paid attention to:
- Abandonment issue - People suffering from BPD have serious abandonment issues. They have an intense fear that they would be left alone and often act out to restrict their love ones from leaving. Sometimes their strategy is to not get too close to protect themselves from being left alone, so they appear aloof.
- Disturbed self-image - People have self-esteem issues, they sometimes love or hate themselves or see themselves as evil. They have unclear goals, views, beliefs and often end up changing their friends, lovers, jobs, sexual identity frequently.
- Dysfunctional relationships - It is very difficult to maintain a normal relationship for people with personality disorder. They tend to have quick short-lived relationships and get put off very easily which leads to a lot of heartbreak.
Suicidal tendencies and frequent self-harm behaviour like cutting skin using blades/ sharp objects are common.
Drugs and alcohol abuse, eating disorders and sexual promiscuity are other forms of self-destructive behaviour commonly encountered in this population. Extreme aggression, delusions, transitional Psychotic states are other possible symptoms of BPD.
Love and support from family and friends are crucial for patients suffering from this disease. Prolonged counseling sessions, therapies and the effort to break away from the chronic gloomy thoughts will definitely lead one to a better life. If you wish to discuss any specific problem, you can consult a psychiatrist.
I am 72-year-old and have been using hearing aid for last 3 years. Now the hearing aid also is not helpful, my hearing loss continues. Are there any other options/hearing aids available?
My marital life is not that great and my wife is seldom interested in sex. What should I do? Am 40 and she is 38.
Sir please tell me why some times my stomach left side upper quadrant is very tight and visually also just coming outside compared to right side. Its happening before meals also. And stool also be going very tight. What is the reason pls tell me.
My daughter has a fever for the last 40 days, but not continuously, gap of 3-4 days. Max temp. Is 100. Her age is 13 years old. After taking pcm tablet it becomes normal in 10 minutes. All tests i. E. Typhoid, blood culture, urine culture, h b all ok. Antibiotics such as taxim o lariago has been given on dr. Advice. Kindly advise immediately.
My daughter age is 3 1/2 year last two months continue fever coming doctor ka pass lea jana se medicine lean se kam hoga aur doo din ka baad ma phiri bhe fever aajaraha give me some suggestions.
Stroke is a medical condition in which the flow of blood towards the brain is poor and causes the death of certain cells. There are two common types of stroke:
1. Ischemic- due to lack of blood flow
2. Hemorrhagic- due to bleeding
Signs and symptoms of stroke
- Problems with movement
- Inability to feel on one side of the body
- Problems understanding or in speech
- Loss of vision
- Difficulty in carrying out everyday activities
Role of Physiotherapy for Patients with Stroke
- The main focus of physiotherapy is to help you use your arms and legs to regain as much strength and movement as possible.
- If you have one-sided paralysis, correct positioning is important to prevent spasm or injury.
- It helps you to sit up as this will help you avoid blood clots in your legs, improve your breathing and help you recover quickly.
- If you are unable to move, you may be given chest physiotherapy to keep your lungs free of infection.
What does a Physiotherapist do?
- A physiotherapist advises you on how you should be positioned when lying or sitting, and how often you need to be moved.
- Motivates you to be actively involved in your physiotherapy sessions to help you relearn normal patterns of movement
- Decides when you should begin to start walking and what equipment is needed to move or support you
- Provides therapy to strengthen your limbs and teach you how to move again as independently as possible
- Takes care of the fact that no complications should arise and you have a smooth recovery.
- Strength Training: It is evident that strength training can improve upper-limb strength and function without increasing tone or pain in individuals with stroke.
- Gaming: Goal orientated computer gaming has proven to significantly reduce upper limb impairment in stroke survivors.
- Virtual Reality: Virtual reality training has been shown to be effective in restoring upper limb motor impairments and motor-related functional abilities.
- Mirror Therapy: Mirror therapy has been shown to have a beneficial effect on motor control and function compared to conventional therapy.
- Robot-Assisted Therapy: It has been shown to have a beneficial effect on motor recovery and function.
In the upper extremity with severe impairment and/or poor prognosis for recovery, Chedoke McMaster Stroke Assessment (CMSA) of Arm and Hand < Stage 4) treatment should focus on maintaining a comfortable, pain-free, mobile arm and hand. Engage in repetitive and intense use of novel tasks that challenge the stroke survivor to acquire necessary motor skills to use the involved upper limb during functional tasks and activities. Engage in motor-learning training including the use of imagery.
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