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Gastric (stomach) cancer occurs when malignant cells form in the lining of the stomach. By far, it is known to be the second most common cause of cancer-related deaths not only in Asia but also worldwide. Though it can affect both male and female populace, it is seen more commonly in men and in people aged 50 years or older.
Type: Gastric cancers can present as one of the following types -
- Adenocarcinoma: Begins in the glandular cells lining the inside of the stomach. This forms a majority of the stomach cancers.
- Lymphoma: Begins in immune system cells present in the walls of the stomach. Occurrence of lymphoma, in the stomach, is rare.
- Carcinoid Tumor: Begins in hormone producing cells of the stomach. Occurrence of carcinoid cancer, in the stomach, is rare.
- Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor (GIST): begins in nervous system cells of the stomach. Occurrence of GIST, in the stomach, is rare.
Gender: It affects both male and female populace.
Etiology: The factors that are associated with increased risk of gastric cancer include the following mostly –
- ‘Helicobacter Pylori’ bacterial infection in the stomach is a common cause of gastric cancer of both the intestinal (expanding) & diffuse (infiltrative) type. Furthermore, studies indicate that high salt intake is synergistic with H. Pylori infection in the manner that it is likely to increase the risk of gastric cancer that is induced by H. Pylori bacteria.
- Smoking, consuming alcohol, red meat, salty/ smoked/ processed foods, low intake of fruits and vegetables, diets rich in nitroso compounds, eating foods contaminated with aflatoxin fungus etc all.
- Atrophic gastritis characterized by chronic stomach inflammation is known to increase the risk multi-fold. Chronic gastric inflammation can lead to atrophy of the gastric mucosa, metaplasia, dysplasia and finally carcinoma.
- History of pernicious anaemia, gastric ulcers, adenomatous gastric polyp etc all.
- Family history of gastric cancer. Several familial syndromes that have been associated with a pre-disposition to gastric cancer include familial adenomatous polyposis, Lynch syndrome, Peutz-Jeghers syndrome and e-cadherin mutation (diffuse type)
- Blood group A, Obesity etc all are known to be associated with diffuse or cardia gastric cancer.
- Low socioeconomic status - persistent lifestyle issues/ irregularities including high stress coupled with an improper diet/ dietary pattern.
- Epidemiological evidence is indicative of a risk or pre-disposition to gastric/ stomach cancer for people suffering from diabetes mellitus (DM).
- Very high dose ionizing radiation exposure is an uncommon risk for gastric cancer.
Features: There are often no early stage symptoms. Early stage symptoms, if any, are non-specific and are likely to be ignored, thus delaying the diagnosis most often. Hence, gastric/ stomach cancer is often detected at an advanced stage where the disease is either locally advanced or metastatic. The various presentations (of signs & symptoms), by stage (early or advanced), of gastric cancer are as enumerated below:
Early Stage – can present with one or more of the following non-specific symptoms/ signs -
- Dyspepsia (Indigestion),
- Stomach/ Epigastric discomfort,
- Bloated feeling after eating,
- Mild Nausea/ Vomiting,
- Blood in Vomit (Haematemesis),
- Weight loss (Cachexia)
- Occult blood in stool/ Melaena,
- Advanced Stage – presents with one or more of the following symptoms/ signs -
- GI Bleeding with black tarry stools (Melaena),
- Persistent Nausea/ Vomiting,
- Blood in Vomit (Haematemesis),
- Early Satiety,
- Loss of Appetite (Anorexia),
- Weight loss (Cachexia),
- Persistent pain in the abdomen,
- Fluid build-up in the peritoneal cavity (Ascites),
- Edema of the lower extremities,
- Liver Enlargement (Hepatomegaly)/ Jaundice,
- Difficulty swallowing food (Dysphagia)
- Screening: Is generally recommended for asymptomatic populations in high incidence areas or as surveillance for high risk individuals. The goal of screening, as usual, is to be able to detect & diagnose gastric cancer at an early stage which is potentially curable. It is mostly endoscopic/ radiologic.
