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Are you aware of the link between air pollution and cancer? Air pollution refers to the mixture of several harmful substances, which lead to various serious health hazards on exposure. The primary sources of air pollution are man-made, including fumes from automobiles and the smoke from burning fuels. Desert dust, radon gas, and several other natural sources of air pollution are equally dangerous. Air pollution is classified into outdoor and indoor air pollution. It is highly associated with increased risks of developing cancer. Smoking is considered to be one of the major agents, which pollute the air and increase the chances of cancer to a large extent.
Outdoor air pollution
- Outdoor air pollution is strongly linked with cancer development.
- As every person is exposed to some form of air pollution, it has a more harmful effect on the whole population across the globe as a general threat.
- A certain part of outdoor air pollution referred to as PM 2.5, or solid dust particles, are highly responsible for the development of cancer.
- The chances of cancer increase with the increase in PM 2.5 levels in the air.
Indoor air pollution
- There are several sources of indoor air pollution that are closely associated with an increased risk of cancer.
- The sources include fuels used for heating homes and for cooking, radon, and tobacco smoke.
- Second hand smoke is another harmful indoor air pollutant that causes cancer.
Second hand smoke
- Secondhand smoke increases the risk of cancer development, along with the risk of developing other diseases such as stroke and lung disease.
- A lot of people all over the world get exposed to second hand smoke.
- A lot of deaths occur due to cancer because of second hand smoke exposure which is common every year, all over the globe.
- Radon is a natural radioactive gas, which is associated with increased risks of developing lung cancer.
- It is found at low levels outdoors. It may also build in high concentrations indoors.
- Although radon exposure does not pose a huge threat for cancer, a lot of radon-associated cancers develop due to exposure to radon, along with tobacco smoke.
- This is a flammable liquid having no color and with a sweet odor.
- It is closely associated with the development of leukemia and cancers affecting other cells of the body.
- Cigarette smoking and tobacco smoke are major cancer causing elements that are found in the air commonly. Both of these are quite harmful. It is recommended that you not only quit smoking, but also keep away from passive smoking.
- Treatment consist of removal of testis followed by chemotherapy or radiotherapy.
- Its a curable disease
I am suffering from prostate enlarged (size 54gms as per ultrasound 4 months ago) problem. If it's operates, tell me after results regarding urine discharging and it's control, sexual possibility and other things etc.
Please let me know if cancer is contagious .Will it spread through sexual contact, blood contact, through any other sort.
Irrfan Khan's saddening revelation about his health and diagnosis of Neuroendocrine tumour (NET) has undoubtedly created a rage amongst his fans, which is now being followed by good wishes for speedy recovery from his supporters all across social media.
The actor shared in an emotional Twitter post that he’s been diagnosed with NET, a rare tumour that develops from cells of the neuroendocrine system and grows predominantly in the digestive or respiratory tract - lungs, appendix, small intestine, rectum, and pancreas - it can occur in any part of the body.
Here is more on Irrfan’s disease:
What is NET?
A neuroendocrine tumor is characterized by a rapid and abnormal growth that happens in the nerve cells which produce hormones. Hormones control how different organs in the body work.
It is a condition wherein, endocrine cells, the hormone-producing cells of the body, develop a tumor in any part of the body - while it can can grow in lungs or the thymus, or more rarely, in the ovaries, kidneys, or testicles - the most common is lung, intestines, and pancreas.
What causes NET?
A neuroendocrine tumour is quite a rare disease, occurs in less than one per million cases. The exact cause is not known.
It can cause a myriad of symptoms, depending on where in the body the NET is.
- If it is in your digestive system, it can cause pain or discomfort in the abdomen area that comes and goes. You may feel sick, nauseated, vomited, or there may be a change in how often you pass stools.
- If the NET is in the lung, it can cause shortness of breath, chest infections, or you can even have a cough up blood.
- Weight loss and loss of appetite may also be some common signs of a neuroendocrine tumour.
- Some NETs may overproduce a hormone-like substance called serotonin. This causes a group of symptoms called carcinoid syndrome. Symptoms include wheezing (like asthma), flushing of the skin and diarrhoea.
Who can be affected with NET?
- These tumours, depending on the type, are more common in certain age or sex. And few have very strong family history too.
- People who have a rare condition called multiple endocrine neoplasia 1 have an increased risk of developing a NET.
Did You Know?
Apple founder ‘Steve Jobs‘ died from the same disease in 2011. The tumour affected his pancreas.
Know The Different Types of NET:
Based on the organ that is affected, NET can vary a lot. When the chromaffin cells that produce adrenaline are affected, it is called Pheochromocytoma, and it is related to the stress levels of the body.
When a cell is formed abnormally under the skin and the hair follicles, it is called Merkel cell cancer. This is also called neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin and the condition can occur anywhere in the body. The commonly occurring places include lungs, gastrointestinal tract, and brain.
