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Treatment of Child and Adolescent Problems
Thyroid Problems Treatment
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Paediatric Critical Care
Treatment of Childhood Infections
Child Nutrition Management
Growth And Development Including General Paediatri
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Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (Pgd)
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Treatment of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome In Adolesce
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My son he is 12 years old. The problem is about not growing his height and weight. He is too weak. Suggest me about his improvement.
My 7 months girl baby is having lossetools fever cold from 4 days she popping 10 times a day she is not even sucking milk wt to do I am giving her raggimalt.
My daughter is 5 years old but simply refuses to eat anything she is weighing only 14 kgs I have to literally beat her everyday but she just doesn't barge in, Kindly help please. Not sure if she has worms.
The human respiratory system includes trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, lungs, and diaphragm. Oxygen that we breathe in and carbon dioxide that we breathe out is exchanged in the alveoli (air sacs) inside the lungs.
Bronchitis is a respiratory problem where the lining of the bronchial tubes (it carries air to and from the lungs) becomes inflamed or swells. The reason can be an infection or the person’s lifestyle. People with bronchitis have reduced ability to breathe in air and oxygen into their lungs; they also face discomfort because of the deposition of heavy mucus or phlegm in their airways.
Types of bronchitis
Bronchitis comes in two forms, acute or chronic:
Acute bronchitis occurs mostly during the winter season caused by cold or viral infection, such as the flu. It consists of a cough with mucus, chest discomfort or soreness, fever and sometimes shortness of breath. Acute bronchitis lasts for one to three weeks and usually improves within a few days without lasting effects (although you may continue to cough for a week). If there is a repeated bout of bronchitis, then it requires a medical attention since it is a symptom of chronic bronchitis.
Bronchitis is also caused by bacteria. Bacterial bronchitis occasionally follows a viral upper respiratory infection.
Chronic bronchitis lasts for at least 3 months a year and two years in a row. It is a serious long-term disorder that requires regular medical treatment. Smoking should be strictly prohibited if a person is down with acute bronchitis since it becomes much harder to recover and difficult to diagnose.
What causes bronchitis?
The irritated membrane of the bronchial tubes is caused by viruses, typically those that also cause colds and flu or by a bacterial infection.
In some cases, exposure to substances that irritate the lungs, such as tobacco smoke, dust, fumes, vapours and air pollution also stimulates the inflammation.
Repeated irritation is the main cause of chronic bronchitis which damages the lungs and airway tissue. Smoking is the most common causes of chronic bronchitis, other causes include continuous exposure to air pollution, dust and fumes from the environment, and repeated episodes of acute bronchitis.
Understanding how smoking is the main cause of chronic bronchitis:
The cigarette smoke damages the tiny hair-like structures in the lungs (cilia) which is responsible for brushing out debris, irritants, and excess mucus from the lungs. This dysfunctional property of the cilia increases the chances of developing chronic bronchitis.
In the case of a chain smoker, the mucous membrane lining the airways stays inflamed and the cilia eventually stop functioning altogether. This results in lungs clogged with mucus which becomes vulnerable to viral and bacterial infections and eventually damages the lung’s airways. This permanent condition is called copd (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease).
Symptoms of bronchitis
Symptoms of bronchitis include:
A cough that is frequent and produces mucusfever (may or may not be present) lack of energywheezing sound when breathing (may or may not be present) sore throatbreathlessnesschest tighteningchillsbody achesheadachesblocked nose and sinuses.
When is medical attention necessary?
Consult with the health care specialist if any of the following problems arise:
A cold that lasts more than two to three weeksa fever greater than 102° fa fever that lasts more than five daysa cough that produces bloodany shortness of breath or wheezinga change in the colour of mucus
Treatments for bronchitis
When someone has bronchitis the best treatment is to take enough rest, stay away from allergens (allergy causing agents), drink lots of fluid and have warm soothing food (like soup and khichdi).
The following are the top homeopathic remedies usrd for cough:
Bryonia is often used for a dry, hard, and irritating cough. Patients usually use this if they have an itching pain in the throat or chest that worsens at night. Movement will also make the symptoms worse. Other symptoms with coughs that require bryonia include splitting headaches, and a dry cough accompanied by faintness, vertigo, and nausea.
