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By combining excellent care with a state-of-the-art facility we strive to provide you with quality health care. We thank you for your interest in our services and the trust you have place......more
By combining excellent care with a state-of-the-art facility we strive to provide you with quality health care. We thank you for your interest in our services and the trust you have placed in us.


10:00 AM - 09:00 PM
10:00 AM - 06:00 PM


No. 759, Above Post Office, 4, Deccan Gymkhana, Pune
Deccan Gymkhana Pune, Maharashtra - 411004
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Doctors in Sathe Hospital- Pune

Dr. K. S. Kulkarni

MD - Psychiatry, Diploma in Psychological Medicine
39 Years experience
700 at clinic
₹350 online
Available today
07:00 PM - 09:00 PM

Dr. Ajinkya Kelkar

MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery, MS - ENT, DNB (ENT), MRCS- Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons
ENT Specialist
8 Years experience
500 at clinic
₹350 online
Unavailable today

Dr. Ac Joshi

MBBS, MD - Medicine
Internal Medicine Specialist
38 Years experience
600 at clinic
₹350 online
Unavailable today

Dr. Smita Sakolkar

19 Years experience
500 at clinic
₹350 online
Unavailable today

Dr. Pranita Kasat Bauskar

MBBS, FCPS - Oto-Rhino-Laryngology
ENT Specialist
14 Years experience
500 at clinic
₹350 online
Unavailable today

Dr. Ajit Gurjar

MBBS, MS - General Surgery
General Surgeon
38 Years experience
500 at clinic
₹350 online
Unavailable today

Dr. Archana Rairikar

BSc - Dietitics / Nutrition, Post Graduation Diploma in Dietetics, Masters in Dietetics and Food Service Management
28 Years experience
500 at clinic
₹350 online
Unavailable today
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General Surgery

General Surgery

Offers extensive care to patients suffering from abdomen related medical issues
Internal Medicine

Internal Medicine

Deals with the careful understanding and treatment of adult diseases


Offers specific care to patients with any kind of mental illness or behavioural disorders
Ear-Nose-Throat (ENT)

Ear-Nose-Throat (ENT)

Aims to offer special care to patients with conditions related to the ear, nose and throat


A branch of medicine reserved especially for treating female conditions of the reproductive system


Expertly offers advice in dietetics, including recommendations on planned diets to patients
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Laser Hair Removal - How Secure Is It?

MBBS, MD - Dermatology, Venereology & Leprosy, DNB - Dermatology, Venereology & Leprosy
Dermatologist, Panchkula
Laser Hair Removal - How Secure Is It?

Lasers are being used to remove unwanted hair, resurface the skin to remove scars, wrinkles and boost collagen. But are they safe? This is the question that plays on numerous minds. Let’s try to answer this question here.

First, let’s look at what lasers are. They are basically radiation, but of a safe variety. Laser therapy uses non-ionizing radiation to produce a fine laser beam which in laser hair removal is used to kill the hair follicle. This therapy is used to remove tattoos, plump up the skin and is also used in dental treatments, treatment for varicose veins, skin and eye surgery and as a treatment for skin cancer.

The type of radiation coming out from lasers is sometimes called non-ionising radiation. This is different from ionising radiation from nuclear sources and X-rays which are carcinogenic or cancer-causing. In terms of cancer risk, X-rays and gamma rays are the most dangerous and are known as high-frequency ionising radiation. Yet, X-rays are used even today to take pictures of our bones.

What is important is that when this kind of ionising radiation passes through our bodies, it can cause direct damage to our cell’s DNA and can lead to cancer later on. This doesn’t happen when lasers pass through the layers of our skin. The US Food and Drug Administration, FDA states that the light energy from these lasers does not penetrate deep into the skin. The laser beam remains superficially at the level of the skin and these lasers don’t cause DNA damage and DNA mutations, which are changes in DNA, linked to cancer.

  • The pulse of light energy used in laser hair removal treatments, for example, are only designed to zap and destroy hair follicles. A few women have concerns about using these lasers for getting a hair free bikini line around their reproductive organs, but experts suggest that there is no risk for cancer. 
  • Experts also clarify that the light from lasers does not go beyond the hair follicle to the internal organs so fertility is also not affected. There is some redness and scarring in treated areas after laser therapy which can easily be treated by using stuff like cold milk, icing and gels.
  • Lasers are also said to be safe because laser therapy does not use the same ultraviolet wavelengths which is found in sunlight - UVA and UVB, both of these are known to damage the DNA in cells, causing skin cancer.
  • Having said all this, it is incumbent upon us to deliver a warning. Since the long-term risk of cancer due to lasers has not been studied so far, it would be prudent to say that those with a family history of skin cancers should stay away from cosmetic laser procedures for their own safety.

