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Brain cancer is a disease of the brain in which cancer cells (malignant cells) arise in the brain tissue. Cancer cells grow to form a mass of cancer tissue (tumor) that interferes with brain functions such as muscle control, sensation, memory, and other normal body functions. Tumors composed of cancer cells are called malignant tumors, and those composed of mainly non-cancerous cells are called benign tumors. Cancer cells that develop from brain tissue are called primary brain tumors while tumors that spread from other body sites to the brain are termed metastatic or secondary brain tumors.
Brain cancer is actually the abnormal growth and uncontrolled growth of the cancer cells in the brain that forms a tumor in the brain.Tumours can be either benign or malignant.
Benign brain tumours are abnormal collections of cells that reproduce slowly and usually remain separate from the surrounding normal brain.
Malignant tumours reproduce and grow quickly. Their borders are hard to distinguish from the normal brain around them.
There are few early symptoms of brain cancer, but as the tumour grows within the confines of the skull, it causes increased intracranial pressure and exerts pressure on the brain, causing signs to develop.
Brain cancer symptoms and signs are varied and depend on the area of the brain involved, but can include:
Nausea and vomiting, which, CANSA reports, may be worse in the morning or after a sudden position change.
Difficulty walking or clumsiness.
Changes in alertness.
Brain cancer occurs when there is an uncontrolled growth of cancer cells in the brain that form a malignant brain tumor. The underlying cause of primary brain cancer, cancer that begins in the brain, is not known. Secondary brain cancer is caused by a cancer of another organ in the body, such as the breast, prostate, kidney, skin, or bone, that has spread to the brain.
What are the risk factors for brain cancer?
Certain inherited conditions, including neurofibromatosis, Von Hippel-Lindau syndrome, Li-Fraumeni syndrome, and Turcot syndrome
Personal history of cancer or family history of brain cancer
Impaired immune system
Radiation therapy of the head
Surgery is the main form of treatment for brain tumors that lie within the membranes covering the brain or in parts of the brain that can be removed without damaging critical neurological functions. The goal is to remove the entire tumor, whenever possible, as a tumor may recur if any tumor cells are left behind. Radiation therapy and chemotherapy are generally used as secondary treatment for tumors that cannot be cured through surgery alone.
Stereotactic radiosurgery is a treatment option that delivers a high concentration of radiation directly to the tumor in order to stop its growth, while delivering only a minimal dose of radiation to the surrounding tissue. Unlike conventional surgery, stereotactic radiosurgery does not require making an incision to remove the tumor. It can be especially effective in patients with many small metastatic brain tumors. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a doctor and ask a free question.
Prostate Cancer is a form of cancer that affects men. The prostate is basically a small gland that sits in the male pelvic cavity and is responsible for producing seminal fluid or semen, from its position under the bladder, surrounding the urethra. The testosterone hormone controls this gland.
Prostate cancer refers to the growth of a malignant mass of cells which can also be called a tumour. More about this cancer:
- Risk Factors: The various risk factors involved in this kind of cancer are many. Advanced age, a family history of the same disease, obesity as well as genetic changes can lead to the development of this kind of tumour.
- Types: There are basically two types of prostate cancer, including fast growing or aggressive, and slow growing or non-aggressive. Yet, it is also important to remember that not every abnormal growth in this gland can be termed as a tumour, or is a sign of prostate cancer. A malignant growth signifies prostate cancer. This tumour can grow at a fast pace for aggressive prostate cancer, while it can grow and spread slowly for the non-aggressive type.
- Symptoms: It is possible to not have any kind of obvious symptoms when suffering from this kind of cancer. The symptoms usually begin to show up when the cancer has reached a more advanced stage. These include urinary problems, most significantly. The patient may go through pain and difficulty when it comes to urinating. This pain may also occur during ejaculation. The patient may also find blood discharge in the semen upon ejaculation and suffer from sexual dysfunction as well. Pain in the chest, pelvic area and back are also common symptoms of prostate cancer, which may gradually turn into numbness in the said areas as well.
- Diagnosis: The diagnosis of the issue will be done by a specialist from the urology department. After a physical examination where a diagnosis of the symptoms and other check ups will happen, the doctor may conduct lab tests to check the blood, urine and other samples. Further, imaging tests like MRI and CT scans will also be conducted. A digital rectal exam and prostate biopsy will also help in effective diagnosis.
- Treatment: The treatment of this kind of cancer usually depends on the severity of the symptoms and the spread of the tumour. Besides active observation, the doctor may also recommend radiation, chemotherapy and surgery based on the age and health condition of the patient. If you happen to find even subtle symptoms which could point towards this disease, do not hesitate to get in touch with the doctor.
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A breast cancer patient have been done operation again they have tested now the report shows the following I favour the former based on histochemistry (mucin stain) but this case needs immuno history chemistry for definite opinion. So what does it mean does she have cancer still.
