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Hypertension during pregnancy can be a problem for both baby and the mother. Thus it is of utmost importance that during pregnancy a good health should be maintained along with controlled blood pressure and cholesterol levels. With an increase in multiple births and women of older age the risk of hypertension during pregnancy has increased. But if proper care is taken it can be avoided.
Types of Pregnancy Hypertension:
There are three prominent forms of hypertension that can be seen during pregnancy. The pregnant ladies should be aware of the same. These are:
- Preeclampsia - This is the most common and serious hypertension during pregnancy. This hypertension can only be controlled by delivering the fetus which usually involves complications like death of the mother or child. This occurs 20 weeks after pregnancy.
- Chronic Hypertension - This form forms either prior to the pregnancy or before 20 weeks of the pregnancy.
Hypertension during pregnancy can be handled by the following:
- In case of severe hypertension, blood pressure medication should be continued during pregnancy
- If you are on ACE inhibitor-type medication, then the medication is changed to one that is even safe for the baby
- Your doctor might like to monitor you daily and can advise hospitalization for a few days
- If medication is missed, it might lead to uncontrolled life-threatening hypertension. Thus the medication should not be missed at any time
- In case of mild hypertension and absence of other diseases like diabetes and kidney disorders, the doctor might stop the medication or reduce the dose. Also, being off medicine does not cause any problem in mild hypertension.
- Irrespective of the hypertension being mild or severe, the prenatal appointments should not be missed, so that the doctor can monitor you and the baby. If any problems, like rise in blood pressure, poor fetal growth, and signs of preeclampsia can be spotted and steps can be taken for the same.
- In case there is some form of hypertension present the prenatal visits and lab tests will be more
- Also regular fetal tests and Doppler ultrasounds will be done to track the baby's growth.
- Lifestyle changes should be made. Salt intake should be limited, fresh food instead of processed food should be consumed.
- If blood pressure is high then doctor might ask you to avoid exercise especially if you never did before pregnancy.
Most women attain menopause between the ages of late 40s and early 60s, the average age being about 51. This is an important milestone in a women-s gynecological history. One major change is altered female hormone levels, and this leads to a lot of physiological changes. From hot flashes to mood swings, there is also increased predisposition to osteoporosis and uterine cancer.
If you have not had your menstrual cycles for close to 12 months, chances are you are into menopause. So, that means absolutely no vaginal bleeding anymore whatsoever. However, if you experience bleeding, even spotting, be on the alert. It is not normal and needs to be examined, and if required, diagnosed and treated.
Postmenopausal bleeding or PMB as it is popularly called can be due to a variety of reasons. While it could be something as trivial as inflammation of the uterine or vaginal lining, it could also be an indication of more severe issues like cancer.
- Atrophic vaginitis - Decreasing hormonal levels lead to increased dryness and therefore inflammation of the vaginal and uterine tissue. This is one of the common causes of bleeding after menopause.
- Endometrial atrophy - Also caused by lower hormone levels, the lining of the body of the uterus gradually thins down and can get inflamed.
- Polyps - Noncancerous growths in the uterus, cervix, vulva, or vagina can also lead to bleeding
- Infections - General infection of any area along the uterine tract could lead to occasional bleeding
- Cancers - Though only 1 in 10 PMB cases turn out to be cancers, the prognosis improves with early diagnosis and intervention.
As repeated above, reach out to your doctor if you notice postmenopausal bleeding. Diagnostic methods could include the following:
- Physical exam
- Transvaginal ultrasound
- Endometrial biopsy
- Dilatation and Curettage
Needless to say, this would depend on the diagnosis.
For very minor cases with diagnosis like altered hormone levels, no treatment may be required other than modification of the hormone replacement therapy.
For endometrial atrophy and atrophic vaginitis, use of estrogen creams and pessaries would be sufficient.
Polyps would require removal followed by cauterization (application of slight heat) to stop the bleeding.
So, if you have had bleeding of any sort after ayear of menopause, do not ignore it.