PCOS And Fibroid - How Homeopathy Can Avert It?

BHMS, Post Graduate Diploma in Clinical Research (PGDCR)
Homeopath, Jaipur
PCOS And Fibroid - How Homeopathy Can Avert It?

Hormones are essential chemicals produced by the endocrine glands that help to regulate important processes of the body such as reproduction, metabolism, regulating mood and stress levels as well as appetite. Hormonal imbalance takes place when there is either over or under production of the hormones within the bloodstream.

Hormone imbalance is reflected in the body in the form of disorders. Important functions in the human body like that of conceiving are impaired. Two of the most common conditions caused by hormonal imbalance in women are PCOS and Fibroids.

It is said that one out of every ten women in India suffer from a disorder of the endocrine system known as Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS). Women diagnosed with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome face difficulty conceiving a child. However, the effects of PCOS can be reversed with medications.

Symptoms of PCOS are:

  1. Causes acne and excessive facial hair growth. This happens because it ramps up the production of the male hormone androgen.
  2. During PCOS, the body may not have sufficient quantity of progesterone. As a result, menstrual cycles become irregular or stop occurring completely.
  3. Makes the patient susceptible to health issues such as high blood pressure and diabetes.

Many women who suffer from Polycystic Ovary Syndrome do not have any cysts on the ovaries therefore the word, ‘polycystic’ might not hold water in their case.

Causes of PCOS:
Doctors find it difficult to determine the exact reason for PCOS. However, they are of the view that

  • It is genetic
  • It occurs as a result of high insulin levels in the body.

Homeopathic Treatment for PCOS:

Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome is curable with the Homeopathic mode of treatment. Homeopathic treatment for polycystic ovarian syndrome is very safe and free from any side effect.Which Homeopathic medicine is required to extract the disease from its roots varies from case to case. Both the physical and mental spheres of the patient are thoroughly investigated while prescribing the Homeopathic medicine. The complete cure of PCOS is a time-consuming process and it cannot be expected in a few days. It requires complete observation regarding the change of symptoms in the patient and frequent clinical follow-ups. 

Uterine Fibroid is another condition that wrecks havoc on a woman’s reproductive system. Fibroids are non-cancerous tumours growing within a woman’s uterus. It develops out of the muscular layers of the womb. The size of the fibroid tumours can be that of a small bean or even that of a melon.

Causes of Fibroid -

  1. Higher estrogen or progesterone levels during the reproductive years
  2. Family history of fibroid
  3. Obesity increases risk of fibroids
  4. Consuming alcohol, caffeine and excess of red meat

Types of Fibroids:
There are four kinds of fibroids.

  1. Intramural: Most commonly occurring. The tumour is found embedded within the womb.
  2. Subserosal Fibroids: Extends beyond the walls of the womb. Over time it can grow into pedunculated fibroids.
  3. Submucosal Fibroids: This type pushes itself into the hollows of the womb.
  4. Cervical Fibroids: Cervical fibroids grow in the cervix, which is the nape of the womb.

Symptoms include:

Fibroids do not show symptoms clearly and often treatment is not required for fibroids unless it is evidently affecting the quality of life of the individual. Seek treatment so that future complications can be avoided.

Treatment with Homeopathy: 
One of the best advantages of choosing Homeopathy is that it works without side effects. It addresses the issue rather than the symptom. A surgical procedure mentioned in general treatment does remove the fibroids but there is no guarantee that they won't grow back as the underlying issue of hormonal imbalance remains. 

Toxic Shock Syndrome - How To Avert It?

MBBS, MD - Obstetrics & Gynaecology, DGO
Gynaecologist, Hyderabad
Toxic Shock Syndrome - How To Avert It?

Toxic shock syndrome is a severe condition resulting from a bacterial infection. This infection is caused by the bacteria, Staphylococcus Aureus, which enter the bloodstream. Once into the bloodstream, the bacteria start producing toxins in the body. This is common among menstruating women who have a habit of using super-absorbent tampons. It can, however, also affect men and children.