Hello sir my friend last 2 month sick and other problem .last 2 check up reports blood cancer positive .27 july report wbc 37000 bt 12 aug reports wbc 34000 .imatinib tablet per day 1 tablet use. Kb tak wbc control ho please help.
Hii I am 48 years old suffering with genital cancer 3rd stage all tomy. Done surgically. After more therapy. Again attract of metastasis in body start what can I do.
My husband is 68. He is diabetic for the last 10 years. Till last 2 months back he was energetic and he had been walking a long distance daily. He had no other health problems. But now doctor, he has been suffering from fever for the last 2 months. Even now he is hospitalized. We Consulted doctors here and took ct scan of thorax and abdomen, took pet scan. Doctors said he is having cancer and spread in lymph nodes. So to get a second opinion we consulted the doctors at regional cancer center in our state. They took biopsy from liver and FNA and cytology. In that they said there is no liver cancer. But as the pet scan read a malignant lesion in the liver, the regional cancer center is asking him to repeat the biopsy. Why it is so, doctor? Some people is of opinion that biopsy may not have been from the involved part of liver and a report of that there is no cancer. Will this happen? need to repeat biopsy? please help us Dr. we are all tensed.
I diagnosed with prostatitis grade 1 by DRE But antibiotics not working I tried doxycycline norfloxacin urikind 3 weeks.
Hi Doctor, 2 years back She had brest cancer, it was removed through mastectomy. Later chemotherapy was done. Later, Doctor told to consume Anastrozole of 1 mg every night after dinner. She is consuming it. Problem is every day she'l have Dry cough, nearly 8 to 10 times she coughs continuously, no time constraint for this cough. When we consulted oncology Doc, he told its a side effect of tablet. And told to consume more water! She tried taking cough tablets, consume more water nothing helped. Please suggest me a process (Ayurveda, Homeopathy, English medic etc.) Or a solution (a drug) or any other solution so that her cough gets cured. Thanks,
My brother in law has been detected colon cancer which is male tide in nature he is undergoing chemotherapy we have come to know about sour sop fruit which is very helpful in killing the cancer cells. Please advise us whether we can give him or not.
Hi its my hubby's niece she is 4 years old has lymphoma, one cancer tumor frm brain was operated already another one grew for which a new magnetic treatment was given, now she has another hodgkin at her throat part which is suppressing her food and wind pipe. How to proceed.
I am 19years girl I have a problem of breast pain in some times. Like monthly twice or thrice. Why it is happening is it any problem for me?
I had undergone chemotherapy for follicular lymphoma 6 months ago with rituximab bendamustin. Now what should be followup. What is the treatment if it reoccurs?
Sir my mom is suffering from breast tumor and 2 nd time she got operated. In july 2015. And now she got weakness in whole body. And itching where she was operated. Guide me what to eat to cure her weakness.
Bladder cancer can be caused by a variety of factors, which include genetic factors, inheritance, drugs, chemicals, environment related factors and smoking. In fact, smoking tobacco is one of the major causes of bladder cancer around the world. The chemicals present in tobacco can irritate the bladder lining which ultimately leads to bladder cancer. Besides smoking other important environmental factors might be chemotherapy, exposure to chemicals from newspaper, dye, leather, paints industries.
Symptoms of bladder cancer are as follows:
Most often it occurs in people more than 50 years of age. It can present in different ways, but common symptoms being :
- Painless hematuria - reddish or brownish colored urine with or without clots Increased frequency of urination Pain while passing urine .
- Difficulty in passing urine
The diagnosis requires a proper imaging workup including ultrasound, CT scan and urine examinations. Following the initial imaging, a biopsy is required to confirm the diagnosis and stage the disease. This is done by cystoscopy under anesthesia.
Treatments for bladder cancer.depend on the stage of cancer. Broadly bladder cancers can be categorised into Non-invasive and Invasive cancers.
- For non-invasive cancers: It requires recurrent cystoscopic surveillance and resection. For those with high risk of tumor recurrence or progression, intravesical chemotherapy or immunotherapy might be required.
- For invasive cancers the various treatment choices are:
- Surgery: For localised tumor which are amenable to resection perhaps surgery is the best possible treatment. This is a major undertaking where in whole of bladder along with accessory organs is removed. The surgeon may offer choices for reconstruction between neobladder (refashioning bladder with patient's gut) or ileal conduit (fashioning a stoma over which bag can be worn to collect urine). Following surgery a regular follow up is required and the prognosis is good.
- Chemotherapy: This modality is reserved for patient's where surgery is not possible or they have metastatic disease (disease spread to other body parts).In this method, medications are used to target and destroy cancer cells.
- Radiation Therapy: This might be and option for patient's that are not suitable for surgery. Radiation therapy uses gamma rays to destroy cancer cells in the body The key to good prognosis in bladder cancers is early detection timely intervention and good follow up.