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Osteomyelitis is the term used for an infection in the bone or bone marrow. The infection is a result of microbes reaching a vulnerable portion of the bone. The infections result in inflammation of the bone causing severe pain and hinders the patient’s healthy functionality of the body region. While the condition is rare, it is very serious and can cause long-term detrimental effects if not treated properly. In this article we’ll explore the various symptoms of Osteomyelitis, to help you identify the problem and also take precautionary steps against it. We have also compiled steps for treatments.
Osteomyelitis is not limited to any specific age group and can affect anyone under certain conditions. In children, it is known to affect growth area bones such as the tailbone of the legs and arms. In adults, the infection can spread to any bone of the body.
In the event that you are uncertain of the possibility of osteomyelitis in your body or that of a family member, here are some symptoms of osteomyelitis you can check for.
The most common symptom of osteomyelitis is severe pain and redness in the area of infection
The area may also showcase tenderness in the tissue.
Irritability and lethargy can suggest the possibility of osteomyelitis in young children if coupled with the possibility of registered pain and redness in the area of infection.
Fever and chills may also be experienced by the patient as an onset of osteomyelitis.
The infected area would also be warm with signs of swelling and redness in the early days of the infection.
Sometimes it may be difficult to identify, due to a lack of visible signs of osteomyelitis or related symptoms, or a challenge of distinguishing the symptoms from other possible problems. In such cases, it is best to schedule a consultation with a specialized physician.
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Certain bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus is known to travel through the bloodstream and can cause a bone infection. The spread of the bacteria through the body can cause infections in multiple areas. Most commonly these bacteria enter the body through the opening of a severe cut or wound. Especially in injuries where the bone breaks and is exposed directly, have a high possibility of developing Osteomyelitis.
Another prime cause is the possible entrance of the organisms when you are under the knife. Surgeries such as Hip replacements or bone fracture repair can cause such infections. Usually, surgeons take precautions to decontaminate the operating rooms prior to such surgeries. Although in the past Osteomyelitis has been diagnosed in patients who had recently undergone surgery.
Illness and infections in other parts of the body that have hampered the immune system can lead to Osteomyelitis if the germ like organisms finds the path through the bloodstream to the deeper recesses of bone matter. While several of the organisms that are known to cause Osteomyelitis are present in other parts of the body such as the skin or in the lungs, they are unlikely to find a path to bones in normal conditions. Only in the event that the body is unable to produce the right protection and the organisms are left unchecked can the condition materialize into an infection.
Patients that use prosthetics can be susceptible to such an infection as amputation sites are vulnerable to osteomyelitis if proper precautions are not taken.
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How is it diagnosed?
In the event that your doctor or physician suspects Osteomyelitis, she may conduct a series of tests to determine the extent and condition of the problem. Sometimes a simple bone x-ray might be sufficient to determine the appropriate course of action for an experienced physician although in certain conditions doctors may need a series of tests conducted.
A blood-work test is common to identify the organism causing the problem in the bloodstream, in certain cases, a doctor may need to conduct other tests to identify bacteria such as a throat swab test, urine test or stool culture test.
In more difficult cases the physicians would often conduct detailed scans of the infected area to reveal cellular and metabolic activity levels in the area. MRI scans and bone biopsies are also done for a more detailed look into the area of concern.
The best prevention is to keep safe against harmful bacteria. Keeping yourself clean and conscious of being in clean areas, will often greatly reduce the possibility of you or a family member contracting an infection. With respect to cuts and deep wounds, make sure to always thoroughly wash the injury under running water, flushing out any bacteria that may have entered the area. Disinfect wounds and properly bandage them with sterile bandages. One must be especially careful with children who have had deep injuries as their bones and immune systems are in the early stages and are more vulnerable to infection.
If you have a condition of chronic osteomyelitis, make sure to inform your doctor of your medical history and schedule regular visits to keep things in check. For patients with diabetes, be mindful of feet, joints and other bone areas. An early detection of osteomyelitis can be significant in ensuring a speedy recovery through treatment.
Osteomyelitis prevention can be significant in keeping you and your family members from contracting such infections. It will also ensure you are able to avoid surgeries and possible setbacks caused by infection.
Since Osteomyelitis is a severe condition of infection in bone areas, it requires patients to undergo surgery and medications may be required for several days post surgery. Depending on the situation and severity of the infection, hospitalization of a prolonged period may be recommended by physicians to keep the patient under observation.