In the case of toxic shock syndrome, one might experience symptoms of low blood pressure and fever. Dryness of the eyes and the mouth, muscle pain and diarrhea are also common symptoms of this disorder. Your blood pressure may drop suddenly, making you prone to fatigue and nausea.

This type of infection occurs when the bacteria enter the body through a cut or sore on the skin. Women who use tampons during their menstrual cycles are vulnerable as tampons happen to be thriving spots for bacteria if aren’t changed frequently. Fibers present in the tampons may also create friction against the vagina, thus creating an opening for the bacteria to enter the bloodstream.

In addition to the causes, there are certain risk factors for toxic shock syndrome:

  1. Presence of an open wound on the skin
  2. Giving birth to a child
  3. Using a vaginal sponge or diaphragm as contraceptives

This disorder is considered to be a medical emergency. To combat the bacterial infection, antibiotics are administered into the body via intravenous means. The course of the antibiotic treatment lasts for about 7-8 weeks. There are other treatments for this disorder, which mainly depend on the causes. If the cause of the disorder is a tampon or a vaginal sponge, then it will need to be removed from the body. In case of a wound being the cause, the pus from the wound will need to be drained. Blood pressure medications are also possible treatment modes for toxic shock syndrome.

You can also follow these preventive measures:
1. Replace your tampon regularly
2. Avoid using super-absorbent tampons
3. Use sanitary napkins when the volume of bleeding is low
4. In case of wounds, keep the area clean and dry

Which Food Items Should You Avoid During Pregnancy?

MBBS, MD - Obstetrics & Gynaecology, DABS, FCSEPI Mumbai
Gynaecologist, Chennai
Which Food Items Should You Avoid During Pregnancy?

Pregnancy is a really beautiful as well as a very sensitive phase in a woman’s life. Craving for your favourite food in the middle of the night, or even throughout the day, is a perfectly normal phenomenon. Although you deserve to be pampered with your favourite food, however, there are certain foods which irrespective of cravings you really need to avoid for the well being of that tiny little life inside you.

Here is a list of food items to be avoided during pregnancy.

  1. Starting with fruits, papaya and pineapples are big negatives. These fruits contain substances that produce uterine contractions inducing labour, and thus, abortion.

  2. Sesame seeds also tend to excite uterine muscles thereby causing contractions which may lead to abortion. So it would be an intelligent step to avoid intake of these. Other dry fruits like raisins, dates, almonds, walnuts, pistachios are safe to consume in a moderate amount.

  3. Spices that make way into this list include fennel and fenugreek seeds. These may induce uterine contractions too.

  4. Although fish is rich in omega 3 and is an important food to include in the pregnancy diet, intake of some sorts of fish might not be a good idea. Here is a list of the kinds of fishes that should be avoided.

    • Fishes containing mercury

    • Smoked or refrigerated seafood.

    • Fishes cultured in polluted water

    • Shellfish that is undercooked. Eg, clams, mussels, oyster

  5. Undercooked or raw eggs may be tainted with salmonella bacteria that might cause vomiting and diarrhoea. Desserts or sauces containing raw or uncooked egg should be avoided.

  6. Any form of undercooked or treated meat or poultry. This is because a parasite named toxoplasma may be present that might cause excessive food poisoning which in turn could cause fetal damage or miscarriage.

  7. Milk is one of the essential foods in pregnancy diet; however, any sort of unpasteurized milk is strictly negative.

  8. Sprouts and raw vegetables should be avoided. However, these can be eaten if shallow fried.

  9. One major setback for coffee addicts is that caffeine intake is required to be lowered to minimum amounts; that is, not more than one cup a day.

    • Herbal tea

    • Supplements

    • Saccharine

    • Canned food as well as street food.

There are many more little details that should be taken care of but this list would be handy for newly pregnant women.

Teenage Pregnancy - How To Fight This Menace?

MD - Obstetrics & Gynaecology
Gynaecologist, Panchkula
Teenage Pregnancy - How To Fight This Menace?

Poor sex education and awareness can lead to pregnancy in the teenage years, which continues to be a problem that affects almost all countries. In fact, USA is the leader in teen pregnancy with most cases. As per records, about 35% of the girls get pregnant at least once before they reach 20 years of age.
This is a problem for the mother and for the child and is a social menace. Read on to understand a little more on how it affects both.

