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The cancer which forms in the cells of the breasts is breast cancer. It is one of the most common forms of cancer to affect women after skin cancer. Support for breast cancer awareness and proper funding for research on the issue has ensured that proper awareness is created for getting it diagnosed properly and then carry out the treatment in an appropriate manner. Fortunately, due to the fact that people all around have become aware of how cancer occurs, what are symptoms which they should be aware of and then for the doctors, what should be the ideal way for exact diagnosis, so that they can treat patients and help them recover, survival rates have increased dramatically and thus number of deaths associated with it is on the decline.
Types of breast cancer
There are different types of Breast Cancer, some are more common than others. Some of the most common types are detailed below:
- Invasive ductal carcinoma: This type of breast cancer starts in a duct of the breast and grows into the tissue surrounding it. It is one of the most common forms of breast cancer. Around 80% of invasive breast cancers are invasive ductal carcinoma.
- Invasive lobular carcinoma: Invasive lobular carcinoma begins in the milk producing glands of the breast and spreads all around with time.
Now let’s take a look at some of the less common types of breast cancer:
- Mucinous carcinoma: The mucus producing cancer cells generally give rise to mucinous carcinoma.
- Inflammatory breast cancer: When a woman suffers from inflammatory breast cancer, the skin of the breast would appear red and she would feel warm. The changes occur because the cancer cells block the lymph vessels.
- Paget’s disease of the nipple: This type of cancer begins in the ducts of the breast, getting spread to the nipple and the region surrounding the nipple. Women affected by this type of cancer can easily notice crusting and reddish tinge around the nipple.
Signs & symptoms of breast cancer
After having looked at the different types of breast cancer, let us now come to the main topic of discussion, the signs and symptoms of breast cancer.
- The different signs and symptoms of breast cancer are discussed below:
- A change in size or shape of the breast
- A lump or if an area feels thicker in comparison to the rest of the breast, then it’s a clear indication of cancer.
- A woman could feel that there is chance of breast cancer, if the texture of the skin changes.
- There will be a reddish tinge or rash on the skin or the area around the nipple, to suggest that breast cancer is a possibility.
- If you realize that liquid is oozing out from the nipple, even without getting it squeezed, then that is also a clear symptom for cancer.
- If you feel that area either in the armpit or around the collarbone, is swollen, it’s a signal for breast cancer.
Most commonly known as a military neck a straight or forward curve of the neck is abnormal and may cause an unkind progression of symptoms leading ultimately to cervical disk degeneration.
Reversal of cervical lordosis explained
The anatomy of the neck features a lordotic curvature in its typical and healthy state. This means that the cervical region has a gentle curvature with the open end of that curve facing the rear of the body. The base and top of the curve will be further posterior than the mid point, which will be further anterior.
When the lordosis is straightened, the neck becomes more upright and linear. This is more common than the next progression of atypical curvature, which is the subject of this article.
Actual reversal of curvature means that part or all of the cervical spine develops a kyphotic profile, with the open end of the curve facing anteriorly. Usually, this reversal is extremely mild, but is still very abnormal. What we now see is the middle of the curve being positioned posterior to the top and bottom.
In essence, picture the letter c and now turn it backwards: This is the shape of a reversed cervical lordosis.
Reversal of cervical lordosis causes
The spinal curvature in the neck is constantly in flux to some degree.
Congenital conditions and developmental conditions can have lasting effects on the natural degree of curvature typically demonstrated from patient to patient. These circumstances may be explainable due to injury or degeneration, or may be idiopathic:
Scoliosis can affect the normal lordotic curvature in the neck.
Cervical spondylolisthesis is a major source of reversed lordotic curvature.
Severe disc pathologies can facilitate a gradual loss or reversal of cervical lordosis.
Vertebral irregularities, such as wedging, can definitely contribute to lordotic alteration.
Traumatic injury, including vertebral fracture, can create the ideal circumstances for a reversal of lordosis to take place.
Severe neck muscle spasms can actually reshape the spinal curves, although these are usually temporary expressions and not actual structural conditions.
Effects of reversal of cervical lordosis
The neck is designed to curve in order to balance the spine, absorb stress, distribute force and provide proper movement of the head. When this curvature is diminished or reversed, symptoms may result, although this is not an inherent part of any altered lordotic condition.
Patients may experience stiffness and tension in the neck. Pain may be present and may even be severe in rare cases. Neurological dysfunction is possible in extreme cases, since the neuroforamen might not align properly, thereby causing a cervical pinched nerve.
In the worst circumstances, central spinal stenosis in the neck might affect the viability of the spinal cord, possible enacting the most dire of symptoms throughout the body.
Patients will also be more prone to injury, since the normal shock absorption qualities of the typical curvature have been lost.
While all these effects are certainly possible, they are not usual. In fact, a great majority of patients have minor symptoms or even no symptoms at all from mild reversed lordotic curvatures.
The pathology leading to a neck curve reversal (cervical kyphosis shown below right) may be inspired by a multitude of conditions as follows:
Post head injury
Poor sitting/working postures
Congenital spinal curvatures
Degenerative cervical discs (a form of osteoarthritis that can either be the cause of or the result of a cervical kyphosis)
Compression fracture of vertebral body
Anatomy: straight vs. Curved
I've always heard that it was good to stand up straight.
stand upright, stick your chest out and hold your shoulders back! otherwise you're going get widows hump.