The status of the tumour, cancerous (malignant) or noncancerous (benign), decides the survival rate. Often slow-growing and noncancerous, they can invade surrounding parts of the body and at times, turn cancerous and spread across the body. However, you can still choose to live a good quality life with strict modifications in diet and lifestyle. The changes are made after taking into consideration the symptoms of the tumor. The organ where the tumor is formed also matters.
How Is It Treated?
Treatment depends on the location of the tumour, its type, how severe it is and whether it has spread to other parts of the body. Usually, the first treatment choice is surgery to remove the tumour. And, if the NET cannot be removed, your will prescribed with a treatment that will not only relieve the symptoms but will also improve the quality of your life.
How can a NET be prevented?
The first thing you need to do for the prevention of NET is to curb stress. Stress affects the entire body severely.
A healthy lifestyle is what you need to stick to if you want to manage its symptoms during the treatment cycle. Your doctor will prescribe you to do exercises at least 4 days a week for a minimum of 30 minutes. You can also try a walk instead of strenuous exercises.
People with carcinoid syndrome may be advised to avoid food or activities that may trigger flushing, such as eating spicy food or drinking alcohol.
Indulge yourself in therapies that help in gaining more positive energy. If you are already affected by NET, eliminate all the sources of stress and get a good night's sleep every day. Join the support groups that make you grow strong and happy. After all, the mind is devised to do miracles when it is full of life and positive thoughts.
Is Irrfan Khan's tumour curable?
Dr Saumitra Rawat, HOD, Surgical Gastroenterology & Liver Transplant, Sri Ganga Ram Hospital, said, "NeuroEndocrine Tumour is an abnormal growth of Neuroendo cells which are present in bodies. When there is an abnormal growth, then it forms a tumor - Normally seen in intestine, pancreas, lung, thyroid and other parts of the body".
On commenting on Khan's case, he said, "It depends on the location of tumour, its size, and what is its mitotic index".
"Depending on where the tumour is localized, you can take it out surgically and the chances of cure are very high", Dr Rawat explained.
Actor Irrfan, who has been diagnosed with the disease is one of the most versatile actors in India, has also made a name for himself in the west, where he has been an important part of critically-acclaimed films such as ‘The Namesake’, ‘Jurassic World’, and ‘Life of Pi’. At home, the actor has delivered remarkable performances in films such as ‘Haasil’, ‘Paan Singh Tomar’, ‘Maqbool’, ‘Lunch Box’, ‘Piku’, and the most recent ‘Hindi Medium’.
Irrfan Khan is not just a disarmingly natural actor, but also an endearing human being -- honest and humble to the core. It’s time to stand together and pray for him a speedy recovery!
Here are a few things you should know about Testicular Cancer (TC):
- Age: The commonest affected age group is 20-45 years with germ cell tumours. Half of all cases occur in men less than 35 years. Non-seminomatous germ cell tumours (NSGCT) are more common at ages 20-35, while seminoma is more common at age 35-45 years. Rarely, infants and boys below 10 years develop yolk sac tumours and 50% men above 60 years with TC have lymphoma.
- Race: White Caucasian people living in Europe and the US have the highest risk. Whites are three times more likely to develop TC than blacks in the US. With the exception of the New Zealand Maoris, TC is rare in non-Caucasian races.
- Previous TC: Confers a 12-fold increased risk of metachronous TC. Bilateral TC occurs in 1-2% of cases.
- Cryptorchidism: 5-10% of TC patients have a history of cryptorchidism. Ultrastructural changes are present in these testes by age 3 years, although earlier orchidopexy does not completely eliminate the risk of developing TC. According to a large Swedish study, cryptorchidism is associated with a two-fold increased risk of TC in men who underwent orchiopexy less than 13 year, but risk is increased 5-fold in men who underwent orchiopexy aged above13 years. A meta-analysis showed risk of contralateral TC almost doubles while ipsilateral TC risk is increased 6-fold in men with unilateral cryptorchidism.
- Intratubular germ cell neoplasia (testicular intraepithelial neoplasia, TIN): Synonymous with carcinoma in situ, although the disease arises from malignant change in spermatogonia; 50% of cases develop invasive germ cell TC within 5 years. The population incidence is 0.8%. Risk factors include cryptorchidism, extragonadal germ cell tumour, atrophic contralateral testis, 45XO karyotype, Klinefelter's syndrome, previous or contralateral TC (5%), and infertility.
- Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV): Patients develop seminoma 35% more frequently than expected. Genetic factors: appear to play a role, given that first-degree relatives are at higher risk by 4-9-fold, but a defined familial inheritance pattern is not apparent.
- Maternal oestrogen exposure: At higher than usual levels during pregnancy appears to increase risk of cryptorchidism, urethral anomalies, and TC in male offspring.
Trauma and viral-induced atrophy have not been convincingly implicated as risk factors for TC.
Cancer can occur in any part of the body. In this article, we will discuss head and neck cancer, which occurs when cells in these regions grow abnormally. Cancer cells that grow in the head and neck can spread to other parts of the body as well, and there are reported cases in which head and neck cancer has spread to the lungs.