How it affects the mother:

  1. Teenage pregnancy is a result of negligence and poor awareness in most cases. The chances of habits like smoking, alcohol abuse and drug abuse are quite high in these mothers, which have adverse effects on the fetus during pregnancy. This also means their responsibility in terms of sufficient prenatal care, nutrition, and overall care for themselves and the child would not be optimal.
  2. Higher rates of maternal death: If girls who are less than 15 years of age get pregnant, the death rate is quite high. In addition, there is also poor weight gain, anemia, pregnancy-induced hypertension, STDs. All these can have an effect on the child including low birth weight, vital organ malformations, congenital disorders, respiratory distress, and very high levels of infant mortality.
  3. With the added responsibility of the child, the chances that the teenager would go to school after childbirth and complete education and look into employment are also reduced drastically.
  • Very often, teenage mothers also tend to remain single, as the child is usually born out-of-wedlock and is a result of negligence.
  • The chances of having children later in life is also reduced, given all the changes that she goes through early on in life.
  • Child:
  • As a corollary to the effects on the mother, the first effects include low birth weight, malformation of vital organs, inadequate healthcare, and even very high rates of infant mortality in the first year of life.
  • Other medical conditions like chronic respiratory problems, mental retardation, cerebral palsy, and blindness are very common.
  • There could also be developmental issues like attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, dyslexia, and other
  • Given the social circumstances in which they are born, they are more exposed to early motherhood, single parenthood, broken marriages. This affects the regular parenting care that they receive resulting in improper nutrition and healthcare.
  • Again, the poor social set-up also does not ensure sufficient educational opportunities for the child. They may also get into child labor and become easy prey to neglect and abuse.
  • The chances of girls born to teenage mothers themselves becoming teenage mothers is also quite high, leading to a vicious cycle.

Most countries are trying to fight this social menace by involving families, schools, and healthcare professionals, and running social campaigns and programs.

Stress Urinary Incontinence - How To Tackle It?

MBBS, MS - General Surgery, MCH- Urology
Urologist, Nashik
Stress Urinary Incontinence - How To Tackle It?

Stress urinary incontinence is the unintentional loss of urine. It is a disorder causes urine leakage on application of stress pressure upon the body. This means that when you are coughing, lifting heavy weights or involved in other high-pressure activities urine might leak out of the bladder. Although it is not a life-threatening disorder, you have to take appropriate action to cure it. Women are more vulnerable to stress incontinence than men.

Common causes of the disorder Stress Urinary Incontinence

Some of the common causes of Stress Urinary Incontinence in women include urethra infection, taking powerful medicines, pelvic surgery, etc. Some women are more susceptible to the disorder after their childbirth. Prostate surgery is also one of the common causes of the disease in women.

Ways to diagnose the disorder

The effective way to diagnose the stress urinary incontinence in men is through examining their genitals. In women, a doctor can diagnose the disorder through a pelvic test. The rectal examination is also an effective test to diagnose the disorder.

Effective treatment options for the disease

If you are suffering from stress urinary incontinence, you may feel embarrassed, isolate yourself, or limit your work and social life, especially exercise and leisure activities. With treatment, you will be able to manage stress incontinence and improve your overall well-being. The treatment options for stress urinary incontinence mainly count on the impact of the life of a person. You can treat the disorder through taking medicines, changing your lifestyle, surgery, as well as through the Pelvic floor muscle exercise.

  1. Medicines: Drugs are suitable to treat the disorder if it is mild. Your family doctor will prescribe one or more drugs to have better control over the medical condition. There are drugs that aids you greatly in relaxing your bladder muscles. The therapy involves the application of cream into their vagina.
  2. Lifestyle changes: These changes include drinking the right amount of liquids, avoiding holding the urine, eating fiber-rich foods, quitting smoking, avoiding alcohol, maintaining a healthy weight, avoiding some foods, keeping the glucose levels under control, if the patient is suffering from diabetes.
  3. Pelvic floor muscle exercise: The exercise will make the muscles in the pelvic floor of the patient stronger. Some of the pelvic floor strengthening exercises include Kegel exercises, Biofeedback, Pelvic floor physical therapy, as well as vaginal cones.
  4. Surgery: If any of the above-mentioned treatments do not work, then surgery is the ultimate way to treat stress urinary incontinence. Some of the surgical options include Artificial urinary sphincter, Anterior vaginal repair, Bulking injections, Retropubic suspensions, Male sling, Vaginal sling procedures, and Tension-free vaginal tape.

