Doctors in Bombay Hospital & Medical Research Centre
Treatment of Abdominal Pain
Treatment of Swelling
Treatment of Hemorrhoids
Laser Hair Removal
Treatment of Colic
Knee Pain Treatment
Treatment Of Erectile Dysfunction
Treatment of Hypertension
Treatment Of Male Sexual Problems
Treatment of Black eye
Treatment of Heart Attack
Spinal Surgery Disorders
Treatment of Blood in Urine
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If you are in the process of considering a breast augmentation procedure, here is an insight into what you can expect. In general, or in the majority of the cases, the surgery encompasses three phases—consultation, operation, and then the most important part, recovery. In most cases, the breast augmentation is completed under general anesthesia where the patient remains asleep through the procedure.
How is the surgery performed?
The surgeon makes an incision in the crease under the breast or under an arm or around the nipple to separate the breast tissues from the connective tissues and the muscles of the chest. This enables the creation of a pocket-like structure behind or before the pectoral muscle. Then the implants are inserted in this pocket and centered behind the nipple.
What may happen after the breast augmentation procedure?
- Soreness and scars: After the surgery, some patients may suffer from soreness accompanied by swelling and bruising for around three weeks after the surgery. The scars tend to fade gradually with the passage of time even though a faint scar remains all through one’s life.
- Discomfort: Some may experience a slight or tolerable pain in the nipple after the surgery. In rare instances, patients undergo sharper, and burning pain with touch. A light massage can help ease the discomfort.
- Swelling: Some people report that their breasts feel firm after the surgery though this is a passing phenomenon. As the swelling subsides, the patients feel natural tenderness in the breasts within a short span of time.
- Things to take care during recovery: Sometimes, surgeons recommend wearing a compression bandage or sports bra for proffering extra support to the breasts and the implants. If there is a pain, then the patient is prescribed pain-relieving medications, as well. Though healing takes a long span of time, however, one can easily resume back to their daily activities within a week. It is advised not follow a strenuous job or continue with any strenuous workout for a few months or till complete recovery.
- Avoid strenuous activities: It is advised to sleep in a recliner for the first 2 days after the surgery, as this reduces the pain and swelling. Also, one should refrain or minimize the number of times one raises the hands above the head. It is advised to refrain from exercising or strenuous workouts for at least 3 to 4 weeks after the surgery.
The week following the surgery will be most difficult, and therefore, it is advised to complete all the important jobs before the surgery so that the body gets the required rest and recovers quickly.
As you can see, it is important to know and learn about the whole process before undergoing the surgery or deciding to undergo surgery so that you can make an informed decision and go about it systematically.
Gynecomastia is a condition characterized by enlargement of the breast tissue in men. It occurs when there is an imbalance of the testosterone (male sex hormone) and estrogen (female sex hormone) in the body. It may a cause of embarrassment in men.
The primary cause for this condition is increase in the level of estrogen in comparison with testosterone in the male body. Testosterone controls male characteristics such as body hair and muscle mass. Estrogen is responsible for controlling female characteristics such as breast enlargement.
Men usually produce small quantities of estrogen in their body to maintain certain sexual functions. Complications occur when estrogen levels in the male body increase too much in proportion to testosterone.
The condition can be classified as follows:
1. Gynecomastia in infants: Half of the infants are usually born with large breasts due to their mother's estrogen. The effect tends to wear of in a few weeks.
2. Gynecomastia during puberty: Gynecomastia occurs during puberty due to changes in hormones. The condition goes away without any treatment in six months to 1 year.
3. Gynecomastia in men: This condition may peak in men during the age of 50-80. Statistics show that at least 1 out of 4 men in this age group have this condition.
Some other causes for this condition in middle aged men are as follows:
1. Heart medications
2. Anti-anxiety drugs
5. Medications that are used to treat heartburn
6. Smoking marijuana and drinking alcohol
1. If the cause of the condition is medications, then discontinuing the medicines should stop the effects. It can also be treated by taking medicines to reduce estrogen levels in the body.
