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Treatment of Hip Disorders
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Cardiac Ablation Procedure
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Carotid Angioplasty And Stenting Procedure
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The heart is a muscular organ that functions like a pump by moving blood through a fine, interconnected network of blood vessels. One set of blood vessels collect oxygen-rich blood from various parts of the body and gets it to the heart. It is then sent to all parts of the body through another separate channel of vessels.
The blood also transports various nutrients to the different body parts. Fat molecules or cholesterol is one of them. In fact, with changing diet patterns, there are more of fat molecules. They are heavier than the other particles, and so tend to settle down along the walls. This is known as plaque formation. This attracts more fat molecules to settle down and gradually forms a larger mass of fat cells. It also reduces the diameter of the vessel, thereby lowering the amount of blood that reaches the target organs.
Another effect it has is that it encourages the heart to exert extra pressure to push the blood through the vessels. There are simple ways to reduce blood pressure (BP), and some of these are listed below.
- Eat healthy: Avoid processed and/or packaged foods. Increase the intake of fresh foods with lots of grains, vegetables, fruits, and dairy products. Include antioxidants like flaxseed, olive oil and omega-3 fatty acids to improve heart health. Avoid foods rich in calcium, sodium and magnesium. Increase consumption of potassium, which is good for heart.
- Exercise regularly: Exercising has multiple benefits, and one of them is to improve heart health. It improves circulation, keeps the heart muscles active and strong and helps them pump blood better throughout the body.
- Quit smoking: Smoking has severe effects on the overall health of an individual and heart health in particular. So quitting smoking can be hugely beneficial for the heart. It reduces the rate of plaque build-up and also helps in reversal.
- Practise weight management: An increasing waistline is definitely not good for your heart, so watch your weight and keep your body mass index (BMI) in check. Watch what you eat, work out, and get your weight under control.
- Follow stress management: The effect that stress has on our health cannot be underrated. Be it yoga, music, meditation, exercise or spending time with family/friends, choose what works best for you and learn to relax and manage stress.
- Reduce alcohol consumption: More than two drinks per day can increase blood pressure significantly. So if you can’t control, just quit.
Increased blood pressure is more rampant than what it was a few decades back. The age of onset is also reduced, with people in 30s now having hypertension. Making the above lifestyle changes can help lower your BP. Lifestyle diseases are now starting early in child hood. It is important to allow them to eat healthy food and physical activity. Smoking etc starts in school and need to be prohibited.
Heart failure, which is also known as congestive heart failure, occurs when the heart muscle fails to pump sufficient blood as well as it should. The narrowed arteries in one’s heart or high blood pressure make the heart too weak to pump sufficient blood into the system. Heart failure can be prevented if people are aware of how to keep a check on the conditions which cause failure of the heart, like high blood pressure, diabetes, obesity.
Heart failure can be of two types, either chronic, which is an ongoing one or acute, one which starts suddenly. The signs and symptoms may include:
Dyspnea, which refers to the shortness of breath when a person exerts himself too much.
There can be fatigue and weakness.
There could be noticeable swelling in the legs, ankles and feet.
A person may not be able to do his exercises on a regular basis.
You can feel the need to urinate at night more often.
As fluid gets retained in the system, that results in rapid weight gain.
Causes Behind Heart Failure
Heart failure can occur after certain conditions have led to the damage or weakening of the heart. Even when the heart becomes too stiff, that can lead to failure of the heart. This situation involve the left side of the heart, right side or even both the sides but usually heart failure begins with the left side, especially the left ventricle, the heart’s main pumping chamber. Some of the most common causes behind heart failure are discussed below:
Heart attack and coronary artery disease: The most common form of heart disease is coronary artery disease, which is also the primary reason behind heart failure. The disease comes up from the build up of fatty deposits in the arteries, which lead to the reduction of blood flow, hence resulting in heart attack.
High Blood Pressure: Heart has to work harder to circulate blood throughout the body, if the rate of blood pressure is high.
Faulty heart valves: The valves of the heart help to keep blood flowing the proper direction. Now, when the valves get damaged due to heart attack, it forces the heart to put extra effort, hence leading to weakening of the valves over time.
Heart Arrhythmias: If the heart rhythms are abnormal, causing the heart to beat too fast, can in turn lead to heart failure.
