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Today’s busy life has ended up in Fast Food and Fast Life...
but it’s mandatory cuz every time you eat it’s an opportunity to nourish yourself...
Most women suffer from gynaecological infection at least once in their life while some may suffer from them multiple times. The most common infections that affect women’s reproductive tracts are vulvitis, vaginitis, cervicitis and pelvic inflammatory disease or the dreaded PID. What’s even worse is the fact that these dangerous infections are often missed in women due to lack of information and the absence of health services, especially in rural parts of the country.
Let’s take a quick look at each one of the above four gynaecological infections:
Vulvitis is an inflammation of the vulva, the tender folds of skin outside the vagina.
Common symptoms include-
- Redness and swelling on the lips of the vulva
- Clear, fluid-filled blisters
- White, sore and thick patches on the vulva
Causes can include anything from the use of toilet paper, swimming in pools, synthetic underwear, rubbing against a bike seat, bubble baths to shampoos and deodorants…
Usually, urine tests, blood tests and tests for sexually transmitted diseases are used to diagnose this infection. Vulvitis can be caused due to a number of reasons and it’s also a symptom of other more dangerous diseases, hence its treatment is done taking all these factors into mind.
Treatment can include-
- Avoiding irritants like swimming in pools
- Sitz baths with soothing compounds for itch control
Vaginitis refers to any inflammation of the vagina. Usually, the inflammation strikes the walls of the vagina. It can be infectious or non-infectious. This infection is common in women of all ages with one-third of women reporting suffering from the infection at some time during their lives.
These can be many like infection with bacteria, yeast, viruses etc. Chemicals in creams or sprays, and even clothing can cause the condition. It can be sexually transmitted too. Your hormones, overall health and other diseases you may have – all of these also determine whether you’ll get vaginitis.
The 3 types of vaginitis are-
Vaginitis should always be taken seriously. If left untreated, vaginitis can cause PID which can lead to infertility. If you get a discharge- a frothy white discharge or a colourless discharge with a fishy disorder and see redness around your vagina and pain during urination or sex- don’t take it lightly, but fix an appointment with your gynaecologist ASAP. He or she will mostly treat you using antibiotics.
This is an irritation or infection of the cervix. It is caused by a number of different organisms and it can be either acute or chronic. Common causes are sexually transmitted diseases or STDs like-
Pelvic exam and tests for STDs are used for diagnosing this infection. Treatment includes the use of antibiotics for the victim and her sexual partner to prevent re-infection.
Pelvic inflammatory disease
Pelvic inflammatory disease or PID is an infection that affects the woman’s entire reproductive tract like the uterus, fallopian tubes, and the ovaries. It causes scar tissue formation which grows between internal organs leading to chronic pelvic pain. PID can also lead to ectopic pregnancy or a pregnancy which happens when the fertilized egg grows outside the uterus. Untreated PIDs can lead to chronic infection and infertility.
The main cause of PID is bacteria. Intra uterine device use is also linked to PIDs.
Atrial fibrillation is a condition that results in rapid heartbeat leading to heart failure, stroke, and other cardiac complications. In this condition, the upper valves of the heart beat irregularly. Some of the common symptoms of this condition include weakness, heart palpitations and shortness of breath. There could be several episodes of Atrial fibrillation. Although it is not life threatening, there could be serious complications owing to the nature of the condition. Atrial fibrillation can also lead to a condition known as the ischemia.
What are the different types of Atrial fibrillation?
- Occasional- This condition is also known as paroxysmal fibrillation. Here the symptoms come and go. For few patients, the symptoms might stay for a few minutes, for others, it can stay up to hours before everything becomes normal again.
- Persistent- The beat of the heart does not go back to normal. Medication along with electric shocks might be required to amend the condition.
- Long-standing persistent- This is the kind of Atrial fibrillation that can last up to 12 months at stretch.
- Permanent- This is the type where the erratic rhythm of the heartbeat can’t be restored. Long term medication is required to fix the condition.