2. Surgery is another option where an incision is made in the chest area and the extra breast tissues are removed from the area. This also requires repositioning of the nipple in the chest.
3. Post-surgery, you should stick to a proper and healthy lifestyle to retain the new shape of the chest area. Weight gain or taking steroids can cause the symptoms of this condition to reappear.
There are many changes that take place in our face and body as we start ageing. While the face starts to show the signs of ageing earliest-in the form of wrinkles and fine lines as well as a sagging chin and neck, the effect of ageing on the body might be slightly late. The skin may sag or you may end up putting on weight in various parts of the body like upper arms, which may look unsightly and bring down your level of confidence as well. Signs of ageing can often make you shy away from living your life to the fullest.
For the sagging upper arms, one can always get a procedure called an Arm lift. This is also called a Brachioplasty. This is a cosmetic procedure that can be conducted to tighten the skin of the arms from the elbow upwards. Let’s see how this procedure works.
What does it do?
- Excess fat tends to accumulate in both arms togather with weight gain. Person face laxity in this area after massive weight loss or with body ageing.
- Arm Lift is a surgical procedure to tighten the skin in the arms through the removal of excess fat deposits as well as skin.
Who can opt for this surgery?
Any person who is medically fit having arm disfigurement can opt for this procedure. Patients who have signs of ageing or excessive weight gain are the best candidates for this kind of surgery. Also, it may be used by the patients who are suffering from sagging skin after losing a great deal of weight which may lead to an appearance of bat’s wings on the sides.
This surgical procedure is conducted by a Cosmetic Plastic Surgeon. It’s a day-care procedure. The doctor begins by marking the various areas of concern having excess fat and flabby skin. Thereafter, the doctor proceeds to remove the excess skin so that the arms are tightened getting more youthful look. This is done under anaesthesia to make patient pain-free. The skin that is removed is usually shaped like an ellipse. In many cases, there may be a need to conduct a liposuction if the patient has excess fat as well. Once the excess skin has been removed, skin edges are approximated with meticulous sutures with various Plastic Surgery techniques.
Recovery usually takes 5-7 days. Person can resume routine activities from very next day. Sometimes you might be advised a pressure garment for better outcome.
The nasal septum divides the nose into two nostrils or airways. When this septum is defective in structure or position, it can cause several physical difficulties like breathing problems, sleep apnea, bleeding, sinusitis, etc. The surgery to correct the nasal septum is known as septoplasty. The surgery is very common and has a high rate of success.
Reason: When the bone and cartilage separating the two chambers is crooked and deformed, it prevents the air from flowing properly through either one of the nostrils. People suffering from this condition often breathe through their mouth and this leads to respiratory tract infections. So, the septum is fixed with the help of septoplasty.
- First, your medical history is taken. A thorough physical examination is conducted and the nose is photographed from the inside and the outside. You may also be asked to avoid medication like ibuprofen, naproxen and aspirin for a few days since these can increase the bleeding after surgery.
- Septoplasty is performed under general or localized anesthesia and takes about 90 minutes. Incisions are made on the inside of the nose and the mucus membrane is lifted.
- Then, the pieces of cartilage that are affecting normal functioning are repositioned or removed.
- If the nasal bone is causing the septum to be wrongly aligned, then cuts are made on the bone and it is positioned correctly.
- Sometimes, cartilage grafts (called spreader grafts) are put in between the upper nose cartilage and the septum to widen the narrow nostril.
- After this, the mucus membrane is put back in place and stitched.
Post- surgical care: A nasal support is put inside the nose to help it heal and keep it straight. The support is removed after two days but there may be swelling and occasional nasal discharge for a few days. The tissues and cartilage become stable within 4 to 6 months. You are asked not to blow your nose or cough and sneeze too much as these might displace the nasal support. The head is to be kept at a higher level than the rest of the body while sleeping and physically demanding exercises are to be avoided in order to prevent nosebleeds.
Risks: Septoplasty is not performed if the patient had high level of blood sugar or high blood pressure. It is also delayed in case of any kind of infection in the nose, mouth or in the respiratory tract.