Treatment can take certain forms, which can help people live longer and stay healthy. The different forms of treatment could be through medications, wherein medicines like enalapril, lisinopril, losartan, valsartan could help widen blood vessels and hence lead to lowering of blood pressure, thus improving blood flow.
Inravenous medications like inotropes can help improve the heart pumping function and keep a check on blood pressure.
Other than medications, doctors could take the help of coronary bypass surgery to allow smooth flow of blood through the heart. They could even make a patient undergo heart valve replacement, wherein excess valve tissue is removed and hence the leaflets can close tightly.
With changing lifestyles, disease patterns have also changed. Cardiac arrest, which was earlier reported in the elderly only, is now affecting people as young as in their 30s. This is attributed to a combination of factors including poor diet, sedentary lifestyle, environmental toxins and pollution, smoking, drinking, caffeine and stress levels. There is also an inevitable risk of family history and advancing age. However, as an individual is affected by cardiac arrest in the 30s, there is a lifestyle change that is required. This is not only to prevent a recurrent cardiac arrest, but also to reduce the pace of damage from the current one.
The change is not unidimensional one needs to change one’s physical, emotional and mental aspects to come up with a revised lifestyle.
- Medications: There are a set of medications to be taken regularly. So learn to identify and take them. A pill box that can contain all the pills for a week, sorted by the time to be taken, can come in handy.
- Diet changes: While it is always advisable to watch what you eat, a cardiac arrest leaves one with no choice. Reduce the intake of sodium and calcium and increase potassium. Avoid processed and packaged foods. Eat fresh fruits and vegetables. Eat dairy. Eat more of foods with antioxidants.
- Slow down: After a cardiac arrest, the person tends to slow down the physical pace of life. Lifting heavy weights may be best avoided. If you were a regular workout person, it needs to be modified to avoid excessive stress.
- Constant watch: Be it your blood pressure, weight, cholesterol or other blood tests, these should be periodically monitored and watched for any alarming differences. Keep your doctor updated so you are not caught off guard.
- Work schedule: This will definitely need to be reworked at, especially if your job is a highly demanding one. The idea is not to stop working, but to relook at your schedule so you can contribute and at the same time not risk your health again.
- Emotions: While there is anxiety and depression, there is also a fear to tackle. The new modified lifestyle brings anxiety. The fact that you had a cardiac arrest at such a young age (unexpected in most cases) is depressing. The most prominent one though is of fear—will it happen again? How is it going to be? Will I survive? These questions can be haunting. It is definitely advisable to seek support from a counsellor if you do not have someone in your family or friends’ circle to talk to.
Cardiac arrest in the 30s is not easy. It comes with multiple challenges, but you can definitely overcome it.
Cardiac or Heart Arrhythmia is a condition which results in disruption of heart’s normal rhythm. Due to this, the heart may beat too quickly, too slowly or have an irregular rhythm. Though most of the arrhythmias are not harmful but at times they can have serious consequences, which might turn to be fatal. Differences in heart beats can lead to the restriction of blood, that gets pumped around the body, hence causing damage to the brain, heart and other organs of an individual.
Now we would take into account the causes behind the occurrence of this heart condition.
Interruption to the electrical impulses in any form that lets the heart to contract can result in arrhythmia. A person with a healthy heart should have a heart rate of anywhere between 60-100 beats per minute while the body is at rest. There are a number of factors which can cause the heart to work inefficiently, which include:
Alcohol Consumption: If you are used to drinking alcohol varying from light to moderate, the chance of irregular heartbeat increases. A recent study has shown that with every drink consumed per day, the risk of atrial fibrillation increased by 8 percent. Men and women both are at equal risk for irregular heartbeat. Irregular heartbeat is caused because drinking leads to damage of the cells, which in turn leads to causing damage in small areas of fibrous tissue within the heart.
Anxiety: Arrhythmia from anxiety is when the heart feels like something happened due to which it tries to overcompensate and beat quickly. This leads to heart skipping a beat, getting squeezed or undergoing heartbeats at a rapid pace.
Excessive Cosumption of Coffee: Caffeine is a stimulant and tends to speed up heart rate, so consuming too much coffee can lead to the problem of arrhythmia.
Deficiency of Magnesium and Potassium: Magnesium and Potassium deficiencies in one’s body can cause Arrhythmia. The deficiencies can be caused due to less intake of citrus fruits and vegetables like potatoes, kiwi, papaya etc.