Diagnosis: Following are the diagnostics employed in gastic cancer -
- Physical Examination: May be remarkable for palpable abdominal mass, weight loss (cachexia), abdominal distension, ascites, hepatomegaly, lower extremities edema and lymphadenopathy for gastric cancers in the advanced stage. For early gastric cancers, however, physical examination is largely uninformative.
- Blood: Hb- may be low, ESR – raised, tumor markers CEA & CA-19-9 could be raised sometimes in adenocarcinoma but are not frequently elevated. Abnormal blood test results may be indicative of malignancy, but a follow-up gastroscopy/ biopsy is always the gold standard for accurate diagnosis.
- Stool: Occult blood may be +ve
- Barium Meal X-Ray: Could show a filling defect at the site of the carcinoma/ cancer growth.
- Gastroscopy/ Biopsy: Clinches the diagnosis.
- Endoscopic Ultrasound: Maximizes tumor staging as it helps determine the depth of invasion of the tumor.
- CT Scan: Of chest, abdomen & pelvis helps detect metastatic disease, if any, and also helps stage the disease (TNM) appropriately.
- Bone Scan: Helps detect osseous metastasis (bone mets), if any.
- Treatment: Conventional treatment includes surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy as contextually appropriate. Surgery (i.e. gastrectomy either sub-total or total), with an adjuvant chemotherapy and/ or radiotherapy as contextually relevant, is the only treatment that is known to cure the disease in light of the prognostic indicators as briefly enumerated in the section below. Chemptherapy and/ or radiation alone cannot be curative. Mostly, it can improve symptoms, and may prolong survival. Simultaneously, an adjunctive or integrative naturopathic treatment with suitable complementary & alternative medicines (CAM) too can help improve clinical outcomes and facilitate recovery as feasible contextually.
Prognosis: For gastric cancer is variable. Preventive measures, earlier diagnosis and right early treatment is key for an effective therapeutic management & better prognosis. Like most other cancers, the chances of cure for an early stage gastric cancer are more. The cure/ recovery chances are influenced by the grade, stage of cancer, recurrence and the patient’s general health & vitality etc all. Distal tumors are known to be cured more often than the proximal ones. Again, intestinal-type gastric cancers are known to have a better treatment outlook in comparison to the diffuse-type gastric cancers.
Prevention: Rightly said, prevention is always a better choice. Although genetic risks are difficult to modify, still an adherence to a relative Mediterranean diet, maintaining an ideal body weight and an active lifestyle with due emphasis on regular exercising, de-stressing and relaxation is highly recommended for reducing the risks of many cancers including gastric cancer. A healthy eating plate comprises essentially a low fat diet, fibre rich foods including whole grain cereals, green leafy vegetables cooked using healthy vegetable oils, fresh fruits of all colours as seasonally available and healthy proteins/ fats including fresh fish, poultry, beans, nuts etc all. The consumption of alcohol, if any, has to be strictly in moderation, and is best avoided in a high risk scenario. Smoking is to be avoided too. Again, red meat, butter, refined grains, sweets, sugary drinks including carbonated beverages and other high calorie foods etc all, if any, are to be taken sparingly. Not only it is important to eat healthy, but also it is equally important to eat properly. Insufficient chewing, eating until full, eating meals within a short time etc all are best avoided so as to ease off digestive burden on the stomach/ other organs in the GI tract. Last but not the least, consumption of clean and filtered water, natural probiotics like freshly prepared yogurt/ butter milk, maintenance of cleanliness & hygiene including oral hygiene etc. all can help guard against H. Pylori infections. Breastfeeding is known to be protective against H. Pylori infections too.
What is the best treatment for sarcoma Pnet do you have any good alternative treatment please suggest.
Hello I am 21 years girl and I had once pain in breast an since last 2 days its hard around nipples what should I do an is it a symptom of breast cancer?
I am suffering from hodgkin lymphoma and going through chemotherapy. Please give me some guidelines.
Bone cancer is a cancerous tumour in the bone, destroying the normal bone tissues. Tumours on bone tissues are not always cancerous or malignant, they are mostly benign. Primary bone cancer is when the malignant tumour begins to form in the tissues of the bones, but when these cancerous cells spread to other body parts like breasts, prostate or lungs, it is called metastatic cancer. Primary bone cancer is less common than metastatic cancer.