Laparoscopic surgery is also known as minimally invasive surgery. It leads to a lesser amount of pain after the surgery, and therefore requires less medication also. It reduces the possibility of hemorrhage, thereby, lowering the possibility of requiring blood transfusion. The smaller length and depth of the incision also means that the patient recovers from the surgery faster than usual. There is also a lesser chance of contracting infections because a larger number of organs remain unexposed and therefore uncontaminated. Laparoscopic surgeries also cause smaller, lighter scars once the surgery wound heals completely.
However, as with any surgery, complications may occur during the course of laparoscopic surgery.
- Wound infection: Even though laparoscopic surgery is minimally invasive and the possibility of contracting infections is considerably less, the wound is capable of getting infected. Hence, it is essential to maintain the cleanliness and hygiene recommendations provided by the concerned medical staff. It is also assumed that the surgeons would prevent this possibility by maintaining strict protocols regarding this issue on their part.
- Bruising: After surgery, depending on the type and duration of the procedure, the patient is always advised to follow certain restrictions regarding mobility and restriction of normal day to day functioning. These rules must be followed in order to prevent the possibility of bruising after a laparoscopic surgery.
- Hematoma formation: A hematoma is an accumulation of blood outside the blood vessel. This is not normal at all and requires urgent inspection and treatment. This is a relatively common complication that happens after a laparoscopic surgical procedure. Precautions are taken by surgeons to avoid this but it may still occur. It needs to be diagnosed early, and then the bleeding vessel needs to be emobilized selectively in order to reduce any further complication of this type.
- Anesthesia related complications: To prevent anesthesia related complications during laparoscopic surgery, it is essential that procedures related to the airways, ventilation, analgesia, antimetics are followed in the preoperative state.
- Injury: Any injury that may be inflicted on the blood vessels present in the walls of the abdomen or on the sidewall in the pelvic region, as well as injuries in the bowel area and the urinary tract. Proper protocol must be followed by the doctor to avoid such complications as much as possible.
Heel bone spur is a form of calcium deposit that causes a bony protrusion under the heel bone. An X-ray can reveal up to a half inch elongation under the hill. Without image report, this condition is commonly known as heel spur syndrome. Heel spurs are mostly painless but reports of pain in not uncommon. They are often related to plantar fasciitis. The latter is an inflammation of the connective tissue that stretches through the foot bottom connecting the heel bone and the football.
What causes heel spurs?
Heel spurs are a result of prolonged calcium deposit. This condition can result from the heavy strain on the muscle of the foot and ligament, stretching of fascia and wear and tear of the heel bone membrane. These injuries are frequently observed among athletes who are involved with activities such as jumping and running.
What are the risk factors?
1. Walking abnormalities that involve putting more than normal stress on the bone, nerve and ligament in and around the heel.
2. Running on surfaces that are hard in nature
3. Shoes lacking arch support
4. More than normal body weight
5. Spending too much time on the feet
6. Too flat or too high arches
7. A person suffering from diabetes
8. In case the protective pad of the heel is fading away due to old age or other bone disorder
Unlike common belief, only rest may not be the best way to treat heel bone spurs. On the contrary, a patient might feel sharp pain immediately after sleep. This happens when he tries to walk and the plantar fascia elongates all of a sudden. The pain decreases with more walking. Some treatment methods that work for 90 percent of the sufferers includes wearing the right shoe, stretching exercises, wearing orthotic devices inside the shoes and physical therapy. Over the counter medicine such as Aleve, Tylenol and Advil can be consumed to reduce the pain and for improving the overall condition. Corticosteroid injection also tends to give relief from the inflammation.
If heel spurs persist for more than 8-9 months, surgical options should be explored by the patient. There are two angles on which a doctor works, either removing the spur or release the plantar fascia. Pre-surgical exams are necessary to ensure that a person is eligible for surgery and all non-surgical avenues are explored. Post-surgical activities are equally important for the process of healing. Usage of bandages, crutches, splints and surgical shoes is a mandate to avoid complications such as infection, numbness, and scarring. Possible side effects should be discussed with the surgeon well before the surgery. The estimated healing time from this procedure is close to 8-12 weeks.