Whenever the symptoms of stress urinary incontinence trouble you, it is better to contact your family doctor immediately.

Benefits Of Having Sex During Periods

M.A. (Scholar), BHMS
Sexologist, Mumbai
Benefits Of Having Sex During Periods

While the social stigma pertaining to women's sexuality is being gradually (albeit heavily) dismantled, questions addressing the sexual concerns and problems of women are also more widely and openly discussed now. The debate of whether to completely forgo sexual activity during menstruation is one that continues to share explicitly divided opinions despite everything even till this day.

The idea of intercourse during 'the time of the month' is one that seldom receives an approving nod. Inhibitions relating to the 'mess' and the notion that menstrual blood, sanitary pads, and tampons can lower your arousal rates may underplay the many benefits of engaging in sexual activity during this time.

However, this remains challenged by the many upshots as enlisted below :

-  Helps ease cramps

The release of oxytocin and dopamine along with other endorphins alleviate the cramps and body-ache that one might encounter during periods. Sex promotes better blood flow and relieves stress and can help battle mood swings during periods.

- Shortens the length of periods

Many women who engage in sex during menstruation often claim that their periods last for a comparatively shorter span of time than if they hadn't had any intercourse. This is because every time you have an orgasm, the uterus contracts. The muscle spasms of orgasm allow expulsion of blood and uterine lining faster than it is usually subjected to happen.

- No need for lubes

Your flow acts as an active and better lubrication during sex and this also enhances pleasure. This might act as a natural way to deal with dryness during sex and one may avoid store-bought lubrications during the time of the month.

-  Chances are that you might actually like it!

Changes in hormonal balances during the first few days of periods can make women more desirous of sexual activity and the partners may enjoy a greater level of pleasure. Sex during periods also ushers in a feeling of deeper intimacy between the partners. An intensified sense of libido that one may feel during this time is extremely beneficial to sexual activity. The pleasure is therefore greater and you might actually like it more than sex on normal days!

How to minimize the mess?

If your primary concern is the 'mess' that you're afraid to create, a menstrual cap or female condom may be the solution to your problem. They help reduce the blood flow during sexual intercourse. In fact, even a regular condom can make it less messy, at least for you partner. Sex in the shower also elevates cleanliness while retaining (often increasing) the excitement in your sexual act.  



Achalasia - Know Symptoms Of It!

M.Ch ( Surgical gastroenterology), M.S, Diplomate Of National Board
General Surgeon, Chennai
Achalasia - Know Symptoms Of It!

Achalasia is a very rare disease. Normally, your esophagus squeezes food down by making the muscular valve in between the stomach and esophagus relax. Achalasia occurs when this muscular valve is unable to relax and thus the esophagus is unable to squeeze the food down. The most common reason why this happens is because the nerves in your esophagus are damaged. The nerves most commonly get damaged because of abnormalities in the way your immune system responds. Till now, there is no cure to achalasia; however surgery or minimally invasive therapy can make the symptoms of achalasia more manageable. Here are all the causes and symptoms of achalasia:


1.  Difficulty swallowing
The difficulty you face when swallowing food is the most common symptom of achalasia. Both liquid as well as solid food will be hard to swallow.

2.  Regurgitation
If the food is regurgitating in the night, then the lungs may have been inhaling some food. This is very serious and you should see the doctor immediately if this occurs.

3.  Chest pain
You may suddenly experience chest pain from a completely unknown cause. 

4.  Weight loss
You may also suffer from sudden weight loss if you have achalasia. This is due to the reduced amount of food you will be consuming.

5.  Heartburn
Heartburn is when you have a very intense burning pain in your chest just behind your breastbone which is most commonly caused by regurgitation in your esophagus. 

The exact cause of achalasia is not yet known. However, there are some theories on what causes achalasia. Here they are.

1.  Genes
The most common cause of achalasia is genes. 

2.  Autoimmune disease
An autoimmune disease is when your immune system attacks your body's own cells. Achalasia is a type of autoimmune disease.