The surgery would require a variety of procedures to remove infected or dead portions of the bone. Depending on the severity of the infection, the osteomyelitis surgery can include a mix of the following procedures:
- Removal of fluids that are accumulated in the infected area. This is usually done to reduce swelling by removing pus and other fluids that have accumulated in response to the infection.
- Debridement or removal of bone is a procedure where the surgeon would extract diseased bone. If tissues surrounding the diseased bone also show signs of infection, they may also be removed.
- In the event of a debridement procedure, blood flow will need to restored and surgeons will undertake using tissue from other parts of the body to fill the gap left by the removal of the diseased bone and tissue. The surgeon may also opt to place temporary fillers prior to a bone or tissue grafting procedure that would help restore the damaged tissue and bone matter.
- In some cases, depending on the spread of the infection, doctors may remove surgical plates and screws placed during a previous treatment.
- In severe cases where it isn’t possible to save the infected diseased bone, doctors may be compelled to opt for amputation of the limb to stop the infection from spreading to any other regions of the body.
- In some cases, if the infection is still in a nascent stage and the doctor has identified the bacteria causing the problem, she may recommend antibiotics that would fight the bacteria and thereby limit the need of surgery. While hospitalization might still be needed as these antibiotics will most likely be administered intravenously.
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Risk Factors and Complications
Since osteomyelitis is an infection of the bone, it can cause reappearances. In most cases, surgery is successful in eliminating the problem although certain cases may be harder to treat.
Low immune system disorders, severe diabetes or another issue in the blood circulation can cause complication for osteomyelitis treatment.
Patients with conditions of chronic osteomyelitis need to maintain extra precautions as symptoms of osteomyelitis may have gone but can resurface, sometimes even persist of several years undetected.
Children and adults over the age of 50 years are susceptible to acute osteomyelitis and should undergo tests and regular consultations with physicians especially if any of the symptoms are being detected. As mentioned earlier, the surest way to fight the problem is to spot it early on and undergo thorough treatment.
Most cases of osteomyelitis are treatable and subject to the severity may take varied time for the patients to heal. It is often recommended to take to treatment as aggressively as possible to ensure the patient fights off the infection as early as possible. Amputations in worst case scenarios can significantly change a person’s physiological and psychological operations and thereby it’s best to approach cases of osteomyelitis positively from the beginning and ensure all measures are taken to nip the problem in the bud.
We at Chinese Acupuncture Multiple Therapy Hospital , wishes you a healthy life, we not only believes in giving quality treatment moreover we gives you trust of getting successfully treated.
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Acupuncture is a holistic approach to health based on the concepts of Traditional Chinese Medicine, which have been in existence for over 3000 years. Acupuncture involves the insertion of very fine needles at specific points on the body. The insertion of these needles stimulates the body’s natural healing processes to work optimally. Acupuncture can be used in the treatment of acute and chronic conditions and can also be used as a preventative measure by improving the overall functioning of the body’s immune and organ systems.
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LIFT (LIGATION OF INTERNAL FISTULA TRACT ) MININAL INVASIVE PROCEDURE FOR FISTULA IN ANO
What is Fistula in Ano?
A fistula-in-ano is an abnormal tract with an external opening in the perianal area that is communicating with the rectum or anal canal by an identifiable internal opening. Most fistulas are thought to arise as a result of cryptoglandular infection with resultantperirectal abscess.
LIFT (ligation of internal fistula tract) technique is yet another approach in treating a fistula-in-ano.
LIFT procedure is based on secure closure of the internal opening and removal of infected cryptoglandular tissue through the intersphincteric approach. The LIFT technique is often performed for complex or deep fistulas. The procedure allows surgeon to access the fistula between the sphincter muscles and avoid cutting them.
- Minimally invasive procedure for fistula in ano
- Very liitle risk of incontinence
- Very little risk of recurrence
- Safe and effective method of treatment
- No need of repeated dressing
- No scarring of tissue
- Early return to work
- Minimal pain
Overview - INGUINAL HERNIA
An inguinal hernia occurs when tissue, such as part of the intestine, protrudes through a weak spot in the abdominal muscles. The resulting bulge can be painful, especially when you cough, bend over or lift a heavy object.An inguinal hernia isn't necessarily dangerous, however, it can lead to life-threatening complications. Inguinal hernia repair is a common surgical procedure.