Complications in the heart valve occur when the functioning of the heart valve is impaired. Valves of the heart allow the blood to flow in one direction and prevent the blood from flowing back into the ventricles of the heart.
Heart valve diseases can be classified as follows:
- Valvular stenosis: This condition occurs when the valves of the heart does not open completely due to stiffness. As the opening is narrow, the heart has to work hard to pump blood. This condition may lead to heart failure.
- Valvular insufficiency: This is a condition where the valve does not close tightly. This causes some of the blood to flow back to the valve. As this condition deteriorates, the heart has to work harder to pump blood.
Types and Causes of valve diseases:
- Acquired valve disease: The structure of the valve changes due to various infections or rheumatic fever. Rheumatic fever is caused by bacterial infectionthat had not been treated. It tends to occur in children and cause inflammation of the valve.
- Congenital valve disease: This condition usually affects the pulmonary valve where the size of the valve is abnormal.
- Bicuspid aortic valve disease: It is a type of valve disease that impairs the aortic valve. Instead of the regular three cusps, the bicuspid valve only has two. This may cause the valve to be stiff or cause it to leak.
- Mitral valve prolapse: This condition causes the valve to flop back when the heart contracts. This condition also causes the leaflets of the valve to turn irregularly and cause it to stretch. This condition causes the valve to leak.
Symptoms: The symptoms of valve diseases are as follows:
- Weakness: This condition may cause weakness and cause severe discomfort while performing daily activities.
- Palpitations: Symptoms such as irregular heartbeats, skipped beats and rapid heart rhythm occurs in this condition.
- Inability to gain weight: Patients tend to lose weight and are always unable to put on some weight in mitral valve disease. Weight gain only happens late in disease process when their tricuspid valve is involved and they start accumulation of fluid ie water in their body.
- It may cause swelling in your ankles, abdomen and feet.
- This condition causes shortness of breath.
Knee joint surgery is a long and arduous procedure in most causes. However, outpatient procedures sometimes take less than an hour and require minimal recovery time. It is commonly conducted in cases of:
- Progressive arthritisa
- Injury, dislocation or fracture
- To fix deformities
If one is aware of these informative tips post-surgery, recovery can be a less painful and easier process :
- Clean linen sheets to prevent infection to the wound
- In case of pain, ice packs over the bandage can be used. However, one should be cautious as extended use of ice can result in cold burns
- Installation of preventive fall equipment is necessary to ensure that the patient does not sustain further injuries post-surgery.
- Knee surgery recovery can be very time consuming in which case, the patient may experience high levels of anxiety, and depression. A close friend should be available in times of emotional need to reduce negative feelings.
- Crutches and other supportive objects should perpetually be in close proximity to the patient as it can be very difficult for patients to reach their close destination without the help of these necessities when in need.
- In case of intensive pain attacks, the patient should be taught relaxation techniques such as breathing in and out or breathing intensively in settled intervals
- The patient should be put on a strict diet consisting of fruits, vegetables, carbohydrates and healthy fat to allow faster recovery
- The patient should also get 8-10 hours of sleep daily to allow the system to recover on its own
- The patient should not put pressure on their body during the recovery time, especially the injured area
It is a prerequisite for the families and loved ones of the patients to show emotional support as feelings of isolation can cause further pain to the patient. Along with that, the patient should keep a positive attitude during the course of their bed-rest time. If one keeps these tips noted, recovery can be a less arduous condition.
Urinary Incontinence is the sudden urine loss that occurs involuntarily in women. Some of the factors which cause urinary incontinence are pregnancy, menopause and childbirth. It should be noted that urinary incontinence by itself is not a disease, but is a symptom of other underlying disorders such as diabetes, infections and other conditions.
Causes of temporary cases of urinary incontinence include:
- Urinary tract infections
- Excess consumption of alcohol and caffeine
- Consuming carbonated drinks
- Use of artificial sweeteners
- High doses of vitamin B and vitamin C
- Being on sedatives, muscle relaxants, blood pressure and heart medications
- Eatables which are too spicy, acidic or sugary
However, persistence of incontinence might be due to a more serious condition. Some of the causes are stated below:
- Age: The bladder muscles tend to weaken with age. This affects the bladder’s urine holding capacity.