Trichomonas Vaginalis, a virus, which affects almost 7.4 million men and women each year. This virus can cause a sexually transmitted disease upon contact with a person who may be carrying the same. This condition is more common in women than it is in men and causes a variety of symptoms. Let us learn more about this infection.
This disease does not have any obvious symptoms until the problem becomes pretty severe. The symptoms for men include irritation inside the penis, discharge, and a burning sensation upon urination and ejaculation. The symptoms for women include a strong odour filled discharge that may also be greenish yellow in colour, pain in the lower abdomen in case the infection is extremely severe, itching and irritation in the vagina, and pain or discomfort during sexual intercourse.
The gynaecologist or the general physician will usually carry out the diagnosis with the help of blood and urine samples that will be sent to the lab for testing. These tests will help in determining the spread and severity of the infection. The doctor will also use vaginal or urethral fluid in order to diagnose the issue with the help of further lab tests. Most doctors will tell you that it is harder to detect the presence of the virus in women, than it is in men.
The treatment of this disease is done with the help of metronidazole, which can be used to treat trichomoniasis in case the patient is pregnant. It is usually recommended that the sexual partner of the patient should also be treated for the infection so as to stem its spread. Also, the doctors will recommend abstinence from sex for the duration of the treatment. Antibiotics will also be prescribed for both partners. Usually, one will be asked to wait for all the symptoms to disappear before becoming sexually active again.
There is a risk of contracting the HIV virus in case pregnant women do not get treated for this disease on time. It can also cause premature rupture of the various membranes that protect the foetus, which can in turn, lead to premature delivery of the baby. Further, women who are suffering from this disease are at higher risk of passing on the HIV virus to their partners. This happens when the woman is also infected with the HIV virus.
There are various ways to prevent this disease including the proper use of condoms and limiting the number of sexual partners. Genital inflammation and pain should be checked by a doctor immediately to rule out the possibility of this STD. Also, one must take the necessary precautions to avoid catching and spreading this disease.
The cancer of the ovaries is known as ovarian cancer. In women there are two ovaries present on each side of the uterus. These ovaries are as big as an almond in size and produce egg also known as ova. They also secrete the hormones progesterone and estrogen.
Ovarian cancer goes undetected until it spreads to the abdomen and pelvis. When detected at this stage then it might be fatal and the treatment gets difficult. An early stage ovarian cancer where the cancer is restricted in the ovaries is much easier to treat with high success rates.
1. Age - With increasing age the risk of ovarian cancer is higher and is more common in women who are 60 and above. It is less common in women below 40 years of age and develops often after menopause.
Obesity Women who have a body mass index of 30 are at a risk of developing ovarian cancer.
2. History of Reproduction - It is believed that women who conceive before 26 and carry the full term have a lower risk of ovarian cancer. However, the risk is higher in those women who get pregnant after 35 or who do not have a full term pregnancy. Also, breastfeeding the baby lowers the risk.
3. Gene Mutation - Inherited gene mutation causes some percentage of ovarian cancer. These genes are called breast cancer genes 1 and 2 (BRCA1 and BRCA2). These were initially found in cases with breast cancer but also pose great risk for ovarian cancer. Also, gene mutation leading to Lynch syndrome plays an important role in increasing the risk of ovarian cancer.
4. Family History - If a woman's mother, sister or daughter is suffering from ovarian cancer then she is at a higher risk of developing the same. The risk also increases if someone from the father&amp;#x2019;s side also has ovarian cancer.
6. Hormone Therapy and Estrogen Therapy - Long term use and large doses of estrogen can cause an increased risk. However, if estrogen is used in combination with progesterone then the risk is less.
7. Age of menstruation and menopause - If menstruation starts before 12 and menopause occurs before 52 then there is a higher risk of getting the cancer.
Vulvodynia refers to a chronic pain in the vulva, a condition suffered by most women. Triggered generally by an unidentifiable cause, the pain was not considered as a real pain syndrome until of late. The ambiguity of the condition is such that many who do suffer from it fails to realize its complications.