Arrhythmia can produce a broad range of symptoms which affect the proper functioning of heart. Some of the most serious symptoms are:
Fatigue: If you feel that you are getting fatigued quite easily, then it’s a clear symptom of arrhythmia.
Dizziness: A sense of dizziness creeps in when you are having the problem of irregular heartbeat.
Lightheadedness: Feeling light on the head is another symptom of Cardiac Arrhythmia, as there is fluctuation in the amount of blood that reaches the brain through the heart.
- Problem of irregular heartbeats, especially if it’s on the slower side, can be solved through the placement of certain devices like pacemaker, which can speed up one’s heart rate.
- Faster heartbeats can be treated through blood-thinning medications, which would help keep threatening blood clots from getting formed.
- Doctors can even go for Catheter ablation, wherein they would thread one or more catheters through the blood vessels of one’s heart. Electrodes at the catheter tips can make use of extreme heat, cold or radiofrequency energy to damage a small sport of heart tissue and create an electrical block along the path, that’s causing one’s arrhythmia.
The body receives its source of energy and nutrition through the blood, which is the transport medium. The blood runs through a highly complex network of blood vessels, with the aorta being the largest one. It originates in the heart, the left ventricle precisely and supplies oxygenated blood to all parts of the body. Coarctation is a condition where there is a narrowing of the aorta. The heart, therefore, has to exert extra pressure to push out blood so that blood supply to the target organs is not affected.
The exact cause of aortic coarctation is not known, though it often develops at birth and so is known as a congenital disorder. Depending on the severity of the narrowing, symptoms develop at various times in life. While some infants demonstrate symptoms, some may not show any symptoms well into adulthood. Infants with severe narrowing may manifest the below symptoms quite early in life.
- Difficulty in breathing may gasp
- Difficulty in feeding
- Be extremely irritable
- Profuse sweating
- Pale skin
When these symptoms are not noticed and treated in time, the child may have heart failure or even die. If the symptoms do not manifest early in life, the infant can grow into childhood quite normally. Symptoms may then manifest which would be different, as below.
- Increased blood pressure
- Headaches (frequent)
- Weakness in the muscles
- Chest pain
- Frequent fainting spells
These are generic symptoms and it is difficult to suspect coarctation of the aorta. Therefore, further imaging would be required to rule out coarctation of the aorta. There are some risk factors, most related to the heart, which puts one at increased risk of developing aortic coarctation.
- Bicuspid aortic valve
- Aortic valve stenosis and/or regurgitation
- Mitral valve stenosis and/or regurgitation
- Patent ductus arteriosus
Treatment: Diagnosis is the first step in treating coarctation of the aorta. This would include a series of imaging tests including an echocardiogram, electrocardiogram, chest x-ray, CT scan, and MRI.
Surgery is often the most definitive mode of treatment, and the approach chosen depends on the severity and stage of identification. The most common approach is to open up the narrowed portion and keep it from collapsing again, so that blood flow is restored. This is known as a balloon angioplasty and stenting. Some of the other procedures used include:
- Resection with end-to-end anastomosis
- Bypass graft repair
- Subclavian flap aortoplasty
- Patch aortoplasty
In all affected individuals, after surgery, medications are prescribed to maintain blood pressure levels, which is often increased. In addition, lifestyle changes including exercise and healthy eating habits have to be developed.
Congenital Heart Disease refers to a problem in the structure of heart that is present at birth. It is one of the most common types of birth defect. The defects can arise at the walls of the heart, the valves of the heart and could also take place at the arteries and veins close to the heart. The disease causes great impact in changing the normal flow of blood through the heart.There are many different types of congenital heart defects, ranging from simple ones having no symptoms to complex defects, which are severe and life-threatening symptoms.
- Congenital heart defect generally is detected in women at the time of ultrasound during pregnancy. In case the doctor comes across abnormal heartbeat, he may further investigate by conducting certain tests in the form of echocardiogram, chest X-ray or MRI scan.
