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Management of Abortion
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Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
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Treatment Of Pregnancy Problems
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Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Treatment Of Medical Diseases In Pregnancy
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My mother is having 2.3 cm clear ovarian cyst on usg and ca 125 report is 6.postmenopausal 7 years. Kindly advice treatment.
I have problem in pragnancy . I want to be a pragnant . Before one and half year i was pragnant and in that my baby girl was died in the womb. ( In Nine month and nine days passed) now there is problem in pragnancy . What should i do ? All doctors told me there was nothing problem in me and also not in my husband both reports are normal although there is no result. Plz suggest me what to do ? thanks.
I am get signs of pregnancy I not want to pregnant till 2 years. How many i-pill or unwanted 21 will take by me. Please reply.
I was using depo-provera for a year and it's been over a year since I stop using it yet I can't seem to get pregnant. Why is that so?
Having pcod and from 6 months I take ayurvedic medicine now I take sukumaran kashaya, rp vati 2 tablets, aloe compound tablets also. My last period date is Jan 29th 2018& Feb 25th I got spotting just 3 days after that I am not having period and symptoms also next wat I do? Very confused. And my doctor said they consider spotting also. But my tension is y my period delay how I came out of it pls suggest me.
Hi doctor I'm 4 and a half month pregnant I consulted my doctor she gave me a tablet name called vetocal-z after eating it I get stomach burning and from two days in suffering from lose motion I fell very tried is it any problem wil it affect my baby please give me some solution.
The aorta is the largest blood vessel that supplies pure, oxygenated blood to the various parts of the body. Starting in the left lower heart chamber, it takes a U-turn down to the abdominal area and then the legs. It branches as it goes down, with two main branches being the thoracic and abdominal aorta.
Thoracic aortic aneurysm, also known as thoracic aortic dissection or descending aortic aneurysm is abnormal swelling of the aorta in the chest which can rupture over a period of time. The exact cause as to why this occurs has not been identified yet. Family history does have a role to play along with smoking, and history of heart disease, identified as risk factors.
The condition is quite slow to progress and often gets diagnosed when some other disease is being investigated. There are no clear symptoms to indicate this aneurysm, other than a probable hoarseness of voice, difficulty swallowing or pain in the shoulder blades. This is often due to the pressure it exerts on the surrounding areas.
Treatment is often decided based on the overall severity of an aneurysm and the condition of the patient. In most cases, the doctor might decide to wait and watch. The patient is monitored at regular intervals to ensure no symptoms develop and the condition is under control. Every once in 6 months, a scanning can be done to ensure that the aneurysm is not growing. The idea is to prevent rupture and internal bleeding, which can be life-threatening. Thoracic aortic endovascular graft repair, often referred to as TEVAR, is the most widely used technique for definitive treatment of a thoracic aortic aneurysm.
Treatment: What happens during TEVAR is that an aneurysm is identified and isolated. An incision is made in the groin area through which a small device is placed in the aorta at the area of an aneurysm. The part of the aorta with the aneurysm is replaced with a graft, so that normal blood flow is restored. Alternately, the blood flow could be bypassed to skip the aneurysm and flow through an alternate route.
This is a minimally invasive procedure and done as an outpatient than the conventional open heart surgeries that were done earlier.
- Maintain good control over blood pressure
- Watch out for recurrence, especially if there is a strong family history
- Quit smoking
Thoracic aortic aneurysms are very rare and not easy to identify. However, given the possible complications, they require timely intervention.
New path to blood sugar control
Most dm drugs make pancrea to increase insulin other act on liver other act on body cell
To date, two of these new drugs have been approved by the u. S. Food and drug administration for treating type 2 diabetes. The first, canagliflozin (invokana®), was cleared last march; the second, dapagliflozin (farxiga®), was approved just this week.
Both drugs are so-called sglt2 inhibitors that act by blocking the kidneys’ reabsorption of sugar, or glucose. The result is that more glucose is released in the urine and the patient’s blood glucose level goes down — a major goal of diabetes treatment.
Most other available drugs for diabetes work by targeting the liver, pancreas or gut to improve insulin sensitivity, reduce insulin resistance or stimulate insulin secretion. In contrast, sglt2 inhibitors work completely independent of insulin.
The two new medications, which are taken by mouth in pill form, are approved for use as stand-alone drug therapy, in addition to changes in diet and increased exercise, or in combination with other drugs for diabetes. Their approvals were based on multiple clinical studies — nine for canagliflozin and 16 for dapagliflozin — showing that they effectively lowered hemoglobin a1c, a measure of average blood sugar level over the previous three months.
A surprise effect on the waistline
An added benefit is that sglt2 inhibitors are associated with modest weight loss. For instance, patients shed from 2.8 percent to 5.7 percent of body weight in clinical studies of canagliflozin.
“The weight loss is an appealing side effect of sglt2 inhibitors, especially in the growing population of obese individuals with type 2 diabetes,” says cleveland clinic endocrinologist mary vouyiouklis, md. “aside from metformin, which occasionally results in modest weight loss, other oral drugs used to treat type 2 diabetes are weight-neutral or can cause weight gain.”