There are primarily two types of Vulvodynia:
1. Generalized Vulvodynia: This is when the pain is all over the vulva, however different parts may pain at different times. It may be a constant pain or may occur occasionally.
2. Vulvar vestibulitis syndrome: The pain is in the vestibule area or the entrance of the vagina is known as vulvar vestibulitis syndrome. This kind of pain mostly exhibits a burning sensation and is triggered even by a slight touch. During intercourse the pain manifolds to extreme severity.
Although the cause of Vulvodynia is not known, doctors suspect the following reasons to be the contributing factors:
1. Nerve injury
3. Yeast infections
4. Sexual abuse in the past
5. Muscle Spasm
6. Hormonal changes
1. Burning sensations
2. Aching or soreness
No well versed cure is available for Vulvodynia, although certain self care treatments can bring relief. Among the many, you need to figure out which method suits you best and choose accordingly. To discern the best method, you might have to try various different combinations. At the same time, it is extremely important to educate yourself about Vulvodynia and have a thorough knowledge about what it is all about. It is advisable that you maintain a record of the treatments which according to you suit you the most in order to avoid confusion. Some of the methods are given below:
1. Avoid products which might act as potential irritants near the vulva.
2. Do not put much pressure on the vulva. Avoid activities which might exert direct pressure on it.
3. Whenever it pains, try to soothe the area by soaking it in lukewarm water or applying ice on it.
4. Use medications like lidocaine to relieve pain.
5. Certain exercises might also help relax the area.
6. Biofeedback also helps relax the vaginal muscles and bring some relief.
A woman is an extraordinary and beautiful creation of nature, and it is natural that she would want to see herself as perfect and complete. And, staying sexually attractive is one of the major factors that motivate a woman to seek the benefits of Cosmetic Gynaecology. Cosmetic Gynaecology or Intimate Aesthetic Surgery covers procedures which alter the appearance of female external genitalia and make it seem more natural and youthful. These methods, aid in correcting congenital defects, enhances the self*confidence of a woman, and positively affects the intimacy she shares with her partner.
With age and life events like childbirth, the vagina and labia often change in appearance and structure, which not only hampers the feeling of self-worth in a woman, but also prevents her from enjoying sexual activities completely and Cosmetic Gynaecology emerges as the savior in such situations.
* Vaginal Rejuvenation: With the help of laser technique, this process helps in tightening the internal diameter of the vagina, when it gets stretched during birth or owing to genetic factors.
* Labiaplasty: Through this method, the contours of the labia majora or labia minora are changed. It may cover reconstruction, augmentation or reduction.
* Hymenoplasty: It is done to create a pseudo hymenal membrane from hymenal tissue, which already exists or non*hymenal soft tissue. The intention is to cause bleeding when the membrane tears during intercourse.
* Clitoroplasty: This procedure deals with the surgical transformation of the clitoris, which caters to conditions involving increased tissue volume. It can also aid in creating clitoris in transgender women.
* Clitoral Hood Reduction: The method is focused on the loose skin around the clitoris, and can be conducted during labiaplasty or as a separate procedure.
* Monsplasty: The contours of the Mons pubis can be changed through this process. It involves liposuction for the reduction of excess fat, subcutaneous fat, as well as skin. Often, techniques like laser and ultrasound are used during monsplasty.
* Perineoplasty: Repairing and restoration of the loose, ageing or injured perineum is taken care of through this method. Perineum is the area between the vagina opening and the rectum. And this procedure is usually helpful for women who don't heal efficiently after a vaginal delivery or experience scars.
So if you are worried about the structure or appearance of your intimate area, don't fret.
Urinary infection is one widespread disorder that most of the human beings face in the later stages of their lives. The infection is experienced mostly by half of the women and according to statistical data, it has been noted that about 40% of women and 12% of men get infected with urinary infection. Women who are sexually active have more possibilities to get this infection. It is an infection suffered by many people and, which is more vulnerable to children and women.
The symptoms that are identified for a person with urinary infection are frequent urination and burning sensation at the time of passing urine. In certain cases, women even experience leaking of urine while sleeping. It is advised not to take this condition casually as it can lead to further complications, and medications need to be taken to reduce the discomfort caused.
