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Management of Abortion
Caesarean Section Procedure
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Termination Of Pregnancy Procedure
Treatment Of Pregnancy Problems
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Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Treatment Of Medical Diseases In Pregnancy
Treatment Of Menstrual Problems
Intra-Uterine Insemination (IUI) Treatment
Medical Termination Of Pregnancy (Mtp) Procedure
Gynecology Laparoscopy Procedures
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Grading of brain cancer is entirely different as compared to the staging of other cancers in the body. Cancer in the breast, lung, colon etc. are staged depending on the possible spread, location of a tumor and lymph node involvement etc. However, brain tumors are graded based on the aggressiveness of the tumor cells under a microscope. The resect ability and the grade of the tumor cells guide a doctor on the treatment decisions. The decision of a brain surgery depends on factors such as the location, spread of a tumour and the general health of the patient.
Types of Brain Tumor Grading:
Grade 1 tumor- These sets of tumors are medically known as the juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma and subependymoma. They are slow growing and non-invasive. There is a likelihood of the patient getting cured with surgery.
Grade 2 tumor- These are brain tumors that do not possess dead cells as part of the tumour. But, they do portray a lot of abnormal cells. Tumors of this type can be categorized under oligodendroglioma, astrocytoma, and ependymoma.
Grade 3 tumor- Tumors of this type are graded based on the cell type of the cancer cells. For instance, an anaplastic astrocytoma is a grade 3 tumor that has no dead cells but possesses dividing cells. In contrast, anaplastic ependymoma and anaplastic oligodendroglioma are grade 3 tumor cells that have dead cells in them.
Grade 4 tumor- Tumors of this type are referred to as glioblastoma. The tumor cells are actively dividing, the growth of blood vessels is witnessed and areas of dead tissue keep expanding.
Surgery- If the location of a brain tumor is such that it is accessible to a surgeon, the latter goes ahead and removes most of the tumor if not the whole. If, however, the brain tumor cells are placed very near to the surrounding very sensitive brain tissues, a doctor might remove a small portion of the tumor to curb its growth.
Radiation Therapy- This mode of treatment uses high energy X-ray beams to kill targeted cells of the brain. External beam radiation usually targets a small area of the brain. A whole brain radiation, on the other hand, is usually employed when a tumor has spread to most parts of the brain. Radiotherapy is now so evolved that it is highly targeted to tutor cells that kills cancer and spares normal brain.
Chemotherapy- Chemotherapy employs drugs to kill cancer cells. Chemotherapy can either be taken in the form of an IV or in the form of pills. The dosage of chemotherapy is decided based on the concentration of cancer cells, spread frequency, platelet count of the patient etc. The most common chemotherapy drug that is prescribed by doctors to fight cancer cells is temozolomide.
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Bladder cancer can be caused by a variety of factors, which include genetic factors, inheritance, drugs, chemicals, environment related factors and smoking. In fact, smoking tobacco is one of the major causes of bladder cancer around the world. The chemicals present in tobacco can irritate the bladder lining which ultimately leads to bladder cancer. Besides smoking other important environmental factors might be chemotherapy, exposure to chemicals from newspaper, dye, leather, paints industries.
Symptoms of bladder cancer are as follows:
Most often it occurs in people more than 50 years of age. It can present in different ways, but common symptoms being :
- Painless hematuria - reddish or brownish colored urine with or without clots Increased frequency of urination Pain while passing urine .
- Difficulty in passing urine
The diagnosis requires a proper imaging workup including ultrasound, CT scan and urine examinations. Following the initial imaging, a biopsy is required to confirm the diagnosis and stage the disease. This is done by cystoscopy under anesthesia.
Treatments for bladder cancer depend on the stage of cancer. Broadly bladder cancers can be categorised into Non-invasive and Invasive cancers.
- For non-invasive cancers: It requires recurrent cystoscopic surveillance and resection. For those with high risk of tumor recurrence or progression, intravesical chemotherapy or immunotherapy might be required.
- For invasive cancers the various treatment choices are:
- Surgery: For localised tumor which are amenable to resection perhaps surgery is the best possible treatment. This is a major undertaking where in whole of bladder along with accessory organs is removed. The surgeon may offer choices for reconstruction between neobladder (refashioning bladder with patient's gut) or ileal conduit (fashioning a stoma over which bag can be worn to collect urine). Following surgery a regular follow up is required and the prognosis is good.
- Chemotherapy: This modality is reserved for patient's where surgery is not possible or they have metastatic disease (disease spread to other body parts).In this method, medications are used to target and destroy cancer cells.
- Radiation Therapy: This might be and option for patient's that are not suitable for surgery. Radiation therapy uses gamma rays to destroy cancer cells in the body The key to good prognosis in bladder cancers is early detection timely intervention and good follow up.
I had sex last night unprotected sex too. And she is taking period delaying med. Is there is any chance of conceive.
Married 2 years and we don't ve child. No we are planning. So how much time we have to involved in sex and in a week how many times we have to do sex Bec I have back pain.
I was suffering from thyroid and pcod. For thyroid I was using dose 75g but for pcod I was not using anything. Because of these two problems I was gaining weight day by day. Give some suggestions to reduce my weight to normal in 6 months. Now weight-95, height-5-5.Please help sir .
One of the common personal problem in college girls is uti (urinary track infection) female are more prone to have uti compared to male. Personal hygiene, premarital sex, uretric stone like obstructing pathology etc can cause recurrent utl.