2. Antimonium tartaricum
Antimonium tartaricum is often used for loose coughs—the patient may even feel like they are suffocating. The patient also alternates between coughing and shortness of breath. Other common symptoms associated with an individual who requires antimonium tartaricum include nausea, vomiting mucus, weakness, drowsiness, hoarseness, and the desire to be left alone.
3. Aconitum napellus
Aconitum napellus is often used for colds and dry, irritating coughs that come on suddenly. Symptoms will get better from warmth, fresh air, and movement; however, symptoms worsen from warm rooms, exposure to pollen or tobacco smoke, in the evening and at night, and during cold, windy, or hot weather.
Pulsatilla is also an effective remedy for colds and coughs. The patient may cough up thick, yellow-green mucus. The person will experience a loose cough in the morning and a dry cough at night. The person will feel better from open air, but worse in the morning, at night, and in heat.
5. Arsenicum album
Arsenicum album is used for coughs with a burning pain that improves with sips from warm drinks. The person’s symptoms will improve from warm drinks and a warm room, but they worsen from open air and cold.
6. Hepar sulphuris calcareum
Hepar sulphuris is used for a rattling and barking cough that starts after exposure to cold and dry air. Other symptoms include yellowish mucus, constant hoarseness, and wheezing. The person’s symptoms will worsen from lying down, walking, and drafts; however, symptoms get better from rising up and bending the head backwards, a hot compress, and damp air.
Causticum is another great remedy for dry, deep, and hollow coughs. The person will feel as if they can’t cough deep enough to raise mucus. Other symptoms include hoarseness, burning pains, a sore chest, and tightness. Symptoms get better from damp weather and sips of cold water; however, symptoms worsen from drafts, cold air, stooping, talking, lying, sneezing, and bending the head forward.
8. Rumex crispus
Rumex crispus is often prescribed for a dry cough when a person lies down. The person will feel a tickling sensation in the throat that often leads to a cough. They will also experience long episodes of a dry, hacking, and fatiguing cough. The person will get better from warm air and during the daytime; however, things will worsen from cough after eating, talking, touching the throat, deep breathing, and lying down.
9. Drosera (sundew)
Drosera is a homeopathic remedy used for a dry, deep, barking, hollow, and spasmodic cough that may also produce gagging. The person’s coughing episodes will often last two to three hours. They will also experience vomiting, suffocative attacks, nosebleeds, cold sweats, hoarseness, and holding their sides during coughing bouts. The cough will worsen from lying down, being alone, and while drinking, singing, laughing, and talking.
If the condition is worse or there is no improvement then consult a homeopathic doctor for well selection of the medicine.
Hi. Recently my wife has 12 days baby girl our problem is she can not eat mother feeding directly. If we force she started more crying. Then we have to eat mother milk or amul shakti by spoon. This is now daily problem so what we do? So that she direct eat mothers milk. please help. Weight 3 kg.
Can any doc prescribed me what all foods should I feed to my baby of 1 1/2 mnth as she is not on breast feeding she is on buffalo milk diluted wit some amount of water & please tell me what &which time should I feed her as she is too hungry now n then & she faces digestion problem when needed wit egg jaldi, khichdi,dal water, cerelac.she used to do hard type latrine when needed with such food. Kindly prescribed some digestion syrup also. thanks.her weight maybe 5/6 kg.
My baby is 15 month old. On Saturday he started vomiting and had fever. We went to our doctor and he gave medicines. Also informed us that he might have loose motions. And we have to do stool test. And yesterday he started having loose motions. Now our relatives are saying that all these are happening because of molar teeth eruptions. Is this true?
My daughter age is 4+.I have done stool test there it has mentioned reducing sugar - present (trace) what does this mean?
My son is going to be 1 years next month. He has got very less hair from birth that too his front head had no hair. We did head shave for him on 29th may n there is hardly a few hair at the back. It was really shocking for us since no one in our family has less hair. In fact I have never seen a bald person in our entire village. All the peoplel in our locality has good hair esp our family members have more. What might be the reason for this. Is it due to poor nutrition during pregnancy. Suggest some remedies to improve his hair growth.