- A bulge in the area on either side of your pubic bone, which becomes more obvious when you're upright, especially if you cough or strain .
- A burning or aching sensation at the bulge
- Pain or discomfort in your groin, especially when bending over, coughing or lifting
- A heavy or dragging sensation in your groin
- Occasionally, pain and swelling around the testicles when the protruding intestine descends into the scrotum
- You should be able to gently push the hernia back into your abdomen when you're lying down.
If you aren't able to push the hernia in, the contents of the hernia can be trapped (incarcerated) in the abdominal wall. An incarcerated hernia can become strangulated, which cuts off the blood flow to the tissue that's trapped. A strangulated hernia can be life-threatening if it isn't treated.
Signs and symptoms of a strangulated hernia
- Nausea, vomiting
- Sudden pain that quickly intensifies
- A hernia bulge that turns red, purple or dark
- Inability to move your bowels or pass gas
Signs and symptoms in children
- Inguinal hernias in newborns and children result from a weakness in the abdominal wall that's present at birth. Sometimes the hernia will be visible only when an infant is crying, coughing or straining.
- In an older child, a hernia is likely to be more apparent when the child coughs, strains during a bowel movement or stands for a long period.
- Seek immediate medical care if a hernia bulge turns red, purple or dark.
- Some inguinal hernias have no apparent cause.
- Increased pressure within the abdomen
- A pre-existing weak spot in the abdominal wall
- Straining during bowel movements or urination
- Strenuous activity
- Inguinal hernias develop later in life when muscles weaken or deteriorate due to aging, strenuous physical activity or coughing that accompanies smoking.
- Male. Men are eight times more likely to develop an inguinal hernia than are women.
- Old age
- Family history.
- Chronic cough, such as from smoking.
- Chronic constipation.
1. Pressure on surrounding tissues
Most inguinal hernias enlarge over time if not repaired surgically. In men, large hernias can extend into the scrotum, causing pain and swelling.
2. Incarcerated hernia
If the contents of the hernia become trapped in the weak point in the abdominal wall, it can obstruct the bowel, leading to severe pain, nausea, vomiting, and the inability to have a bowel movement or pass gas.
An incarcerated hernia can cut off blood flow to part of your intestine. Strangulation can lead to the death of the affected bowel tissue. A strangulated hernia is life-threatening and requires immediate surgery.
A physical exam is usually all that's needed to diagnose an inguinal hernia. Your doctor will check for a bulge in the groin area.
.If the diagnosis isn't readily apparent, your doctor might order an imaging test, such as an abdominal ultrasound, CT scan or MRI.
If your hernia is small and isn't bothering you, your doctor might recommend watchful waiting.
Enlarging or painful hernias usually require surgery to relieve discomfort and prevent serious complications.
There are two general types of hernia operations — open hernia repair and laparoscopic repair. Open hernia repair - In this procedure, which might be done with spinal anesthesia or general anesthesia, the surgeon makes an incision in your groin and pushes the protruding tissue back into your abdomen. The surgeon then sews the weakened area, often reinforcing it with a synthetic mesh (hernioplasty). The opening is then closed with stitches, staples or surgical glue.After the surgery, you'll be encouraged to move about as soon as possible, but it might be several weeks before you're able to resume normal activities.
COMPARISON OF OPEN AND LAPAROSCOPIC SURGERY
In this minimally invasive procedure, which requires general anesthesia, the surgeon operates through several small incisions in your abdomen. Gas is used to inflate your abdomen to make the internal organs easier to see.A tiny camera (laparoscope) is inserted into one incision. Guided by the camera, the surgeon inserts tiny instruments through other incisions to repair the hernia using synthetic mesh.People who have laparoscopic repair might have less discomfort and scarring after surgery and a quicker return to normal activities.
It also might be a good choice for people with hernias on both sides of the body (bilateral).
Sebaceous cyst - superficail skin lumps
Sebaceous cysts are noncancerous small bumps beneath the skin. They can appear anywhere on the skin, but are most common on the face, neck and trunk.
Epidermoid cysts are slow growing and often painless, so they rarely cause problems or need treatment.
True sebaceous cysts are less common. They arise from the glands that secrete oily matter that lubricates hair and skin (sebaceous glands).