Bone cancer can be of three different types:
Osteosarcoma: In this case, the malignant tumour arises from the osteoid bone tissue. This occurs mainly in the upper arm and knee areas.
Chondrosarcoma: In this case the cancerous cells form in the cartilaginous tissues, causing a lot of pain. This occurs mostly in the pelvic area.
The Ewing sarcoma generally arises in the bone but it can also form in the soft tissues. Other kinds of soft tissues affecting cancerous cells are known as soft tissue sarcomas.
There aren’t many clear defined causes; however, several factors have been identified by researchers.
Osteosarcoma is seen to occur more frequently in people who have been through a high external radiation therapy dose.
In people who have frequently been treated with anticancer medications, children tend to be most affected.
Heredity may be an adding cause, although the percentage of hereditary transfer of cancer cells is very low.
People with hereditary bone defects or implants have a higher chance of acquiring bone cancer.
The most common and saddening symptom of bone cancer is painful, although not all bone cancers cause pain. Unusual or persistent swelling or pain around a bone maybe a red flag for bone cancer. In case of a situation like this, immediate doctor’s opinion is required.
Usually, diagnosis of a bone cancer can be made using X-rays; for example, a bone scan, a computed tomography scan, a magnetic imaging procedure—positron emission tomography, and an angiogram. Biopsy and blood tests are also helpful in bone cancer diagnosis.
The size, location and stage of cancer, age, and health of the person decide the kind of treatment that should be given to the patient. Various treatment options include chemotherapy, radiation therapy and cryosurgery.
The combined survival rate of all sorts of bone cancers is 70%. This percentage may vary with the type of bone cancer and also its stage.
I had uterine cancer scare in 2015. I had undergone hysterectomy. Though all the tests were negative for cancer I have developed a fobia of cancer. I always feel sick. My stomach aches all the time. N in dreams also I always see sickness or sick people. Most of the time myself .Is this neurological disorders. I try to remain happy n keep myself busy. But subconsciously I always see myself taking medication and injections. Please advice.
I was diagnosed with Papillary thyroid carcinoma and successfully cured after RAI Therapy entire Thyroid tissue is destroyed. My pathology report says BRAF V600 POSITIVE, my question is once free from cancer what are the chances of having a secondary cancer?
Hey respected doctors Mujhe left breast me cyst hai. Usme kabhi pain hota hai pls mujhe koi medi btaye taki koi surgry na kranin pade apne aap thik ho jaye. Filhal me silicia 1m le rahi hu. Kya ye sahi medi hai?
Plz tell me sir what will my breast fibroadenoma finally remove from homeopathic treatment and how much time for remove fibroadenoma please sir tell me because i'm get afraid cause off my problem.
How many time should I masturbate in a month so that I do not suffer from prostate cancer or any other disease?
Hello sir I want to ask about my problem I had been paining my breast for long time so suddenly I got my breast chequp so my report is not good I have a fibroadenoma problem so please tell me sir how can solve my problem because I don't want to operate.
My wife have Brest cancer And last month we go to for checking in Delhi Rajeev Gandhi hospital And that say as per report third stage
Sir, my left breast started paining yesterday, I pressed it hard by myself thinking pain will stop but it has increased. There is NO swelling, NO lumps & redness in breast. My periods are also a week far. I'm in pain sir. Please look into this & help me as soon as possible.
Hi doctor My breast sizes are different. My right side breast is 2 cms bigger than my left one. One of my friend said it is one of the symptoms of early cancer of breast and she only said but breast cancer may start after 40. Is it right. Tell me the details and the possible methods to make my both breasts equal.
Hello, my query is regarding whether do we need follow up after undergoing surgery or not. Coming to the case history, my sister had undergone surgery for ovarian cancer in the year 2007 and then we had regular follow up for almost 3 years. She was not having any issue later on. Before 2 years she has been diagnosed as diagnosed as diabetic and on insulin from then. We are having regular consultation with diabetologist. Do we need to continue to meet surgical oncologist in regards to her previous case or else just continue what ever we are doing. Thanking you with regards.
Sir, what to do for prostrate first grade, what precautions should to take, and type of fruits should be taken.