- The main reason why urinary infection is caused is due to a bacterium that moves from the urinary duct into the urinary bladder.
- The other main reasons for urinary tract infection are due to sexual intercourse, pregnancy and diabetes.
- There are chances to get urinary infection if a person has sex with many partners
- In most women, urinary infection is caused due to hormonal imbalance after menopause
- Women should not hold back the urge for urinating frequently, as it can weaken the bladder and makes it prone to urinary infection.
There are simple and helpful home remedies that can be used for the treatment of urinary infection, and these include
- It is very necessary to drink a lot of water, as it would help flush the bacteria from the bladder that causes the infection. It is advisable to drink at least 80 ounces of water on a daily basis.
- It is advisable to eat foods rich in Vitamin C as they are helpful in making the urine more acidic, and it inhibits further growth of the bacterium in the urinary tract.
- It is very important that spicy foods and bladder irritants like caffeine, carbonated drinks and artificial sweeteners be cut from the diet to reduce the irritation.
- It is very important to include healthy foods in your diet, and that are rich in high-fiber carbohydrates and helpful in digestive health of your body.
- Herbal remedies can be opted for treatment of urinary tract infection, and the leaves of bearberry are used for this purpose.
- Most importantly, it is very necessary to adopt healthier habits and quit smoking. Women should wear loose clothing and make use of personal hygiene products that are free from any fragrance.
Hi mam, my name is rubeena, I am 27 years old, and I am 32 weeks pregnant, past I got 2 abortions, now I done toxoplasma igg test and the result was positive with 640 range, I am using rovamycin forte tablet twice a day from 4 months, my concern is, is there any effect to my baby because I am so worrying please help me out for this.
I had intercourse and I take I-pill on november 24 and after 6 days the bleeding starts and lost after 5 days, and now 50 days from that bleeding date, still my period not came, and I took pregnancy test also it shows negative, then what is the problem.
Pregnancy is that period of time in a woman's life when she is excited about giving birth to her baby. She is not only responsible to keep herself healthy, but her baby is also her responsibility. What she eats, how she lives and her daily routine will affect the baby. Thus, to have a healthy pregnancy it is necessary that you exercise regularly and eat well. You should also avoid those things that may hurt your baby.
Take care of what you eat
During pregnancy it is important to get proper nutrition so that you and your baby are healthy. For slow and gradual weight gain, it is necessary to pay close attention to the folic acid, calcium and iron intake. However, if you are obese, then your weight gain regime will be different from others.
The diet during pregnancy should include
- Intake of fruit and vegetables is important as they are good sources of Vitamins, minerals and even fiber. They are good for digestion and also help in preventing constipation. Eat fresh fruits and vegetables daily.
- During pregnancy carbohydrates are also important as they act as an important source of energy. Different food items that are rich in carbohydrates are potatoes, bread, breakfast cereals, pasta, rice, noodles, millet, maize, oats, yams, sweet potatoes, and corn meal. It is better to eat whole grains and potato with the skin on as they are rich in fiber.
- Intake of protein is very important during pregnancy, and thus you should take lean meat, pulses, beans, nuts, fish, and eggs. All these items should be cooked well so that you do not face any problem in digestion during pregnancy.
- It is also necessary to eat dairy products like milk, cheese, butter and yoghurt during pregnancy. They are important because they contain the calcium and nutrients that are necessary for the growth of the baby.
Just as you should eat certain food items to be healthy, there are certain foods that must be avoided to be fit and healthy. Avoid the following during pregnancy
- Drugs and alcohol
- Medicines that are not prescribed by your physician
- Smoking tobacco
- Fried and oily food
- Fishes those are rich in mercury like shark, tilefish, swordfish and those fishes that are caught in local waters are not considered safe.
- Too much intake of caffeine is also hazardous for a pregnant lady.
Thus, by following the above-mentioned diet tips you can keep your baby and yourself healthy.
Always get advice from your physician for any decision that you take during pregnancy.