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Management of Surrogacy
Caesarean Section Procedure
Treatment of Gynae Problems
Gynecology Laparoscopy Procedures
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Treatment Of Menopause Related Issues
Treatment Of Menstrual Problems
Treatment of Mirena (Hormonal Iud)
Pap Smear Procedure
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Treatment
Treatment of Uterine Bleeding
Antenatal And Postnatal Exercise
Management of Postnatal Care
Adiana System Treatment
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With increasing globalization and lifestyle changes, even general practitioners are getting more and more young patients willing to adopt contraceptive measures. An optimum clinical choice of contraceptive can only be done through a mutual discussion between the physician and patient taking into consideration both clinical aspects and patient's choice. This article gives a brief general summary of the methods of contraception.
Contraception is the process of taking steps to ensure about not becoming pregnant after having sex. There are different types of contraceptive measures. They all have pros and cons. Different methods will be right for different couples, or right at different times in life.
Types of contraceptives:
* percentages mentioned within brackets are failure rates
It involves the use of estrogen and progesterone to prevent fertilization; associated with a 2-3% failure rate.
Oral contraceptive pills suppress the action of fsh/lh from the pituitary gland, they also suppress the lh surge, alter the cervical mucosa to inhibit penetration by spermatozoa, and they inhibit atrophic change in the endometrium.
Complications: venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, cva, mi, htn, amenorrhea, cholelithiasis, hepatocellular adenoma. Risks increase with smoking.
Contraindications: dvt, pe, cvd, cva, pregnancy, cancer, abnormal lfts
Monophasic (fixed combination: take estrogen and progesterone on days 1-21 and placebo on days 22-28. Increased estrogen increases the side effects of a headache, weight gain, nausea, and edema decreased estrogen and progesterone increase the risk of breakthrough bleeding and increases the failure rate.
Multiphasic: low-dose estrogen with varying doses of progesterone on days 1-21.
Progestin-only pills: not as effective and can cause breakthrough bleeding.
Levonorgestrel: lasts up to five years.
Medroxyprogesterone: lasts three months.
Decreases the risk of ovarian and endometrial cancer and decreased the risk of ectopic pregnancy.
It involves the insertion of a small device into the uterus with the hopes of inhibiting implantation, altering tubal motility, or inflaming the endometrium.
Intrauterine contraceptive devices are associated with a relatively low failure rate (2-4% pregnancy rate) but do suffer from a higher rate of complications (e. G, four times increased the risk of ectopic pregnancy).
Intrauterine device (iud) with progestogen: it releases progesterone and must be replaced annually.
Iud with copper-t: it contains copper and can last up to 4-6 years.
Increased blood loss and duration of menses, increased dysmenorrhea
Expulsion of iud, pregnancy, perforation of the uterine wall when inserted, increased risk of tubo-ovarian abscess (esp. Among younger nulliparous females with greater than ;1 sex partner). Pid is not as common with the newer iuds but still a significant risk factor.
Indicated for: multiparous women greater than 35 years who smoke.
Concerns about pelvic infections and subsequent fertility often limit the use of iucds to women who are at low risk for sexually transmitted disease and to those less likely to desire further children, i. E, monogamous multigravid patients.
It involves the use of an artificial device to inserted into the vagina or fitted to the penis with the intent to retain the products of intercourse.
Condoms: condoms have a 2% failure rate in consistent couples and a 10% failure rate in occasional users. They are best indicated for std prevention.
Vaginal diaphragms: they have a 15-20% failure rate, but when combined with a spermicidal jelly and left in for 6-8 hours post-coitus failure rate declines to 2%. Diaphragms are associated with side effects of bladder irritation and cystitis, also colonization with s. Aureus if left in too long.
Cervical caps: they must be properly fitted and can be left in for a longer time than the diaphragm.
It has a 15- 20% failure rate and involves the use of sponges and spermicides.
Spermicides contain surfactants to disrupt cervical membranes; placed in the vagina up to 30 minutes before intercourse.
It involves the avoidance of intercourse from an onset of menses to 2-days post ovulation.
This method involves manipulation of parts of male and female anatomy such that conception is prevented by failure and gametes to combine.
Vasectomy: lesser than 1% failure and can be successfully reversed in some cases.
Tubal ligation: lesser than 1% failure rate. Increase risk of ectopic.
Emergency contraception pills - emergency contraception can be used if one had sex without using contraception; or if someone had sex but there was a mistake with contraception.
Emergency contraception options are usually very effective if started within 3-5 days of unprotected sex. The earlier you take this pill, the more effective it is. It works either by preventing or postponing ovulation or by preventing the fertilized egg from settling in the womb (uterus).
A proper patient counseling informing the success rate and complication of contraception should be an integral part of the treatment regime.
The nutritional conflict between rice and roti is age-old, as primary staples of every Indian cuisine. White rice and wheat chapattis are both infused with considerable amounts of protein, calorie, fat as well as fibre. This overlap makes it tougher to choose just one as an accompaniment with your meals.
The health-conscious can take a sigh of relief with this list of effective benefits of the two. Let’s pit them against each other!
#1: If you opt for a lighter meal…Choose rice!
Boiled white rice is easier to chew and digest as it is low in fibres. For those with issues of diarrhoea, colitis, an upset stomach or morning sickness, rice is a favourable choice. If you are suffering from chronic gastrointestinal distress, rice is recommended for you.
