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The cornea is the transparent layer of the eye that acts as a protective shield. The cornea, in combination with the sclera, protects the eyes from various harmful microorganisms and particulate matter, including the harmful UV radiations (to some extent). The cornea is made up of three important layers, the Endothelium, Stroma, and the Epithelium.
- Endothelium: The inner layer of the cornea, the endothelium helps to maintain a clear vision by removing the excess fluid absorbed by the stroma. The mitochondria-rich single celled layer functions more like a pump.
- Stroma: The middle corneal layer is extremely thick (~90% of the total corneal thickness) and composed mainly of proteins and fluids. Like the endothelium, the stroma, too, plays a pivotal role in the normal eye vision.
- Epithelium: Being the outermost layer, the epithelium functions as a defensive shield, protecting the eyes from harmful germs, bacteria and any matter that can harm the eye. Most importantly, the epithelium absorbs the essential nutrients and oxygen (present in the tears). The cornea, thus, plays a pivotal role in the normal vision of the eye. However, an injury or an infection can interfere with the corneal functioning, affecting a person's vision as well as giving rise to other complications (the eyes may appear itchy, watery and red. There may also be light sensitivity).
Some of the common cornea problems include
- Keratitis: Injury or microbial (bacteria, virus or fungi) infiltration of the cornea can trigger this condition resulting in corneal infection and inflammation. Some of the symptoms characteristic of keratitis include extreme light sensitivity, blurred vision. The inflammation can also result in redness, pain (moderate to severe) and watery eyes. Antifungal, antiviral or steroidal eye drops may provide relief from the associated symptoms.
- Shingles (Herpes Zoster): This condition mainly affects people who have suffered from chickenpox. In some cases, the virus though inactive may still be present in the body (in the nerves). However, at a later period, certain factors may trigger its activation. Once active, the virus can affect different parts of the body, including the cornea. Shingles can cause corneal soreness and inflammation. Old people and those with a weak immunity are more likely to suffer from shingles. People with shingles may benefit from the administration of steroidal (tropical) and antiviral eye drops.
- Ocular Herpes: This is a viral infection triggered by Herpes Simplex Virus I (HSV I) or Herpes Simplex Virus II (HSV II) resulting in herpes of the cornea. The condition gives rise to corneal inflammation and sores. Here too, the patient can get some relief by using antiviral or steroidal eye drops.
- Keratoconus: This is a degenerative disorder of the cornea that results in thinning of the cornea. The condition can also alter the corneal shape, resulting in swelling, pain, and loss of vision (partial to complete, particularly the night vision).
- Fuchs' Dystrophy: This is a corneal dystrophy whereby the corneal endothelial cells break down at a slower rate than usual. As a result, the stroma may be waterlogged resulting in swelling and blurred vision. If you wish to discuss any specific problem, you can consult an ophthalmologist.
I am 13 years old boy. I am suffering from eye redness, etching, discharge, rainbow.from last 1 years. My Iop also fluctuate. I have take so many medicine like acupat, occugel,gdfresh, lotepred,beipos, lotel,lotelfored, entrak (eye ointment. At this time acupat is continuing and eye is in not a well condition and felling rainbow. I want to stop this medicine so get me better advice.
I am not able to sleep properly suppose if my eyes open at 3 am than I am not able to sleep again and suffering from ed.
Sir last time I had asked about eye flashes with shaky vision. My all eye test were normal and also mri was normal. I want to ask you weather cough can cause vision problems in mind? Because I have cough problem from childhood. Perhaps cough gathered in mind and causing vision problems.
I always feel pressure in my head. While reading its very difficult. And in my left eye feels tired and burning and something get into it.in the morning its very hard to wake up. Feels drowsy in the morning. Mood is not constant.
I am suffering from cataracts cornea .is this a major problem. And my inner point of rights eyes which is attached to nose part that point is going deeper.
To lessen the risk of permanent damage caused by eye injuries, it is important to treat eye injuries immediately. Seek medical attention as soon as possible.
First aid for cuts in or around the eye
Do's and don'ts include:
Bandage the eye gently.
Do not rub the eye, do not rinse the eye, or apply any pressure.
Do not try to remove any particles.
Avoid taking aspirin, ibuprofen, or other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories. They may increase bleeding.
Do not eat between the time of the injury and your evaluation with an eye care provider. This may delay surgical repair, if necessary.
First aid when foreign particles enter the eye
Do's and don'ts include:
Pull the upper lid down onto lower lid and let lower eyelashes sweep away the particle by blinking repeatedly.