1.3 new goals – cure, prevent resistance and break chain of transmission.
2. Introduction of daily regime.
3. Definition and treatment of mono and polyresistance apart from mdr and xdr tuberculosis.
4. Treatment in cat 1 – 2 (hrze) + 4 (hre): continue ethambutol in continuation phase too.
5. Treatment in cat 2 – 2 (hrzes) + 1 (hrze) + 5 (hre).
6. Introduction of bedaquiline as a new drug. Atp synthase inhibitor specifically targets myc. Tb. Indicated in age more than 18 years. Contraindicatef in pregnancy and those taking hormonal ocp. It may be given in patients with stable arrythmia.
7. Definition of presumptive tuberculosis. Duration > 2 weeks etc.
8. New algorithm to diagnose tuberculosis – pulmonary, extrapulmonary, drug resistant.
9. Introduction of newer molecular methods like cbnaat and line probe assay in diagnostic algorithm apart from smear microscopy and chest xray.
10. Diagnosis of tuberculosis based on x-ray will be called as clinically diagnosed tuberculosis.
11. Sputum should be around 2ml and preferably be mucopurulent.
12. Follow up – new and previously treated drug sensitive pulmonary tuberculosis – no need to extend intensive phase, sputum microscopy at end of ip and end of treatment, weight monthly, chest x-ray if required.
13. Follow up – mdr tuberculosis – sputum smear monthly 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 months in intensive phase and at 3 months interval in continuation phase 9, 12, 15, extend ip phase by maximum 3 months total of 9 months.
Some more additions to it, adding here which might help to pg students.
1) monitoring health status of tb treated patients (for recurrence of tb) for 24 months after treatment
2) online monitoring of treatment adherence through 99dots programme (currently it is on pilot basis running for tb-hiv patients)
3) intensified tb case finding in clinically, socially and geographically vulnerable population. It's a provider initiated activity.
4) now'tb suspect' term is replaced by'presumptive tb case.
5) in diagnostic algorithm sputum examination along with chest x-ray is recommended.
6)'nsp' term is replaced by'microbiologically confirmed case'
7) nsn and others r called now onwards'clinically diagnosed tb' case. (terms replaced)
8) definitions of cured, defaulted, treatment completed, failure, failure to respond, loss to follow up are somwhat changed.
9) cat i, cat ii, cat iv terminologies r obsolete n replaced by drug sensitive (new or previously treated) and drug resistant tb categories.
Children are found to be more prone to falling sick than adults. This is not only due to their lower immunity, but also the carelessness of the elders around. Since it is not expected of children to take precautions, it is up to the parents to take care of that. The following is a list of ways to protect your child from one of the most common kinds of illness encountered by children lung infection.
- Avoiding smoking in front of children: It is a well established fact that passive smoking or being in proximity to a smoker is almost as harmful as smoking itself. Parents who smoke in the presence of their children are putting the latter at the risk of lung infections and various serious lung conditions. Thus, children should be kept away from tobacco smoke as much as possible.
- Limited use of mosquito repellents near children: Mosquito repellents have been known to cause asthmatic attacks in small children. The liquidators and the mosquito coils contain chemicals which should not be inhaled, especially by children.
- Avoiding air pollution: Air pollution causes irreparable damage to the lungs of children. Harmful gases and smoke from vehicles can lead to asthma, or even lung cancer, in children. To avoid this as much as possible, children should be made to wear pollution masks, especially while travelling through busy streets with heavy traffic.
- Avoiding objects which can cause allergic reactions or act as triggers: The triggers vary from one child to another and for some, there might not be any trigger at all. However, it is the responsibility of the parents to keep the children away from things, which might cause allergic reactions. Examples of such objects are, certain fabrics, fur of animals, incense sticks, perfumes, talcum powder, citrus food, peanut, pollen, flowers, dust, fumes and so on.
- Teaching them personal hygiene: Teaching children to carry handkerchiefs, cover their mouths while coughing or sneezing, washing their hands properly, and other good hygiene habits, can combat lung infections to a great extent, as these help prevent the spread of germs.
- Timely vaccinations: Proper vaccination acts as a precautionary measure for lung infections in children. Thus, parents should get their children vaccinated after consulting the respective physician.