What are the possible causes of Atrial fibrillation?
Some of the possible causes of Atrial fibrillation include Coronary artery disease, sleep apnea, viral infection, lung diseases, exposure to tobacco, caffeine, etc, metabolic imbalance, hyperactive thyroid gland, viral infections, congenital heart defects, stress due to illness, pneumonia and surgery, history of heart surgeries etc.
What are the risk factors for Atrial fibrillation?
Here are some of the common risk factors for this condition:
- Age plays a critical role in any cardiac related disorder. The older a person is, the greater are the chances of Atrial fibrillation
- High blood pressure along with unhealthy lifestyle can increase the risk of Atrial fibrillation
- People with a history of obesity can get this disease
- Chronic conditions such as kidney disease, metabolic syndrome, thyroid problems can lead to Atrial fibrillation
- People with an existing heart condition such as heart problem, heart palpitation, valve failure, coronary artery disease etc have an increased risk of suffering from Atrial fibrillation.
How is Atrial fibrillation diagnosed?
A doctor might use one of the many tests or diagnostic technique that are available to diagnose this condition:
- ECG- This is first but an important test to fathom whether there are any irregularities in the heart beat. The sensor presents in the ECG machine throws heart bit diagram in the form of graphs.
- Echocardiogram- This is a technique wherein sound waves are passed through the heart and an image is taken to understand about any possible irregularities. This is a fine test that can readily detect underlying and structural heart diseases.
- Blood tests- Blood tests can help to identify any thyroid irregularity or other condition that might lead to Atrial fibrillation.
Any kind of injury on the surface of the skin is immediately noticed by us, but when something happens to one of our internal organs, it can take a little longer to get to your notice for example, an obstruction in the bile duct. The bile duct is a tubular structure responsible for carrying bile from the liver and gall bladder through the pancreas to the small intestine. This bile helps the digestion process and the absorption of fat. An obstruction in the bile duct can be triggered by a number of factors.
- Gallstones leading to CBD stones
- Inflammation of the bile ducts
- Traumatic accidents
- Bile duct or pancreatic tumors
- Hepatitis infections
- Cirrhosis or severe liver damage
- Abnormal narrowing of the bile duct
- Chronic Pancreatitis
This can affect anyone, but the people who have a history of gall stones or tumors in the abdomen are at a higher risk of suffering from bile duct obstruction. Chronic pancreatitis, sudden weight loss or obesity can also increase this risk. The symptoms of biliary obstruction include light coloured stool, dark urine, pain in the upper right abdomen, nausea, vomiting and fever. Your doctor will also probably need an X-ray of the bile ducts, blood tests, a hepatobiliary iminodiacetic acid scan and ultrasonograph to confirm a diagnosis before they can start treating you for the same.
If not treated in time, bile duct blockages can lead to a dangerous buildup of bilirubin in the body and trigger a number of life threatening diseases. Treatment for biliary obstruction can be through medication or surgery with surgery being the more preferred mode of treatment. It is aimed at resolving the underlying cause of the obstruction and alleviating the blockage. Treatment for biliary obstruction can be two common forms of treatment include a cholecystectomy and ERCP. The former involves the removal of the gall bladder and is suited to obstructions caused by gallstones. The latter is a procedure to remove small stones from the bile duct or place a stent inside the duct.
There are many ways bile duct obstruction can be prevented which first and foremost includes following a healthy lifestyle. If you are overweight, exercise for at least half an hour a day to regulate your weight and reach a healthy BMI. Decrease your intake of sugar and saturated fats as both these can cause gall stones. Also, increase the amount of fibre in your diet. All the above mentioned tips will certainly help you in preventing bile duct obstruction.
An emergency action plan has been devised for air pollution in Delhi. The Central Pollution Control Board has launched the Air Quality Prediction System that would forecast the air condition of the next 72 hours. This system would forecast for various areas and localities of Delhi and neighbouring regions like Ghaziabad, Gurgaon, Rohtak, etc.