Good evening mam I am suffering from tongue carcinoma since march 16. I got treatment at RGCI&RC ROHINI DELHI. Treatment includes 6cycle of chemotherapy weekly n 35 radiations on linear accelerator VMAT. Now I have pain n inflammation in mouth due to rubbing of teeth with tongue. What to do?
.SIR, I AM 38. MY QUESTION IS RELATED WITH PROSTRATE. I HAVE A MILD ENLARGE PROSTRATE WITH RESUDIARY URINE 120. DURING URINE NO PAIN. I HARDLY WAKE AT NIGHT. M.Y URINE TEST AND URINE CULTURE ARE NORMAL. ON 8TH OCTOBER 2015 MY PSA IS 0.61.BUT AFTER EJACULATION OR INTERCOURSE I FEEL BURNING SENSATION. IS IT ANY DANGER/ I am very tensed. Please advice. Sometime my legs chew. Is it related with urinary track infection or prostrate?
Discharge from nipple (galactorrhoea)
Secretion of milk-like discharge from one or both breasts unrelated to childbirth is called galactorrhea. Nipple discharge is most often due to a benign process. This common breast problem has been reported in 10 to 15 percent of women with benign breast disease and in 2.5 to 3 percent of women with breast cancer. There are generally two different types of nipple discharge
Occurs when the breast is manually squeezed, can happen to any woman and is usually not concerning.
Which spots on the clothing, should be evaluated by a physician and may warrant further testing.
Characterized by discharge only with compression and by multiple duct involvement. These discharges are frequently bilateral. With either type, the discharge fluid may be clear, yellow, white or dark green.
Spontaneous, bloody or associated with a mass. These discharges are usually unilateral.
- excessive production of milk-stimulating hormone prolactin by pituitary problems, malfunction of hypothalamus.
- menstrual problem such as amenorrhea problems with cervical part of spine.
- drugs such as oral contraceptives, tranquillizers, and diuretics.
- injury, burns, or surgery,
- neurological problems such as shingles,
- breast cancer
- athletes may experience small amounts of galactorrhea from constant rubbing of the nipples against clothing. Frequent sexual stimulation of the breasts may have similar effects.
- milky discharge: may be due to physiological (lactation); oral contraceptives; galactorrhea
- bloody discharge: may be due to intraductal papiloma; intraductal cancer; malignancy; duct ectasia; fibrocystic disease.
- purulent discharge: may be due to infection
- serous or sticky discharge: fibrocystic disease
- discharge from the surface of breast is seen in paget’s disease;
- skin diseases such as eczema and psoriasis; rare causes such as chancre may also cause discharge.
- stimulation of the nipple (i. E, squeezing to check for discharge) actually promotes discharge; patients with a physiologic discharge should avoid checking for discharge. A physiologic discharge often resolves when the nipple is left alone.
- all patients with spontaneous or unilateral nipple discharge needs surgical evaluation. This is true for patients with bloody discharges and for those with clear or serous discharges.
Homeopathic symptoms and cure
Homeopathic remedies are prescribed on the basis of symptoms rather than conditions, as each case of a particular illness can manifest differently in different people. There are many symptoms which can be effectively treated by homeopathy few symptoms are given below.
. Nipples sore and fissured, intense suffering on putting child to breast, pain starts from nipple and radiates all over body. Breast feels like a brick, lumpy and nodular.
. Premenstrual breast congestion in women with abundant periods, weight gain and nervousness before the period.
. Cyst in the breast, hard and painful but, itchy, with stitching pains in the nipple. Discomfort worse just before and after the period; woman wants to press breasts hard with hand.
. Bluish-red lumps in the breast, with gradual loss of fatty tissue, and tendency to feel hot all the time.
. Intensely sensitive nipples, sticking pains, like a splinter, cracks, nipples discolored.
. Nipples inflamed and very tender, can hardly bear the pain of nursing, intolerant of pain: “cannot bear it!” very irritable.
. Sore nipples with dry hard deep cracks on it. Dry itching and crusty.
. Cheesy and offensive discharge from nipple.
. Deep sore cracks across crown of nipple.
For proper diagnose consult a homeopath. Start treatment to get rid of these problems.