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Cysts Removal Procedure
Treatment of Tonsils (Tonsillitis)
Hearing Aid Fitting
Treatment of Throat and Voice Problems
Earlobe Repair Procedure
Treatment of Sleep Disturbance
Nose Reshaping Procedure
Hearing Testing Techniques
Nasal And Sinus Allergy Care
Cochlear Implant Procedure
Ear Micro Surgery
Treatment Of Hearing Deficiency
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Age 30 years, bilateral nasal polyposis, anosmia, treated with corticosteroids spray, antihistamines.
Sir muje sinus problm h OR mera Indian air force ka medical 9january ko h. Sir y problem kaise shi hogi.
Sinusitis in Children
What are sinuses?
The sinuses are cavities, or air-filled spaces, near the nasal passage. Like the nasal passage, the sinuses are lined with mucous membranes. There are four different types of sinuses:
Ethmoid sinus. Located inside the face, around the area of the bridge of the nose. This sinus is present at birth, and continues to grow.
Maxillary sinus. Located inside the face, around the area of the cheeks. This sinus is also present at birth, and continues to grow.
Frontal sinus. Located inside the face, in the area of the forehead. This sinus does not develop until around 7 years of age.
Sphenoid sinus. Located deep in the face, behind the nose. This sinus does not develop until adolescence.
How the Sinuses Work?
A basic knowledge of the anatomy and physiology of the nose and sinuses is necessary to understand nasal and sinus disorders.
The nose and sinuses are a part of the upper respiratory tract. The three-dimensional anatomy of this area is complex. The function of the nose in addition to smell is to warm, humidify and filter air that passes through it. The external nose consists of a bony and cartilaginous framework. The nostrils, or anterior nares, form the external opening to the nose. The nasal septum is a midline internal structure that separates the left and right nasal cavities. It is composed of cartilage and bone. A deviated nasal septum can cause nasal obstruction.
There are four sets of paired sinuses. The maxillary sinuses are located beneath the cheeks and under the eyes. The frontal sinuses are above the eyes behind the forehead. The ethmoid sinuses are honeycomb-shaped sinuses located between the eyes, and the sphenoid sinuses are located behind the nose and below the brain. Each of these sinuses is an enclosed space that drains through an ostium, or opening, into the nose. The sinuses are lined by mucosa that is similar to the lining of the nose. These ostia can become blocked by inflammation or swelling of the mucosa as well as by tumors or bony structures.
The lateral nasal wall internally contains the three turbinate bones. These scroll-like structures are covered in a mucous membrane that contains vascular channels that can swell under certain conditions, such as allergy or inflammation. The tear duct or nasolacrimal duct drains tears from the eyes into the nose where it enters beneath the inferior turbinate. Blockage of this duct from injury or disease causes excess tearing of the eye, or epiphora. The middle meatus is a space under the middle turbinate. Within the middle meatus is the osteomeatal complex, which is the common pathway for the drainage of the maxillary (cheek) sinus, frontal (forehead) sinus and anterior ethmoid sinus. Inflammation or swelling of these key areas may cause blockage of the sinuses.
The superior turbinate is a small structure located high in the nose. Behind the superior turbinate is the opening of the sphenoid sinus, located near the back portion of the septum. The pituitary gland is located directly above and behind the sphenoid sinus. Pituitary surgery is performed through the sphenoid sinus.
What is sinusitis?
Sinusitis is an infection of the sinuses near the nose. These infections usually occur after a cold or after an allergic inflammation. There are four types of sinusitis:
Acute. Symptoms of this type of infection last less than four weeks and get better with the appropriate treatment.
Subacute. This type of infection does not get better with treatment initially, and symptoms last 4 to 12 weeks.
Chronic. This type of infection happens with repeated acute infections or with previous infections that were inadequately treated. These symptoms last 12 weeks or longer.
Recurrent acute. Four or more episodes of acute sinusitis a year.
What causes sinusitis?
Sometimes, a sinus infection happens after an upper respiratory infection (URI) or common cold. The URI causes inflammation of the nasal passages that can block the opening of the paranasal sinuses, and result in a sinus infection. Allergies can also lead to sinusitis because of the swelling of the nasal tissue and increased production of mucus. There are other possible conditions that can block the normal flow of secretions out of the sinuses and can lead to sinusitis including the following:
Abnormalities in the structure of the nose
Infections from a tooth
Trauma to the nose
Foreign objects stuck in the nose
When the flow of secretions from the sinuses is blocked, bacteria may begin to grow. This leads to a sinus infection, or sinusitis. The most common bacteria that cause acute sinusitis include the following:
Treatment for chronic sinusitis must be aimed at different bacteria, such as pseudomonas (gram-negative rods), because there are more often the culprit.
What are the symptoms of sinusitis?
The symptoms of sinusitis depend greatly on the age of the child. The following are the most common symptoms of sinusitis. However, each child may experience symptoms differently. Symptoms may include:
Lasts longer than seven to 10 days
Discharge is usually thick green or yellow, but can be clear
Occasional daytime cough
Swelling around the eyes
Usually no headaches younger than 5 years of age
Older children and adults
Runny nose or cold symptoms lasting longer than seven to 10 days
Drip in the throat from the nose
Swelling around the eye, often worse in the morning
The symptoms of sinusitis may resemble other conditions or medical problems. Always see your child's health care provider for a diagnosis.
How is sinusitis diagnosed?
Generally, your child's health care provider can diagnose sinusitis based on your child's symptoms and physical examination. In some cases additional tests may be performed to confirm the diagnosis. These may include:
Sinus X-rays. Diagnostic test which uses invisible electromagnetic energy beams to produce images of internal tissues, bones, and organs onto film. (X-rays are not typically used, but may help assist in the diagnosis.)