Let tears wash out the speck or particle.
Close your eye and seek medical attention immediately if the above procedure does not work.
Do not rub the eye.
First aid for chemical splashes
Here are suggestions of what to do:
Use fingers to separates lids, then flush the eye with water from a faucet or clean container.
Seek medical attention immediately.
Cover the eye.
First aid for physical trauma to the eye
Here are suggestions of what to do:
Hi, I'm a software engineer. Recently, I have eye lid twitching on daily basis. Does it means something?
I want to increase my height & my eyesight I'm wearing the specks & what will be the normal height & weight For health person.
Hi, I am 20 year old. My eyesight is weak from childhood. But then I did not notice much. But now my eyesight has become very weak. I'm afraid to tell at home. What should I do? Please help me.
What to do I have eye strain and it became more when there r more lights .i don't have anj number issue just 0.25 I seen everything clearly but the strain /pressure is my problem.
My eye lids is blinking so many times that I can't open my eyes while travelling. But I watched others and they are normal.
I am Vijay and I have been facing unsteadiness (feeling imbalance while standing or moving and sometimes sitting) and blurry vision for the last few months. I was having BP (140/100 consistently. I had consulted doctor (general Physician) who had put me to neurologist who prescribed vertin 16 mg and for 2 weeks. I had taken it but in the evenings it would usually be very nervy and imbalance feel. I had also met eye doctor as per general physician advice who prescribed -0.5 eye glasses I started wearing it and I was getting used to it for the last few months. But the still the symptoms were not fully going and I always felt I did not need eye glasses since while wearing it I still felt difficult reading the monitor and could not fix my concentration/focus Again I met General Physician who asked me to take EEG and I had reviewed the reports of the same with General Physician. Doctor suggested that it could be anxiety/depression and gave me duzela 20 mg and CCM Tables (Vitamin, calcium etc) .I tool Duzela foe the last 3-4 months and still taking it and have stopped CCM tablets. I also took quogress for 2 weeks as per doctor advise. I feel a bit relaxed when I lie down for some time and then get up (imbalance goes off) and then comes again. I also feel relatively ok (not completely ok) in the mornings after taking duzela (20 mg) in the night time but after 3 Pm in afternoons I feel uncomfortable. I feel Lighting (visibility) is low for me when I am at office. I have not.
Glaucoma is a group of diseases that causes damage to your eye's optic nerve and gets worse over time. The optic nerve is a bundle of millions of nerve fibres which carry visual impulse from the retina at the back of eye to the brain. The increased Eye pressure, called intraocular pressure, can damage the optic nerve and fasten the natural nerve fibre loss. Since nerve cells can't regenerate this damage is permanent and irreversible.
Without treatment, glaucoma can cause total permanent blindness within a few years. Because most people with glaucoma have no early symptoms or pain from this increased pressure, it is important to see your eye doctor regularly so that glaucoma can be diagnosed early and treated before significant functional visual loss occurs.
If you are over age 40 and have a family history of glaucoma, you should have a complete eye exam with an eye doctor every one to two years. If you have any risk factors, you may need to visit your eye doctor more frequently.
What Are the Symptoms of Glaucoma?
For most people, there are usually few or no symptoms of glaucoma. The first sign of glaucoma is often the loss of peripheral or side vision, which can go unnoticed until late in the disease. This is why glaucoma is often called the "Sneak Thief of Vision" or "Silent Thief of Eye Sight".
If you have any of the following symptoms, seek immediate medical care:
- Seeing halos around lights
- Vision loss
- Redness in the eye
- Eye that looks hazy (particularly in infants)
- Nausea or vomiting
- Pain in the eye
- Narrowing of vision (tunnel vision)
There are several risk factors, which may lead to glaucoma, such as
- Age of the individual
- Ethnicity- African, Caribbean, Hispanics and Asians are at higher risk
- Increased eye pressure or IOP History of glaucoma in family or relatives
- Presence of Myopia or Hyperopia
- Previous eye injuries
- Use of steroids- as injections, tablets, eye or ear drops or ointments or protein supplements for muscle building in gyms or inhalers
- Previous history of anemia
- Individuals conditions affecting blood flow like hypertension, diabetes or high blood sugar, migraine etc are also at risk.
The treatment for glaucoma relies on the nature and seriousness of every case. Generally, glaucoma cannot be totally cured, but it can be controlled. Eye drops, pills, laser strategies, and means of surgery are utilized to maintain and prevent further harm from happening. Talk to your eye doctor to find out if you are at risk of developing glaucoma. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult an Ophthalmologist.