Are these expressions as familiar to you as they are to me? one might think that having a curved neck goes against what we heard from parents and teachers as we were growing up, but the reality is that there is a little bit a truth in both. Maintaining good posture throughout our lives is crucial to both the health of our spine and vital organs. On the contrary, a special type of curve called a lordosis is a good thing, both in the neck and lower back.
When we look at a person from the back their spine should be truly straight, so that the left and right sides of one's body is symmetrical. However, when we view a person from the side, the front and back of their body is different and this is reflected in a coinciding curvature of the spine. Both the lower back and neck are hollowed out (concave) and the mid or thoracic spine is protrudes (convex). Thus there is an alternation of curves functioning to provide stability, shock absorption and aid in propulsion. A straight spine would be very stiff and not flexible. Imagine the plight of a pole vaulter with an inflexible pole.
Nature's design of our spine and rib cage facilitates breathing and offers protective and supportive framework for vital organs. Spinal disks are shock absorbers and because they are in the front of the spine, lordotic curvatures keep them from having to bear weight. Kyphosis or loss of such curvatures bears weight upon the disks, leading to their ultimate degeneration. This process of deterioration is a form of osteoarthritis and in the spine is known as degenerative spondylosis.
Although most physiotherapists or conservative orthopedists can recognize a cervical curve reversal upon viewing the patient's posture, a definitive diagnosis may be obtained via a standing lateral (side view) x-ray of the neck. Cause can often be determined by corroborating a comprehensive history, a thorough examination, x-rays and questions about sleep, work and lifestyle.
In my professional career I found that the majority of young adults presenting with cervical kyphosis either had a whiplash or were stomach sleepers from an early age. For desk jockeys 40-60 years of age, many hours of sitting with their head flexed forward almost dictates the fate of developing kyphosis. In prior years I considered cervical kyphosis a job hazard for the careers of accountants, attorneys and often teachers because of years spent with their head in a book or paperwork. However, the digital age offers some relief in that respect. A well-planned, ergonomically-friendly office can do wonders for protecting the spine in the sedentary worker.
Treatment for cervical curve reversal (kyphosis)
During my chiropractic practice I had the opportunity to note a good percentage of correction toward a more normal lordosis (noted on x-ray) for 70% of patients under my care. This was almost always consistent with those patients that followed all recommendations and were model participants in their own care. Here is the recommended treat plan:
Spinal manipulation of stiff and fixated spinal segments by a qualified physio
Flexibility exercises for flexion and extension of cervical spine
Resistance exercises for flexors and extensors of the neck
Learn the Alexander technique for maintaining good posture (hint: the basic philosophy is to sit and stand like you were hanging by a string from the vertex of your skull. Liken it to a puppet on a string).
Elimination of stomach sleeping
Avoid standing on your head, although some yoga postures may be beneficial
Use of orthopedic neck pillow while sleeping.
I am having slip disc. I want to know to cure it with exercises and what are the precautions to took for this?
Please suggest exercises for disc bulge L4-5 and L5-S1 level indenting anterior thecal sac effacing bilateral recesses and impinging on descending nerve roots AP canal diameter- 1.3 cm (L4-5 level) and 1.2 cm (L5-S1) please suggest the best exercises to cure it fully and strengthen the particular area thanks help would be appreciated :)
Breast Cancer is a type of cancer which develops in the cells of the breasts. It is second most common form of cancer after skin cancer, among women in the United States of America. As there has been an increase in the support for breast cancer awareness and proper funding for research has helped to make advancement in the diagnosis of the disease and also in the treatment options. As people and doctors have become more aware of what leads to breast cancer, the precautions which women should consider taking so that they can prevent themselves from getting affected by the diseases and the types of treatment to be followed by the doctors, so that they can put women on the path to recovery, the deaths associated with the disease have come down.
So, even if somebody is diagnosed with cancer, their chances of survival are extremely high nowadays. Before going into the causes of breast cancer, let’s take a look at some of the symptoms which act as indications to suggest that there is a possibility of women getting affected by breast cancer.
Medical science, technology has advanced to a great extent and there has been campaigns on breast cancer awareness. Despite all the progress, still doctors are not clear as to why do cancerous cells in the breast begin to multiply at abnormal rates from time to time. There are certain factors due to which this happens. Let’s discuss in detail:
- Age: Age is a big factor behind breast cancer. As women grow older, chances of them becoming prone to developing cancerous cells in the breasts grow. Unfortunately, age is something beyond anyone’s control.
- Medical history: Medical history plays a big role in breast cancer occurring in women. If a woman has had cancer in one breast, chances are high that she would develop cancerous cells in her other breast as well.
- Family history: Another big factor behind a woman getting plagued by the dreadful disease of breast cancer, is the history of her mother, sister or daughter have already been engulfed by the disease.
- Being exposed to radiation: Exposing yourself to radiation treatments would always increase the chances of getting affected by breast cancer.
- Obesity: Being overweight is never a good thing. A whole lot of problems occur due to this, cancer being one of them.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!