Tip- You can consume a bowl of steamed rice with sautéed vegetables for a wholesome meal!
#2: If you are looking for muscle growth…Choose roti!
Rotis is the best food accompaniment for vegan and vegetarian bodybuilders. At home, you can mix variants of whole grains to harness the benefits of calcium and other minerals. Wheat chapattis made of whole grain consist of complex carbohydrates that boost your energy.
Tip- For reducing your portions, have two servings of roti (without ghee) with a large bowl of home-cooked yellow dal.
#3: If you have a heart condition… Choose rice!
For you to keep your heart healthy, the consumption of rice is vital. Brown as well as white rice is full of fibres and high in magnesium, niacin, phosphorus that can prevent heart problems. Rice helps you in lowering bad cholesterol levels.
Tip- Substitute your regular white rice in the khichdi or biryani recipe with brown rice. (Contains fibrous bran and germ layer)
#4: If you want to feel fuller… Choose roti!
For weight watchers, who want the feeling of satiety for longer period should include rotis in their meal. Wheat rotis take longer to digest which helps in maintaining blood sugar levels. This quality also makes it a good alternative for diabetic individuals. Wheat rotis are nutritious and contain vitamins B1, B2, B3, B6 and B9 that help in keeping you strong.
Tip- While kneading the wheat dough for the rotis, you can add soya powder to increase its protein content.
To escape the dilemma of choosing between these two healthy and tasty staple sides, try switching to whole-wheat rotis and brown rice. Savour both, guilt-free!
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My friend had unprotected sex 48 hrs before and take i-pill and she again had sex without protection 2 hours after taking ipill is ipill still work?
I am 26 years old women, mujhe period time to time pe ata hai six months ho gayi hai mujhe koi pregnancy nahi hui hai, mujhe doctor ne kafi sare test likhe hai, kya mai kabhi mother ban sakti hoon.
My periods last happened on 25 May and they usually happen after 20 days. Stomach also paining like its a shoot up pain. Kindly suggest something. I'm single and 23 years old. Had tried curd rice too. Periods Was supposed to happen on 15 June but it's overdue☹️
Hi I am 6+ months pregnant but not gaining weight though according my last usg my baby's weight s proper and I am feeling strong movements ths days .i hav put on altogether 8 kilos. Bt finding it hard to put on nw. I am 5'4" ,70 kg. Any advice?
A novel study from Karolinska Institutet and University of Michigan in the U.S. shows that gaining weight from one pregnancy to the next can increase the risk that women will face stillbirth or lose their second babies within the first year of life.
SWEDEN : A novel study from Karolinska Institutet and University of Michigan in the U.S. shows that gaining weight from one pregnancy to the next can increase the risk that women will face stillbirth or lose their second babies within the first year of life. The findings are being published in The Lancet and build on data from more than 450,000 women in Sweden.
"These tragic events are still very rare among infants of mothers with high weight gain. However, as many women gain weight between pregnancies, our results are very important from a public health perspective", says principal investigator Sven Cnattingius, professor of reproductive epidemiology at Karolinska Institutet.
In their study, researchers reviewed data from the first two pregnancies of nearly 457,000 women who gave birth in Sweden from 1992 to 2012. The women's information was recorded in the Swedish Medical Birth Register, which since 1973 has collected information on about 98 percent of all births in that country. Weight was assessed at the beginning of each pregnancy. The results show that stillbirth risk rose with larger gains in body mass index (BMI) from first to second pregnancy. Compared with women who kept their weight, women whose BMI increased more than four units had a 50 percent increased risk of stillbirth.
Among women of normal weight in first pregnancy, high weight gain also increased the risk of infant mortality: when their BMI increased by 4 units or more, risk of infant mortality increased by 60 percent. On the other hand, the results also point to the opposite situation. Women who were overweight by their first pregnancy, defined as a BMI of 25 or more (corresponding to at least 70 kg of women with average height), but who lost weight before the second pregnancy, reduced their risk of infant mortality.
Every fifth women in the study material gained so much weight that it influenced risks of stillbirth and infant mortality (i.e. at least 2 BMI units, corresponding to 5.5 kg). However, the researchers point out that stillbirth and infant mortality are very rare events in Sweden, and only 2.4 per 1000 births resulted in a stillbirth and 2.1/1000 in infant mortality. There are annually around 100,000 births in Sweden.
"Previously, we have published that risks of stillbirth, infant mortality and morbidity increase with maternal weight, and in this new study we find that find that weight gain influence mortality risks. Taken together, our results support the conclusion that mother's weight per see may influence infant chances of survival", says Dr Cnattingius. "Still, the explanation for the findings is still speculative. We cannot differentiate from the data whether it is the weight gain during the pregnancy or in between pregnancies that is of significance".
Financial support was provided by the Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, and a Karolinska Institutet Distinguished Professor Award to Sven Cnattingius.
I am 47 years old 2 years before my wife operated for carcinoma since than we are not having sex now can we have safer sex although she refuses to have sex it's advise able to have safer sex with her although every time she refuses pls advise what should I do.
Instead of the lift, take the stairs.
Take short breaks and step away from workstation.
Workouts at home, such as sit-ups, push-ups, crunches, lunges and squats, keep you in shape.