Lybrate.com has a number of highly qualified Cardiologists in India. You will find Cardiologists with more than 41 years of experience on Lybrate.com. You can find Cardiologists online in Pune and from across India. View the profile of medical specialists and their reviews from other patients to make an informed decision.
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Hi, I am 25 years old female suffering from cold with shivering fever for last 2 days followed by headache and body pain. Having past history of low blood pressure of 100/50. please suggest.
What is High Blood Pressure?
High blood pressure or hypertension is a condition caused when the force of the blood against the arterial walls exceeds drastically than what it normally is. A blood pressure reading exceeding 140/90 over a prolonged period of time is considered to be ‘high blood pressure’ or diagnosed as ‘hypertension’.
What is Diabetes?
Diabetes is characterized by extremely high levels of blood glucose (blood sugar) in the body, either due to the insufficient secretion of insulin by the pancreas or reduced sensitivity of the body to insulin. This makes your body unable to break down the sugars. At first glance, these two conditions seem completely unrelated, but, according to certain studies, the two conditions do have similar outcomes and could be inter-dependent.
According to the American Diabetes Association, the combination of hypertension and type 2 diabetes is particularly lethal and can significantly raise a person's risk of having a heart attack or stroke. Having type 2 diabetes and high blood pressure also increases your chances of developing other diabetes-related diseases, such as kidney disease, and retinopathy (eye blood vessels), which may cause blindness. There is substantial overlap between diabetes and hypertension, reflecting substantial overlap in their etiology and disease mechanisms. Genetic structure, Obesity, inflammation, oxidative stress, and insulin resistance are thought to be the common pathways. A prospective cohort study in the United States reported that type 2 diabetes mellitus was almost 2.5 times as likely to develop in subjects with hypertension as in subjects with normal blood pressure.
In the Hong Kong Cardiovascular Risk Factor Prevalence Study, only 42% of people with diabetes had normal blood pressure and only 56% of people with hypertension had normal glucose tolerance. There are many minor lifestyle changes that can lower your blood pressure and blood sugar. A brisk walk for 30 to 40 minutes every day, or any aerobic activity can make your heart healthier. In addition to lowering blood pressure and blood sugar, physical activity can strengthen the heart muscle and may reduce arterial stiffness. You may need minor modifications in your diet like, cutting out sugar salt, high-fat meats etc. You can take several servings of vegetables, low-fat dairy products, leans meats and fish or meat substitutes, fruits, whole (not processed) foods, whole-grain pastas, breads, and brown rice etc. While some people can improve their type 2 diabetes and hypertension with lifestyle changes, most require medication.
Depending on their overall health, some people may need more than one medication to reduce their risk. Consult your doctor to choose best possible medicines for your diabetes and / or blood pressure control. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a doctor.
The heart is a muscular organ and beats at regular intervals. This is known as heart rate, which indicates a person’s overall health. In a normal healthy individual, it ranges from 60 to 100 depending on overall health status. A heart rate outside of these ranges is usually a cause for concern.
Bradycardia is when the heart rate is below 60. While this could be a sign of fitness and health in some, it could also mean an underlying cardiac condition in others. Low heart rate is seen in many athletes, who normally have a heart rate below 60, with no symptoms or problems.
However, in others, slow heart rate can be an indication of an underlying heart problem. The electrical system in the heart could be affected, leading to alteration in blood supply to the heart and other vital organs. This needs further investigation and management to restore normal cardiac function.
Causes: Some of the reasons for reduced heart rate include:
- Normal aging process, as with all body functions, aging slows down the heart’s electrical function, leading to reduced heart rate
- Heart conditions like coronary artery disease, hypertension, atherosclerosis, heart attack, and infections of the heart muscles (endocarditis or myocarditis)
- Pulmonary conditions like sleep apnea
- Hormonal conditions like hypothyroidism
- Metabolic conditions like increased potassium
- Increased iron accumulation in the body
- Medications like beta-blockers and digoxin
Symptoms: While bradycardia does not cause symptoms in some, in others, where it has an associated medical condition, the following would be seen too:
- Extreme levels of fatigue, with near-fainting episodes
- Regular bouts of dizziness
- Shortness of breath with even minimal activity
- Weakness, tiredness, and low energy levels
- Chest pain bouts
- Lack of mental energy and confusion
- Memory problems
Complications: If left untreated, bradycardia can cause:
- Fainting spells, where the patient may just collapse in the midst of an activity
- Heart failure, where the heart is not able to pump enough blood
- Sudden cardiac death
Risk factors: If you have any or some of the following, do not ignore bradycardia.
- Age (more common in older adults)
- Heavy alcohol abuse
- High levels of emotional stress
Treatment: Once diagnosis of bradycardia and underlying disease is confirmed, treatment will be two-pronged.
- Correct underlying condition like hypothyroidism, electrolyte imbalance and infections.
- Work on managing chronic conditions like coronary disease, diabetes, and obesity.
- Prepare the patient to watch for episodes of bradycardia and ways to manage them.
While bradycardia per se is not a concern, other conditions should be managed so the heart keeps working to its optimal level. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Cardiologist.