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Caesarean Section Procedure
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Termination Of Pregnancy Procedure
Treatment Of Pregnancy Problems
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Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Treatment Of Medical Diseases In Pregnancy
Treatment Of Menstrual Problems
Intra-Uterine Insemination (IUI) Treatment
Medical Termination Of Pregnancy (Mtp) Procedure
Gynecology Laparoscopy Procedures
Pap Smear Procedure
Urinary Incontinence (Ui) Treatment
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Generally identified as a rare and uncommon phenomenon, vaginal cancer most often occurs in the cells present in the outer lining of the vagina, also called the birth canal. Although primary vaginal cancer is rare and unusual, there are various other types of vaginal cancer that originate elsewhere in the body, but have spread over to your vagina.
Depending upon the nature of origin, vaginal cancer can be divided into the following types:
- Vaginal adenocarcinoma, beginning in the glandular cells on the surface of your vagina
- Vaginal sarcoma, developing in the connective tissue cells and multiple cells lining the walls of your vagina
- Vaginal squamous cell carcinoma, originates in the squamous cells lining the surface of the bacteria
- Vaginal melanoma, developing in melanocytes, the pigment producing cells in your vagina
Symptoms: As vaginal cancer progresses from one stage to the next, you may experience any one of the following signs and symptoms:
- Diluted, watery vaginal discharge
- Painful urination
- Odd cases vaginal bleeding, for instance, after menopause or after intercourse
- Formation of lumps in your vagina
- Frequent and regular urination
- Pelvic pain
Causes: Normally, cancer develops when healthy cells undergo genetic mutations, subsequently leading to the uncontrollable growth of abnormal cells. Cancer cells are known to break off from pre-existing tumors and can easily spread everywhere, in what is referred to as metastasize.
Beyond the natural process of development, here are a few factors, which may further contribute to the growth of cancerous cells:
- Increasing age
- Vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia
- Exposure o miscarriage prevention drugs
Vulvodynia is generally identified as a condition, which causes chronic back painor vulvar pain, but having no identifiable cause. The causes as well as the nature of the condition are very obscure, and until recent times, it had never been considered to be an actual pain syndrome. What is commonly affected is the vulva, or the external female genital organs, consisting of the clitoris, labia and the vaginal opening.
Generally, there are two types of vulvodynia:
- Generalized Vulvodynia: this can mean pain in any part of the Vulva occurring erratically at different times
- Vulvar vestibulitis syndrome: this is limited to the vestibule, or the vaginal opening. It has similar characteristics of a burn, and pain can be incurred only when contact is made, say during sexual intercourse.
Although not life threatening, signs and symptoms of Vulvodynia can still cause a ton of problems for women. They can create much complication when it comes to daily activities as well as other feelings, like sexual frustration, agitation, depression and low self-esteem.
Symptoms can be very erratic and can occur once in a while or all the time. They may be limited to just one specific area or can affect the entire vulva, interfering with daily activities such as walking, exercising and sexual intercourse.
Here are some common signs and symptoms:
- A burning or stinging sensation
- An aching or throbbing sensation
- May swell and you may experience soreness;
- Severe itching and agitation
Because the causes are not identifiable, extensive research is still going on in order to decipher the nature of the syndrome. A few possible causes may include:
Most women attain menopause between the ages of late 40s and early 60s, the average age being about 51. This is an important milestone in a women's gynecological history. One major change is altered female hormone levels, and this leads to a lot of physiological changes. From hot flashes to mood swings, there is also increased predisposition to osteoporosis and uterine cancer.
If you have not had your menstrual cycles for close to 12 months, chances are you are into menopause. So, that means absolutely no vaginal bleeding anymore whatsoever. However, if you experience bleeding, even spotting, be on the alert. It is not normal and needs to be examined, and if required, diagnosed and treated.
Postmenopausal bleeding or PMB, as it is popularly called, can be due to a variety of reasons. While it could be something as trivial as inflammation of the uterine or vaginal lining, it could also be an indication of more severe issues like cancer.
- Atrophic vaginitis: Decreasing hormonal levels lead to increased dryness and therefore inflammation of the vaginal and uterine tissue. This is one of the common causes of bleeding after menopause.
- Endometrial atrophy: Also caused by lower hormone levels, the lining of the body of the uterus gradually thins down and can get inflamed.
- Polyps: Noncancerous growths in the uterus, cervix, vulva, or vagina can also lead to bleeding.
- Infections: General infection of any area along the uterine tract could lead to occasional bleeding.
- Cancers: Though only 1 in 10 PMB cases turn out to be cancers, the prognosis improves with early diagnosis and intervention.
Diagnosis: As repeated above, reach out to your doctor if you notice postmenopausal bleeding. Diagnostic methods could include the following:
- Physical examination
- Transvaginal ultrasound
- Endometrial biopsy
- Dilatation and Curettage
Treatment: Needless to say, this would depend on the diagnosis. For very minor cases with diagnosis like altered hormone levels, no treatment may be required other than modification of the hormone replacement therapy. For endometrial atrophy and atrophic vaginitis, use of estrogen creams and pessaries would be sufficient. Polyps would require removal followed by cauterization (application of slight heat) to stop the bleeding.
Cancer: This would depend on the type and location and require a combination of chemotherapy and surgery. Removal of the uterus also may be required in some cases. So, if you have had bleeding of any sort after a year of menopause, do not ignore it.