- This problem might be seen even in newborn babies, due to which they might experience:
- Skin, fingers, lips and toes which are bluish in colour
- Experience problem breathing
- Low weight at the time of birth
- Chest Pain
There might be other symptoms as well, which may not develop till many years after birth. The symptoms are:
- Abnormal heart rate
- Frequesnt dizziness
- Swelling might be seen at certain parts of the body
Causes behind congenital heart disease
Developmental problem in the heart’s structure at an early stage is usually the reason behind congenital heart disease. This defect acts a hindrance to the normal flow of blood through the heart, thus affecting people’s breathing to some extent. Though there is no surety as to why there is a problem in the development of heart, some of the suspected causes are:
- Any of the family members might be having heart problems.
- Some prescribed drugs at the time of pregnancy tend to put a child at a higher risk for developing this problem of congenital heart disease.
- Consumption of alcohol or if you take drugs which are not prescribed by doctor during pregnancy, can lead to an increase in the risk of a child getting diagnosed with a heart defect.
- Women who have had viral infection during the first three months of pregnancy are more susceptible towards giving birth to children having heart defects.
How to treat congenital heart disease?
Like any other heart disease, treatment for congenital heart disease also depends on the type and extent of the defect.
- There are certain medicines which allow the heart for function more efficiently, while others can be used to prevent blood clots from forming and also put a check on irregular heartbeat.
- Implantable heart devices like implantable cardioverter defibrillators can prevent this particular defect by regularising an abnormal heart rate.
- Catheter procedure followed by doctors where they insert a thin tube into a vein in the leg and move up to the heart, then use small tool by threading through the catheter to rectify the defect.
- Some rare cases, when the heart disease is too complex to fix, doctor may form heart transplant surgery.
Meri age 27 sal hai, mujhe pichle 3 sal se bina kisi wajah ke ghabrahat hoti h, m tlb heartbeat uncontrollable si lagti h, jbki ecg n echo report are normal, chest and neck tightness, bahut sare doctor ko dikha diya, medicine se thoda control th hoti h pr cure ni ho rahi hai. Kya ye lifetime aisa hi chalta rahega. Agr medicine v kam ni kr ri th sb kya karu.
Measurement of the blood pressure is considered to be an important step in the diagnostic protocol since the flow of blood in the body determines one’s health. Higher the blood pressure, more the risk of health problems.
Now what exactly blood pressure is? It is the pressure exerted by blood on the walls of the blood vessels, specifically on the large arteries of the systemic circulation. The normal resting blood pressure of the human body is 120/80 mm Hg, where 120 is the systolic pressure and 80 is diastolic pressure, measured by the auscultatory method.
Usually, for measuring blood pressure, a physician is consulted. However nowadays, blood pressure can be measured at home itself, thus removing the necessity of visiting a clinic for the same. There is a possibility of the patient being suffering from the ‘White Coat” hypertension, where blood pressure of the patient shoots up in the presence of the physician at the clinic. In such patients, it’s safer to suggest blood pressure measurement at home itself.
Certain factors like stress, smoking, heavy exercise, brisk walking, rapid movements, caffeine and certain medications can alter the pressure of blood. These factors should be avoided. There are two ways by which the blood pressure can be measured at home-
- Manual method using a sphygmomanometer
- Digital devices
A. Measurement of blood pressure using a sphygmomanometer
1- Sit comfortably at one place and open the kit.
2- Raise your arm to the heart level.
3- Wrap the cuff around your upper arm, preferably the left arm.
4- The cuff should be adjusted to snugly fit. It shouldn’t be too tight.
5- Place the diaphragm (head) of the stethoscope flat against the skin on the inside of your arm.
6- Tighten the valve of the rubber bulb and inflate the cuff.
7- Release the valve slowly and note down the first thumping sound. This is the systolic blood pressure.
8- After the thumping sounds subside, there is a small whooshing sound, following which no sound is audible. Note down this pressure on the gauge, it is termed as diastolic blood pressure.
B. Digital devices
1- Sit comfortably and relaxed with your back supported.
2- Support your arm on a tabletop at an even level with your heart.
3- Place the cuff on the left arm and keep tubing at the centre of your arm facing the front. Place the sensor is correctly.
4- Press the “start” button. When the measurement is complete, readings of your systolic and diastolic blood pressures and your pulse rate will be displayed on the digital panel.
5- Record the reading of the first measurement and obtain another reading of blood pressure after resting.
6- Take the average value of the two readings.
By using these two simple methods and following the above mentioned easy steps, blood pressure can be measured and monitored at home itself. If there is a huge difference between consecutive readings, then it is best to consult the physician for accurate results.
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