- Pregnancy: Hormonal changes and increase in weight during pregnancy can cause incontinence.
- Menopause: Oestrogen is responsible for the healthy maintenance of the lining of the urethra and bladder. The onset of menopause causes the oestrogen hormone levels to drop. The gradual damage of the bladder tissues causes incontinence.
- Childbirth: The bladder control muscles are weakened during normal vaginal delivery, thus leading to incontinence.
- Obstruction: Occurrence of tumours in the urinary tract can block the normal flow of urine which can cause incontinence.
- Hysterectomy: The same ligaments and muscles support both the bladder as well as the urethra. With removal of the uterus by hysterectomy, the pelvic floor muscles are deteriorated. This leads to urinary incontinence.
- Neurological disorders: Conditions such as multiple sclerosis (autoimmune disorder in which the immune system destroys the protective sheath of the nerves), Parkinson’s disease (disorder affecting motor functioning of the body), brain tumours, spinal injury or strokes are capable of causing incontinence.
Different forms of urinary incontinence are classified on the basis of their symptoms:
- Urge incontinence: Urge or urgency incontinence occurs when there is a leak before the person reaches the toilet.
- Stress incontinence: Small amounts of urine leak out during normal physical movements such as sneezing, coughing and exercising. This happens because of the minimum stress exerted on the body, and hence, the name.
- Functional incontinence: Sudden leakage of urine occurs due to external deterrents or physical disabilities such as not being able to find a toilet.
- Overactive Bladder: This is characterized by frequent and urgent urination.
- Overflow incontinence: A full bladder, at times, leads to unexpected leakage.
- Transient incontinence: If urine leakage occurs due to temporary situations such as infections, or new medications.
Mesotherapy is a hair growing technique that is non-invasive. Superficial micro-injections are made below the epidermis of the skin to specific tissues. The term meso has originated from mesoderm which is the second or middle layer of the skin. This treatment can successfully trigger the mesoderm thereby relieving an array of ailments and symptoms. The injected solution is a combination of co-enzymes, amino acids, minerals and vitamins. The solution is tailored to suit each patient’s condition and their treatment plan.
How is mesotherapy used for hair regrowth?
Mesotherapy is used around the world for successful hair regrowth. It is a painless procedure when performed by an expert. Local anesthesia and dressing are not required for this procedure. Some of the broad objectives that could be achieved via this procedure include the regrowth of hair follicle, neutralization of excess dihydrotestosterone and the stimulation of blood circulation around the skull area.
Highlights of the mesotherapy procedure:
This procedure involves the application of both chemical and physical stimulation. A small dose of a variety of medications is administered by a hair expert in certain areas of the skull. The dosage and the area of administration would be decided based on the condition of the person getting treated. The solution acts like a bullet and targets the specific areas of the skull.
- Mechanical: A needle is used to create a microspore into the skull. This helps to create elastin and collagen- the two most important ingredients for hair growth. This process doesn’t interfere with the hair already present but ensures the growth of new hair follicles.
- Chemical: A chemical solution is injected into the skull to stimulate hair growth. This solution helps in improving the blood circulation, reducing inflammation and increasing collagen and elastin. The composition of the solution is made based on the specific issues of each patient and therefore varies between patients.
Duration of the treatment:
Each session of mesotherapy lasts for around 10 to 30 minutes. The timing is purely based on the surface area of the skull that is being treated. On an average, it requires around 10-12 sittings or sessions with an expert to stimulate hair growth. To start with, an intensive treatment plan is required for the first couple of months to see visible results. Once the patient starts responding to the treatment, the frequency of treatment gradually decreases. To ensure that the hair grows naturally and there is no hair fall after the treatment is complete, a maintenance treatment might be necessary every quarter.
The price of the treatment is dependant on the number of sessions required to stimulate hair growth. Some experts also charge based on the extent of hair fall and the chances of hair revival. There are experts who charge on an hourly basis as well.