3.  Infection
There have also been a lot of claims that infections are the cause of achalasia.

Easy Lifestyle Hacks To Build Abs!

Dietitian/Nutritionist, Thane
Easy Lifestyle Hacks To Build Abs!

Who doesn't want a flat stomach? Six pack abs are the ultimate goal for fitness freaks and fashionistas alike. If only, they were easy to achieve! While most people focus only on exercises to build a six-pack abs, it is impossible to achieve without complementing your exercise plan with a diet plan. Whether you eat three meals a day or six smaller meals a day, here are a few diet hacks to help you get those abs faster:

1. If it comes out of a box, stay away
Cut back on all processed food. Bread, refined sugar, alcohol, processed meats should all be replaced with fresh healthy options. If you must have bread, look for multigrain loaves and if you can't drink unsweetened tea, try honey instead of sugar. 

2. Mix your carbs
Carbohydrates are often misunderstood. Having a completely carb-free diet is not good for the body, but you should control your carb intake. Plan your weekly diet in such a way that your carbohydrate intake is cycled by alternating between high, moderate and low carbohydrate diet days. It will also help to plan your carb intake around your workout so that the energy produced is used to fuel your exercise. 

3. Eat before going out
Parties are not ideal when you're trying to build abs. It is extremely difficult to refuse delicious looking yet unhealthy food that surrounds you. Eating a protein-rich meal before heading out will make your stomach full and make it easier to control your indulgences. 

4. Eat slowly
Along with what you eat, the speed at which you eat is also important. Chewing your food not only burns calories but also gives the brain the illusion that you have been eating for long and your stomach is full. Thus the slower you eat, the less you will eat. 

5. Drink water before a meal
Drinking a minimum of 8-10 glasses of water is a must for every diet. Instead of drinking water after a meal, drink a full glass before eating. This fills up your stomach and makes you feel satiated faster. 

6. Pre-plan
Carrying your lunch to office is a sure shot way of reducing your calorie intake as compared to eating fast food or grabbing something from the office canteen. Keeping a couple of nuts and protein bars handy can also prevent unhealthy snacking. 

7. Don't shop hungry
If you're in a supermarket and faced with a choice between protein bars and ice cream, it is easier to go for ice cream than protein bar. For this reason, never shop on an empty stomach.

Abdominal Pain - How To Treat It?

MS - General Surgery, MBBS, FICS
Gastroenterologist, Nashik
Abdominal Pain - How To Treat It?

In most cases, pain anywhere in the body can be explained as a symptom of some other problem, but sometimes, there is no reason for abdominal pain. This type of pain is known as chronic functional abdominal pain. This is a gastrointestinal disorder that cannot be explained through X-ray or laboratory findings. It can be triggered by altered sensitivity to nerve impulses in the brain and gut. People suffering from this condition are often so debilitated by the pain that it becomes the central focus of their life.

This condition cannot be cured, but with proper treatment, it can be managed so that it does not affect the quality of your life. The aim of treatment for this condition is to control the symptoms and improve functioning. When it comes to treating this condition, the patient’s relationship with his or her doctor plays an important role as the condition cannot be proven through any form of testing and it has a great psychological effect on the person. Regular checkups are also a key to managing this condition effectively.

The first step towards achieving this is to identify possible emotional and situational triggers. Maintaining a journal that records these experiences can help with this. Further treatment is usually either through psychological treatment or antidepressants.

Psychological treatment is based on the understanding that the brain can block pain by diverting attention elsewhere. Nerve impulses that travel from the abdomen to the brain must pass through a type of ‘gate’ that is controlled by nerve impulses generated by the brain. When these impulses close the gates, pain is blocked while when these gates are open, the pain can be magnified. Psychological treatment for chronic functional abdominal pain can be in the form of relaxation techniques, imagery, hypnosis and cognitive behavioural therapy. While relaxation techniques such as meditation and hypnosis help a person shift focus from the pain, cognitive behavioural therapy teaches a person how to change thoughts and perceptions in order to control the pain.

Antidepressants can also act as pain relievers. This form of medication stimulates the production of brain signals that close the ‘gates’ of nerve transmissions. This blocks the pain but can take several weeks to be effective. Some people may experience side effects such as drowsiness and nausea and hence should never be taken without a doctor’s supervision. In some cases, antidepressants may also be combined with cognitive behavioural therapy or medication to regulate bowels.

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