This pollution forecast system is based on the real-time observation of air quality using satellites. Satellites measure details of Aerosols like SO2, NO2, Dust, and particulate matter (PM10 and PM 2.5).
People can access air quality early warnings through the media corner of the CPCB website. It includes large-scale alerts on air pollution that may occur in Delhi.
How Is 72-Hour Pollution Forecast System Beneficial?
This new 72-hour Pollution Forecast System not only helps the general population prepare for bad-air days but also help enforcement agencies to gear up to take defensive action and warnings. For example, enforcement agencies may decide in advance to implement the Odd-Even system for cars, or put a halt on construction activity, or other remedial measures.
Diseases Caused by Pollution
Most respiratory diseases are caused by air pollution, some of which are:
Asthma: Asthma is one of the most common diseases that is caused by external and internal air pollution. In this chronic disease, inflammation and blockage occur in the air passage of lungs. Asthma is caused by the Sulphur, Oxides, Nitrates, Particulate Matter, etc.
COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease): Another chronic disease which is caused by air pollution is COPD. In this disease, the Alveoli, Air Sacs, and Air Passage become inflamed. People who work in mines, docks, or quarries are most likely affected by this disease.
Lung Cancer: Presence of various carcinogens in the air may cause serious issues like pulmonary or lung cancer. In this disease, an uncontrolled growth of cells reduces the amount of oxygen in the lungs. It also affects the functionality of the Lungs.
Cardiovascular Diseases: Breathing polluted air for a long time may lead to heart problems. Pollutants such as Nitrogen oxide, Carbon Monoxide, and Ozone mixed with bloodstream may damage the functionality of Heart and lead to cardiovascular disease.
Threat to Pregnant Women and Newborns: Air pollution adversely affects the health of pregnant women. Breathing polluted air by pregnant women weakens the immune system of unborn child.
How Can We Work Individually Towards Reducing the Pollution
- Awareness about air pollution
- Plant as many trees as possible
- Use less electricity (conserve energy)
- Curb unbridled industrialization
- Reduce the use of personal vehicles
- Reduce polyethene bags
- Reduce indoor pollution
- Do not burn firecrackers.
- Use less machines for cleaning.
- Do not burn the garbage and throw garbage at its fixed place.
Delhi is one of the most polluted cities in the world and both short-term, as well as long-term measures, are required to improve the situation. 72-Hour Pollution Forecast System is the step in the right direction. It will help residents know in advance about upcoming pollution days and also increase general awareness of this issue.
PCOS, or polycystic ovarian syndrome, is a disorder that affects about 10 to 15% of women during their reproductive years. Though the exact reason or cause for the syndrome is not identified yet, it is believed to be genetic and runs in families. Obesity is believed to be another risk factor. There are multiple fluid-filled cysts in the ovaries, giving it the name.
PCOS is being identified as one of the main causes of infertility and therefore more women are becoming aware of this condition. There is a huge hormonal impact, and so there are physical as well as emotional symptoms which makes it difficult for both the woman and the people associated with her.
- Gynecological symptoms mainly include bleeding disorders ranging from excessive bleeding to scanty bleeding to no bleeding at all during menstruation. There could also be irregular bleeding with some women bleeding for weeks together during a period, to some having no period for a few months. There could be multiple abortions, and this could probably lead to the diagnosis of PCOS
- Physical symptoms include excessive hair on the body (known as hirsutism), excessive acne, hair thinning, skin tags, insulin resistance, increased cholesterol and high blood pressure, the onset of diabetes, and pelvic pain.
- Emotional symptoms include increased stress levels, anxiety and depression, severe mood swings, and reduced self-esteem.
While allopathy offers a regular dose of birth control pills as the mainstay treatment for PCOS, it does not help much. This is where homeopathy comes into the picture, as it offers safe products that address the root of the issue with no complications.