Safety profile: keeping an eye on heart effects
Another potential benefit is also a potential adverse effect: the fact that sglt2 inhibitors have a mild diuretic effect (i. E, tend to increase urination). This results in lowering of blood pressure, which can be good for some patients who have high blood pressure but can also cause lightheadedness, dizziness or even fainting in other individuals. Dr. Vouyiouklis says caution is needed before these drugs are started in any patients at particular risk of the latter effects, such as the elderly or patients taking diuretics or multiple drugs for blood pressure.
The drugs’ other most common side effects in clinical trials — genital yeast infections and urinary tract infections — are also related to the fact that they act via the kidneys. Both drugs posed a low risk of hypoglycemia, the dangerously low blood sugar episodes associated with some diabetes therapies.
However, the new drugs were found to modestly increase levels of ldl (“bad”) cholesterol, which could be a concern because patients with diabetes are already at increased risk of heart disease. The potential for increased rates of heart attack, stroke and other cardiac events is being specifically monitored in large ongoing studies of both canagliflozin and dapagliflozin, but full results are not expected for several years.
Ongoing bladder safety scrutiny with dapagliflozin
Additionally, patients taking dapagliflozin in clinical trials showed a small increase in bladder cancer diagnoses compared with control patients. In fact, dapagliflozin was rejected for approval by the fda two years ago because of concerns over bladder cancer and liver toxicity.
The agency’s concerns about these risks were eased by additional data from dapagliflozin’s manufacturer this time around, but the drug’s approval included a requirement that it be studied for bladder cancer risk in patients in ongoing trials as well as in new animal studies looking specifically at effects on the bladder.
Canagliflozin does not appear to be associated with bladder cancer or liver toxicity, the fda concluded.
More agents in the pipeline
Several other sglt2 inhibitors may soon be available as well. One of them, empagliflozin, is in late-stage studies, and the fda is expected to decide on its approval by the end of march.
Who should get these drugs, and when?
Dr. Vouyiouklis says obese patients with type 2 diabetes and normal kidney function stand to benefit most from sglt2 inhibitors. In general, these drugs seem to be best tolerated by patients with normal kidney function and less well tolerated by those with moderate kidney disease (they should not be used by patients with severe kidney disease). They are not approved for use by pregnant women, patients under 18 or individuals with type 1 diabetes.
“Although sglt2 inhibitors are approved for use as single drug therapy, metformin remains my choice for first-line oral therapy,” says Dr. Vouyiouklis. “Because sglt2 inhibitors are relatively new and their long-term effects are not yet known, I prefer to reserve them for use as add-on therapy. I believe they will be a useful addition, especially in obese patients who are seeking to lose weight.”type diabetes
Endometriosis is a condition where the endometrial tissue lining the womb, grows outside the uterus lining. This can cause severe pelvic pain and a host of other complications, if it is not treated on time.
Here is everything you need to know about this ailment:
- Symptoms - Owing to the location of this tissue and its painful protrusion through the lining or walls of the womb, one of the earliest and most painful symptoms experienced may include severe cramps and pain during the menstrual cycle. Also, the patient will experience pain in the lower abdomen region about a week before the onset of the cycle. Heavy bleeding as well as infertility may be experienced in such cases too. Sexual intercourse will also give rise to pain in the region, while discomfort will be felt during the bowel movements. Pain in the lower back will also be experienced throughout the menstruation period.
- Stages - There are several stages of this disease and its progression, each of which will require a different form of treatment. These four stages usually depend on the location, size, depth and number of the endometrial implants within the body of the patient.
1) Minimal Stage - In this stage, usually there will be small wounds and lesions as well as shallow implants on the ovaries. Inflammation in the pelvic cavity can also be felt in this stage.
2) Mild Stage - In this stage, there will also be light lesions and shallow implants which will spread over the ovaries as well as the pelvic lining.
3) Moderate Stage - In this stage, the implants will dig deeper into the ovaries and the pelvic lining, which will result in the growth of even more lesions.
4) Severe Stage - As the name suggests, in this stage the patient will experience deep implants along with lesions in the bowels and the fallopian tubes.
- Treatment - There are varied forms of this treatment including pain relief medication for minimal to mild stage patients. Also, hormonal therapy with the help of supplements may be prescribed. Hormonal contraceptives may also be used. In such cases, medication like Danazol, Medroxyprogesterone,
Gonadotrophin releasing hormone agonists, and other such elements may be prescribed. Conservative surgery and radical surgery may follow, depending on the severity of the condition. Laparoscopy is the preferred form of treatment in such cases. A hysterectomy can be conducted as a final resort where the surgeon will remove the cervix as well as the uterus of the patient. This will make pregnancy impossible for the patient, thereafter. To stop estrogen production, the ovaries will also be removed.
One must discuss all risks and complications before going in for a certain form of treatment for this ailment