Epidermoid cyst signs and symptoms include:
- A small, round bump under the skin, usually on the face, neck or trunk
- A tiny blackhead plugging the central opening of the cyst
- A thick, yellow, smelly material that sometimes drains from the cyst
- Redness, swelling and tenderness in the area, if inflamed or infected
Potential complications of epidermoid cysts include:
- Inflammation. An epidermoid cyst can become tender and swollen, even if it's not infected. An inflamed cyst is difficult to remove. Your doctor is likely to postpone removing it until the inflammation subsides.
- Rupture. A ruptured cyst often leads to a boil-like infection that requires prompt treatment.
- Infection. Cysts can become infected and painful (abscessed).
- Skin cancer. In very rare cases, epidermoid cysts can lead to skin cancer.
When to see a doctor
Most epidermoid cysts don't cause problems or need treatment. See your doctor if you have one or more that:
- Grows rapidly
- Ruptures or becomes painful or infected
- Occurs in a spot that's constantly irritated
- Bothers you for cosmetic reasons
- Is in an unusual location, such as a finger and toe
The body needs time to repair itself. Lack of sleep can upset the body's metabolism and possibly hasten the onset of age-related conditions.
Sexual Dysfunction has become a topic of stress these days in lives of people suffering from it. It is a problem that occurs during any phase of sexual response cycle that prevents individual or couple from experiencing satisfaction from the sexual activity.
Most common types of sexual dysfunctions occurring in males include erectile dysfunction, premature ejaculation (early discharge), decreased libido, small penis and infertility. And in case of females, infertility, sexual pain disorders, absent orgasm and decreased libido are the common sexual dysfunctions. The imbalance between the neurological, vascular and tissue compartments that lead to arterial dilation and muscle relaxation takes place in cases of erectile dysfunction and premature ejaculation.
Erectile Dysfunction is a symptom and not a disease. Premature ejaculation is when ejaculation occurs prior to or within a minute of vaginal penetration. In case of decreased libido, there is the absence of sexual thoughts and desires. Size of penis has also become an epidemic syndrome these days. Various potential factors are related to this problem. Some facts about penile size are, size varies from individual to individual, the flow of blood into the region leads to erection and there is no bone in it.
Twisting of penis during erection can cause damage to penis. In case of female sexual pain disorders, the common causes are hormonal imbalances, overexertion, substance abuse, relationship issues, diabetes, spinal cord injury and depression. Most common types of sexual pain disorders in females are vaginismus (involuntary contraction of vaginal musculature, resulting in failure of penetration), dyspareunia (persistent genital pain before, during or after sexual activity). Infertility in females means inability to become pregnant. Infertility does not mean that you cannot have children, but you may require treatment to achieve a pregnancy.
Do you suffer from a runny nose all the time? Have you been suffering from a viral illness and are worried that you might spread it to your children?
Viral infections spread rapidly, but the good news is that you can prevent that from happening with some simple and easy steps.
Here are the simple ways to stop viral infections from spreading between individuals.
1. Cover your mouth when you cough
When you cough, you release thousands of tiny droplets of your saliva into the air. These droplets are not visible to the naked eye. However, they are packed with the virus that is causing the infection. Covering your mouth with your hand or a tissue can help prevent the spread of this infection to others.
2. Use a tissue, not a handkerchief
A tissue can be disposed of immediately after it's used. It is unlikely you will do the same with a handkerchief. If you repeatedly use the same kerchief to sneeze, cough or blow your nose into, you risk getting re-exposed to the virus.
3. Use a hand sanitizer
Every time you cough or sneeze and keep your mouth covered with your hands, use a hand sanitizer. These are readily available in most supermarkets and pharmacies these days. There are even sprays and tiny pocket sanitizer tubes available, so there is no excuse not to use them.
4. Get vaccinated
These days, the flu vaccine is available that can help protect you from picking up and getting infected by these viruses. While there might be some difficulty procuring these, most hospital pharmacies will have them. Ask your doctor about getting the flu vaccine once a year to keep you protected.
5. Catch it, bin it and kill it.
This is a popular dictum in the UK to prevent the spread of the flu virus. Catch the virus using a clean tissue, bin the tissue and then kill the virus by washing your hands with soap and water.
These simple steps should help you reduce the risk of contracting or spreading viral illnesses.