Of note, homeopathy medicines should not be taken without consultation with a doctor. Symptoms should be discussed in detail before the doctor prescribes a compound.
If you are in the process of considering a breast augmentation procedure, here is an insight into what you can expect. In general, or in the majority of the cases, the surgery encompasses three phases—consultation, operation, and then the most important part, recovery. In most cases, the breast augmentation is completed under general anesthesia where the patient remains asleep through the procedure.
How is the surgery performed?
The surgeon makes an incision in the crease under the breast or under an arm or around the nipple to separate the breast tissues from the connective tissues and the muscles of the chest. This enables the creation of a pocket-like structure behind or before the pectoral muscle. Then the implants are inserted in this pocket and centered behind the nipple.
What may happen after the breast augmentation procedure?
- Soreness and scars: After the surgery, some patients may suffer from soreness accompanied by swelling and bruising for around three weeks after the surgery. The scars tend to fade gradually with the passage of time even though a faint scar remains all through one’s life.
- Discomfort: Some may experience a slight or tolerable pain in the nipple after the surgery. In rare instances, patients undergo sharper, and burning pain with touch. A light massage can help ease the discomfort.
- Swelling: Some people report that their breasts feel firm after the surgery though this is a passing phenomenon. As the swelling subsides, the patients feel natural tenderness in the breasts within a short span of time.
- Things to take care during recovery: Sometimes, surgeons recommend wearing a compression bandage or sports bra for proffering extra support to the breasts and the implants. If there is a pain, then the patient is prescribed pain-relieving medications, as well. Though healing takes a long span of time, however, one can easily resume back to their daily activities within a week. It is advised not follow a strenuous job or continue with any strenuous workout for a few months or till complete recovery.
- Avoid strenuous activities: It is advised to sleep in a recliner for the first 2 days after the surgery, as this reduces the pain and swelling. Also, one should refrain or minimize the number of times one raises the hands above the head. It is advised to refrain from exercising or strenuous workouts for at least 3 to 4 weeks after the surgery.
The week following the surgery will be most difficult, and therefore, it is advised to complete all the important jobs before the surgery so that the body gets the required rest and recovers quickly.
As you can see, it is important to know and learn about the whole process before undergoing the surgery or deciding to undergo surgery so that you can make an informed decision and go about it systematically.
Gynecomastia is a condition characterized by enlargement of the breast tissue in men. It occurs when there is an imbalance of the testosterone (male sex hormone) and estrogen (female sex hormone) in the body. It may a cause of embarrassment in men.
The primary cause for this condition is increase in the level of estrogen in comparison with testosterone in the male body. Testosterone controls male characteristics such as body hair and muscle mass. Estrogen is responsible for controlling female characteristics such as breast enlargement.
Men usually produce small quantities of estrogen in their body to maintain certain sexual functions. Complications occur when estrogen levels in the male body increase too much in proportion to testosterone.
The condition can be classified as follows:
1. Gynecomastia in infants: Half of the infants are usually born with large breasts due to their mother's estrogen. The effect tends to wear of in a few weeks.
2. Gynecomastia during puberty: Gynecomastia occurs during puberty due to changes in hormones. The condition goes away without any treatment in six months to 1 year.
3. Gynecomastia in men: This condition may peak in men during the age of 50-80. Statistics show that at least 1 out of 4 men in this age group have this condition.
Some other causes for this condition in middle aged men are as follows:
1. Heart medications
2. Anti-anxiety drugs
5. Medications that are used to treat heartburn
6. Smoking marijuana and drinking alcohol
1. If the cause of the condition is medications, then discontinuing the medicines should stop the effects. It can also be treated by taking medicines to reduce estrogen levels in the body.
2. Surgery is another option where an incision is made in the chest area and the extra breast tissues are removed from the area. This also requires repositioning of the nipple in the chest.