Symptoms for Suspicion of cancer
- Non-healing sore or ulcer,
- Neck lymph nodes,
- Hoarseness of voice or difficulty in swallowing
- Red or white patch in the mouth.
- Lump, bump, or mass in the head or neck area, with or without pain.
- Persistent sore throat.
- Foul mouth odor not explained by hygiene.
Common Types of Head and Neck Cancer-
The common type of head and neck cancer is called carcinoma, and it can start in the nose, mouth and throat. Lymphoma cancers affect the immune system of the neck and head and can spread to other body parts.
Tests that are done for diagnosing head and neck cancer
A patient may feel some pain in the head and neck region. At first, the patient might visit an ENT specialist in order to diagnose the reason for the pain. In case the ENT specialist is not able to relate the issue with common causes of such pain, he refers the patient to a head and neck specialist. Then the first thing that the doctor will check for is the growth of any lymph nodes. Special fiber optics, mirror and lights are used for the examination of the head and neck as some regions are not easily visible.
A panendoscopy is performed on patients to confirm the growth and spread of cancer cells. This test is done under anesthesia and may need to be performed in an operation theater. Thin tubes called scopes are used for viewing the tissues and the doctor may take a sample for a biopsy test.
A biopsy test confirms whether the growth of cells is cancerous or not, and if it has spread. The biopsy will tell us whether the growth is cancerous or not. For staging of cancer, we do scans which may be CT, MRI or PET CT. A scan helps the doctors to understand whether the cancer cells have spread to other parts of the body such as the lungs. The barium swallow method is used to check if there are cancer cells in the throat.
How serious can head and neck cancer be?
There are various stages of head and neck cancer, and they are classified based on the seriousness of the growth. Normally, cancer starts at stage 1 and could progress till stage 4 if left untreated and undiagnosed. Different stages require different types of treatment and medications. Stage 1 and 2 usually involve radiotherapy or surgery whereas stage 3 and 4 would require radiotherapy, surgery and chemotherapy. Also, avoid tobacco and alcohol for prevention.
One should always consult a doctor for diagnosis and treatment of head and neck cancer, and must follow the advice of the doctor for a speedy recovery. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Hello mein 26 years ki hu mere October 2016 se left side breast mein pain ho rha h. Right side mein bhi hota h per left breast mein right breast se 6-7guna jyada hota h. Ab to 2-3 mahino se left side k breast badi se lagta h aur shape babugosa fruit jaise ho gya h. Nahati hu to breast shape thik ho jati h. Please help me. June 2016 mein maine throat ka ct scan krwaya tha report normal thi. Uske baad tak mein kisi karan bahut hi depression mein rhi aur roti rehti thi. Kya is karan se breast pain krti h kya. Kya role aur depression se breast cancer ka risk increase hota h kya. Please provide me accurate answer. Thank.
Testicular cancer is mostly witnessed among young adults in the age range of 24–35. It results from the growth of abnormal cells in the testes. It is not the most common type of cancer found in the body, but can pose a serious threat to an individual if not treated early. The cure rate is one of the highest among all kinds of cancer found in the body. This being said, the rate of cure is totally dependent on the stage of detection.
Risk Factors for Testicular Cancer
The historical trend of testicular cancer suggests that white men are prone to this type of cancer than their African, Asian and Latino counterparts. A person with a family history of testicular cancer of HIV is at higher risk of getting this disease. Some other risk factors include Klinefelter’s syndrome and cryptorchidism.
Protection from Testicular Cancer
There is no hard and fast rule of protection. It is suggested that the testicles get evaluated while routine medical check-up. A person with a family history of testicular cancer should opt for a periodic checkup after every three months. In case a patient has already recovered from testicular cancer, routine medical tests are a must to ensure non-recurrence.
Symptoms of Testicular Cancer
The common symptom is a swelling in the testicle. It feels like a thickening of the testicle and is mostly painless. Minor discomfort in the swelling region is often reported. Some other symptoms include back pain, ache in the scrotum and groin, change in the size of the testicle, bloating of the lower abdomen and heavy sensation of the scrotum. There is a rare form of this cancer, which produces a female hormone called estrogen in a man’s body. This disease results in a lack of sexual desire, lump in the affected area, etc. Even less serious testicular cancer might show these symptoms. An oncologist should be immediately consulted if one or more of these symptoms surfaces.
What are the treatment options?
Testicular cancer is mostly cured with the help of a surgery. A follow-up radiation and chemotherapy is suggested by doctors to destroy the surrounding cells. It is done to ensure that the cancer cells do not spread easily and the chance of recurrence is minimal. The rate of cure depends on early detection.
Does testicular cancer affect sexuality?
In most of the cases, testicular cancer is detected in one testicle. If this is the case, the other testicle produces all the hormones needed for sexual drive. It also does not affect sex drive, beard and muscularity. There is also a large section of patients who reported of a difficult sexual life after the surgery. There can be some discomfort in the scrotum as well. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!