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Cataract usually affects people who are above 40. It is a blurring of the eye’s lens, which lies at the back of pupil and iris. It is the most usual cause behind the loss of vision for people above 40. Research also states that it is a major cause of blindness in the world.
Types of cataracts:
- Subcapsular cataract: People who are diabetic and those are taking high steroids are more prone to subcapsular cataract. In this type, the cataract develops at the back of the lens.
- Nuclear cataract: A nuclear cataract is related to aging. It usually affects the central portion of the lens of the eye.
- Cortical cataract: It is a white opacity, which begins from the periphery of the lens and spreads up to the center of the lens in a spot-like manner. It usually affects the cortex of the lens.
- In the beginning, cataract affects a small portion of your eye and affects your vision.
- Your vision gradually gets blurred.
- Too much exposure to the light might cause glare.
- In nuclear cataract, you may notice a short-lived improvement of your near vision.
- In subcapsular cataract, you cannot notice any symptoms in the initial days.
Cause of cataract:
The lens inside our eyes acts like a camera and it is made of protein and water. The protein helps in keeping the lens clear. But with aging, the protein may start to form a lump, which causes cloudiness in the eye area. With time the cataract spreads all over the lens and creates more cloudiness, which ultimately leads to blindness. The factors which usually trigger cataract are
- UV rays from sunlight
- Consumption of high dosage steroids medicines
- Statin medicines
- History of eye inflammation or any eye injury
- History of eye surgery
- Too much consumption of alcohol
- Hormone replacement therapy
- Family history of cataract
Prevention of cataract:
It cannot be guaranteed whether cataract can be prevented or not. A study shows that cataract is caused due to the oxidative changes in the lens of the eye. Nutrition studies have shown that consuming vegetables and fruits, which are high in antioxidants, may help in preventing cataract. Dietary intake of vitamin E, carotenoids lutein, and zeaxanthin from supplements and food items can decrease the risk of developing a cataract. Sunflower seeds, spinach and almonds are good sources of vitamin E. Kale, spinach, other leafy green veggies are the good sources of zeaxanthin and lutein. Food items that contain Omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin C decrease the chances of cataract.
Last, but not the least, when you step out, always wear a sunglasses, which has the ability to block UV rays. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult an Ophthalmologist.
Also termed as diabetic eye disease, this is a disease in which the retina gets damaged due to diabetes. This usually leads to blindness. In most cases, as inferred from various studies, this affects people who have had diabetes for more than 20 years. Diabetic retinopathy can also be a problem for women during pregnancy. With proper monitoring and treatment, this disease can be cured. One major way to prevent this disease could be by regulating diabetes.
Signs and symptoms
Like many other eye disorders, this too has no warning signs. However, in general, people with macular edema are likely to have blurred vision, making it hard for the individuals to carry out tasks like driving and reading. In most cases, if not treated, the situations may worsen with time.
Stages of disorder
- Initial stage: In the initial stage, it is called non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy. There are generally no visible symptoms and patients may even have a normal 20/20 vision. The only way to detect non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy is by fundus photography in which the microscopic bulges that are filled with blood can be detected in the artery walls. In case, the patient suffers from reduced vision, to see the back of the eye, a fluorescein angiography is performed. This way the blocked and narrowed retinal blood vessels are visible. The lack of blood flow due to blocked blood vessels is called ischemia. Macular edema can occur at any stage of non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy. In this condition, the contents of the blood vessels leak into the macula region, thereby causing blurred vision, distorted images, etc. In such cases, optical coherence tomography can be carried out to show the areas in which retinal thickening has occurred.
- Second stage: The second stage is termed as proliferative diabetic retinopathy. In this stage, occurrence of new abnormal blood vessels is seen. These form at the back of the eye. These blood vessels are fragile and hence can easily burst and bleed, thereby causing the vision to blur. If this occurs for the first time, it may not be severe. Only a few specs of blood or spots floating on the visual field of the patients can be noticed. Within a few days, these spots may enlarge and the leakage of blood may increase, which can impact vision. The blood might take a few days till a year to clear entirely. In some circumstances, the blood might not clear at all.
Amblyopia is decreased vision in one or both eyes due to abnormal development of vision in infancy or childhood. It is commonly known as lazy eye, in which a child's vision does not develop properly, usually in one eye. If it is left untreated, a child's vision will never develop correctly in the affected eye.
What are the types of Amblyopia?
There are several different types and causes of Amblyopia, such as Strabismic Amblyopia, Deprivation Amblyopia and Refractive Amblyopia. The end result of all forms of Amblyopia is reduced vision in the affected eye(eyes).
How does Lazy Eye occurs?
Lazy eye occurs when your brain favors one eye, often due to poor vision in your other eye. Eventually, your brain might ignore signals from your weak or lazy eye. The condition can result in vision impairment and loss of depth perception.
What are the Symptoms of Lazy Eye?
Lazy eye may be hard to detect until it becomes severe. Early warning signs include:
- Tendency to bump into objects on one side
- An eye that wanders inward or outward
- Eyes that appear not to work together
- Poor depth perception
- Double vision
What Causes Lazy Eye?
A number of conditions and factors can lead you to rely on one eye more than the other. These include:
- Constant strabismus or turning of one eye
- Genetics or a family history of lazy eye
- Different levels of vision in each of your eyes
- Damage to one of your eyes from trauma
- Drooping eyelids
- Vitamin A deficiency
- Corneal ulcer or scar
- Eye surgery
- Vision impairment, such as nearsightedness, farsightedness, or astigmatism
- Glaucoma, which is high pressure in your eye that can lead to vision problems and blindness
How is Amblyopia diagnosed?
When it first occurs, parents and children often don't notice the condition. It's important to get routine eye exams as an infant and child, even if you show no outward symptoms of eye problems.
Family history of amblyopia is a risk factor for the condition.
How Is Lazy Eye Treated?
- Glasses/Contact Lenses
- Eye Patch
- Eye Drops
- Other treatments include:
- Atropine penalization therapy (also used for maintenance)
- Optical blurring through contact lenses or elevated bifocal segments
If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult an ophthalmologist.