3. Post-surgery, you should stick to a proper and healthy lifestyle to retain the new shape of the chest area. Weight gain or taking steroids can cause the symptoms of this condition to reappear.
There are many changes that take place in our face and body as we start ageing. While the face starts to show the signs of ageing earliest-in the form of wrinkles and fine lines as well as a sagging chin and neck, the effect of ageing on the body might be slightly late. The skin may sag or you may end up putting on weight in various parts of the body like upper arms, which may look unsightly and bring down your level of confidence as well. Signs of ageing can often make you shy away from living your life to the fullest.
For the sagging upper arms, one can always get a procedure called an Arm lift. This is also called a Brachioplasty. This is a cosmetic procedure that can be conducted to tighten the skin of the arms from the elbow upwards. Let’s see how this procedure works.
What does it do?
- Excess fat tends to accumulate in both arms togather with weight gain. Person face laxity in this area after massive weight loss or with body ageing.
- Arm Lift is a surgical procedure to tighten the skin in the arms through the removal of excess fat deposits as well as skin.
Who can opt for this surgery?
Any person who is medically fit having arm disfigurement can opt for this procedure. Patients who have signs of ageing or excessive weight gain are the best candidates for this kind of surgery. Also, it may be used by the patients who are suffering from sagging skin after losing a great deal of weight which may lead to an appearance of bat’s wings on the sides.
This surgical procedure is conducted by a Cosmetic Plastic Surgeon. It’s a day-care procedure. The doctor begins by marking the various areas of concern having excess fat and flabby skin. Thereafter, the doctor proceeds to remove the excess skin so that the arms are tightened getting more youthful look. This is done under anaesthesia to make patient pain-free. The skin that is removed is usually shaped like an ellipse. In many cases, there may be a need to conduct a liposuction if the patient has excess fat as well. Once the excess skin has been removed, skin edges are approximated with meticulous sutures with various Plastic Surgery techniques.
Recovery usually takes 5-7 days. Person can resume routine activities from very next day. Sometimes you might be advised a pressure garment for better outcome.
The nasal septum divides the nose into two nostrils or airways. When this septum is defective in structure or position, it can cause several physical difficulties like breathing problems, sleep apnea, bleeding, sinusitis, etc. The surgery to correct the nasal septum is known as septoplasty. The surgery is very common and has a high rate of success.
Reason: When the bone and cartilage separating the two chambers is crooked and deformed, it prevents the air from flowing properly through either one of the nostrils. People suffering from this condition often breathe through their mouth and this leads to respiratory tract infections. So, the septum is fixed with the help of septoplasty.
- First, your medical history is taken. A thorough physical examination is conducted and the nose is photographed from the inside and the outside. You may also be asked to avoid medication like ibuprofen, naproxen and aspirin for a few days since these can increase the bleeding after surgery.
- Septoplasty is performed under general or localized anesthesia and takes about 90 minutes. Incisions are made on the inside of the nose and the mucus membrane is lifted.
- Then, the pieces of cartilage that are affecting normal functioning are repositioned or removed.
- If the nasal bone is causing the septum to be wrongly aligned, then cuts are made on the bone and it is positioned correctly.
- Sometimes, cartilage grafts (called spreader grafts) are put in between the upper nose cartilage and the septum to widen the narrow nostril.
- After this, the mucus membrane is put back in place and stitched.
Post- surgical care: A nasal support is put inside the nose to help it heal and keep it straight. The support is removed after two days but there may be swelling and occasional nasal discharge for a few days. The tissues and cartilage become stable within 4 to 6 months. You are asked not to blow your nose or cough and sneeze too much as these might displace the nasal support. The head is to be kept at a higher level than the rest of the body while sleeping and physically demanding exercises are to be avoided in order to prevent nosebleeds.
Risks: Septoplasty is not performed if the patient had high level of blood sugar or high blood pressure. It is also delayed in case of any kind of infection in the nose, mouth or in the respiratory tract.