Computed tomography (also called CT or CAT scan). A diagnostic imaging procedure that uses a combination of X-rays and computer technology to produce horizontal, or axial, images (often called slices) of the body. A CT scan shows detailed images of any part of the body, including the bones, muscles, fat, and organs. CT scans are more detailed than general X-rays.
Cultures from the sinuses. Laboratory tests that involve the growing of bacteria or other microorganisms to aid in diagnosis.
What is the treatment for sinusitis?
Specific treatment for sinusitis will be determined by your child's health care provider based on:
Your child's age, overall health, and medical history
How sick he or she is
Your child's tolerance for specific medications, procedures, or therapies
How long the condition is expected to last
Your opinion or preference
Treatment of sinusitis may include the following:
Antibiotics, as determined by your child's physician (antibiotics are usually given for at least 14 days)
Acetaminophen (for pain or discomfort)
Cool humidifier in your child's room
Nasal spray to reduce inflammation
Medications to treat GERD
Surgery to remove the adenoids
Antibiotics may not be given for the first 10 to 14 days, unless severe symptoms develop, such as: fever, facial pain or tenderness, or swelling around the eye. Surgery should be considered only if other treatments have failed.
You may need to take your child to an allergist/immunologist, particularly if he or she has chronic or recurrent sinusitis or has had sinus surgery, but still experience sinusitis.
Antihistamines do not help the symptoms of sinusitis unless it is caused by an allergy.
Throat infection( from cold) continuing for nearly 4 months now, even after continuous medical treatment. Anything to get afraid of.
Sir, I am from Bhopal and suffering from tinnitus since last 2 months, Sir, it is curable or not or harmful to us. Kindly suggest treatment.
Are you feeling lightheaded, unbalanced or woozy lately? Are you having strange sensations in the ears and eyes? These indicate that you are suffering from dizziness, a condition affecting the body’s sensory organs. It can cause fainting at times as well. It is not a disease, but a symptom of several disorders. Dizziness is caused by inner ear disturbances, effects of medication, motion sickness and underlying health conditions, such as poor blood circulation, infections or injuries.
Test and diagnosis
If you feel dizzy for a prolonged period of time or if the dizziness occurs and reoccurs, a special treatment is required. This is because dizziness may make you prone to several risks in everyday life. Several tests are carried out to find out the cause of the dizziness. If a stroke is suspected, an MRI scan or CT scan is carried out. A physical examination is undertaken in which the way you walk and balance are observed and the nerves of the central nervous system are checked. Hearing and balance tests may also be required, which are as follows:
- Eye movement testing in which the path of the eyes is observed while tracking an object in motion. An eye motion test may be given where cold and warm water is placed in the ear canal.
- Head movement tests are carried out when benign paroxysmal positional vertigo is suspected.
Treatment of dizziness includes medicines, therapies and balance exercises.
- Various types of medicines are used initially to control the acute phase of imbalance. Drugs are even continued for some patients for a bit longer duration depending on clinical findings..
- Head position maneuvers: A technique known as canalith repositioning helps in resolving dizziness quickly. It can be performed by a doctor, therapist or audiologist. The position of the head is maneuvered in the process.
- Balance therapy: Several exercises help in making the body’s balance system lesser sensitive to motion. This technique, known as vestibular rehabilitation, is used for people suffering from dizziness due to inner ear conditions.
- Psychotherapy: This therapy may be used for patients who experience dizziness because of anxiety disorders.
- Use of antibiotics: An antibiotic by the name of gentamicin may be injected in the inner ear for disabling the balance function. The unaffected ear performs that function.
- Other procedures: A procedure known as labyrinthectomy may be used for disabling the vestibular labyrinth in the affected ear.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Any ailment can cause a breakdown of one's overall well-being due to the onslaught of related symptoms, and sinus problem is no different. Sinusitis refers to inflammation or swelling of the tissue that lines the sinus, which are passages filled with air and lie in the nasal tract.
Sometimes, these passages get blocked with germs, fluid and other elements that can give rise to infections and allergic reactions. Here are the ways in which this condition can affect your health:
- Related ailments: One of the most common outcomes of sinus blockage is common cold, which can happen when the passages do not get proper movement of air. Further, it can also cause allergic rhinitis which is also known as hay fever and comes with its own set of symptoms like a runny nose, blocked nose and ears, watery eyes and other signs. A build-up of nasal polyps can also take place in the blocked path of the sinus, while the nasal cavity can also shift, causing a deviated septum.
- Pain: We have many sinuses that are located in various parts of our head, including the areas above and below the eyes. As a part of the sinus attack, one may experience pain and fluid fullness in these areas. These regions can ache when there is a sinus infection. This pain can also be caused by the dull pressure exerted by inflammation, and the pain can then travel down to jaws, teeth and even between eyes.
- Headaches: The constant pressure and persistent pain in the various areas containing the sinus can lead to long term headaches which will be at their worst in the mornings. This is due to the fact that the fluids have been accumulating throughout the night. These headaches can get worse if there is a change in the temperature.
- Congestion: Congestion is also a common symptom of sinus infection. The swollen sinuses can lead to constrictions in the nasal passage, which can obstruct normal breathing. This will lead to congestion, which can also affect the senses of taste and smell.
- Cough and discharge: A patient suffering from a sinus infection may end up blowing his or her nose more often than normal. This will usually happen because a yellowing greenish discharge will drain into the nasal passages on a regular basis during the infection. When this discharge bypasses the nasal tract and reaches the throat, it can also cause persistent coughing. It is best to ask for medical intervention and practice steaming to relive the painful symptoms of this condition. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult an Ent Specialist.