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Management of Abortion
Caesarean Section Procedure
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Termination Of Pregnancy Procedure
Treatment Of Pregnancy Problems
Well Woman Healthcheck
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Treatment Of Medical Diseases In Pregnancy
Treatment Of Menstrual Problems
Intra-Uterine Insemination (IUI) Treatment
Medical Termination Of Pregnancy (Mtp) Procedure
Gynecology Laparoscopy Procedures
Pap Smear Procedure
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I m having irregular periods for about 2 years now. I comes afer every one month gap. If its in jan then othr will cm in march. I have thyroid bt I got its treatment done n I am having thyronorm medicine fr it. Is tat a serious problem? Or will it be harmful for me in future?
Hi, Please suggest After intercourse what is the best time to check pregnancy test as early as possible can I check at 1 day after intercourse to know result fast.
Hi, I am 22 male, recently I have unprotected sex with my girlfriend after her 6th day from her periods. Is there any chance of getting pregnancy? If yes please suggest me any precautions.
I had spotting for 2 days then normal periods for 5 days can I be pregnant, test was negative though (hcg urine tes) t.
If the size of pregnancy is less by 4 to 5 days, what is the reason, what precautions should be taken?
Our kidneys act as filters which constantly flushes out toxins and excess minerals with water in form of urine. Urine contains lots of minerals which may precipitate and form stones. Urine has lots of pro-precipitating agents and anti-precipitating agents. When their balance disturbs due to some disease, stones start forming. These stones may often lead to abdominal pain which is referred to as renal colic.
What exactly is renal colic?
Renal or ureteric colic is the term used for typical pain in one side of abdomen in flank region starting from back and radiating forward towards lower abdomen up to scrotum. This is usually associated with nausea, vomiting and urinary discomfort. There may be blood in urine.
How kidney stones are related to renal colic?
Kidney stones usually form inside kidney and lies there without causing any pain. But whenever they are dislodged and stuck at mouth of kidney (pelvis) or anywhere in ureter, they block the passage of urine of that kidney. This causes swelling in kidney termed as hydronephrosis. This swelling in kidney causes renal / ureteric colic. This colic is protective phenomenon and tries to push out the stones. Small stones do come out in urine by this natural process. This spontaneous expulsion of small stones is common and many local practitioners used to get credit of it feigning benefit of their medicine. However large stones need some form of intervention to come out. Otherwise, they do harm to kidneys in long term.
Symptoms of kidney stones along with renal /ureteric colic -
- Most stones which are lying in calyces of kidney are asymptomatic
- Nausea & vomiting
- Frequent urinary tract infections
- Fever with chills
- Foul smelling urine
- Hesitency, frequency and burning in urination
- Blood in urine (urine with a reddish, pink or brownish hue)
- Passage of small stones in urine
Treatment of renal colic
Treatment of ureteric/renal stones involves control of symptoms and stone removal.
- Expectant Treatment or Medical Expulsion Therapy: Small stones of less than 4 mm size usually pass on its own and some medicines like alpha-blockers and steroid hasten up their expulsion. Medium size stone (4-6 mm), sometimes passes with aid of these medications. But stones larger than 6 mm usually require intervention.
- Lithotripsy: This method involves breaking of stones by shock waves into small dusty particles which pass through urine on its own. This is usually suitable for stones upto 1.5 cm and lying in kidneys. This is non-operative treatment which can be done on OPD or Daycare basis.
- Ureteroscopy (URS): This method involves entry of very thin semirigid scope through urethra into ureter. Stone is broken by LASER and removed. This involves single day admission and spinal anaesthesia.
- RIRS- Retrograde Intra Renal Surgery: In this method very thin flexible scope in maneuvered through urethra into the upper ureter and pelvi-calyceal system of kidney. Stones in kidney or upper ureter are broken by LASER and removed. This is also done under anaesthesia and requires a day admission.
- Mini- PCNL: This method is suitable for large renal stones. In this technique, a small hole is made into the kidney through back and tiny scope is entered into the kidney. Stones are broken by LASER and removed. This is done under anaesthesia and require two to three days admission. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Urologist.
An excess amount of fat present in the human body can lead to a chronic condition called obesity. If the amount of fat, which is used to perform multiple functions in the human body, is found in excess (more than 25% in males and 30% in females), it leads to obesity. Besides being a cosmetic concern, obesity is a chronic disease that can lead to other serious ailments such as diabetes, heart disease, high blood pressure, gallstones and other similar illnesses. It has a higher rate of relapse rate and is difficult to treat.
- Consumption of more calories than the person burns through various activities throughout the day is the primary cause. Overeating, especially in diets having a majority of fats, is a major cause of obesity.
- Obesity can be a result of certain medical conditions such as Cushing’s syndrome (a disorder that develops due to an increased exposure to immense amounts of “cortisol” over an extended period of time), Prader-Willi Syndrome (a birth disorder), hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid gland), polycystic ovary syndrome (enlarged ovaries characterized by tiny cysts on the outside) and other diseases.
- Hormonal disorders and genetics may also contribute to obesity. It is observed that the likelihood of being obese increases if the parents are obese. Hormones that facilitate fat regulation in the body are affected by genetics.
- Lifestyle choices such as inactive, sedentary lifestyle and consuming an excess amount of fast foods such as high calorie beverages.
- Psychological factors do have a role to play in people being obese. Many people overeat as a response to emotions such as stress, sadness, boredom or anger.
A person is generally considered to be obese if his/her BMI (Body Mass Index) is above 30.
1. A person whose BMI is in the range of 30 to 35 is classified under “Type I obese”.
2. A person in the BMI range of 35 to 39 falls under the category of “Type II obesity”.
3. If the BMI of a person is above 40, he/she is considered to be extremely obese.
BMI is usually a reliable method to find out if a person is obese, but in certain instances such as that of a professional bodybuilder, BMI could prove to be inaccurate. Without treatment, obesity can lead to serious health conditions such as:
3. Sleep Apnea
4. Heart Disease
6. Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome (characterized by the inability to breathe long or deep enough)