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Treatment of Pregnancy and related Disorder
Treatment of Irregular Periods
Treatment of No Periods
Management of Pregnancy
Treatment of Ovarian Cysts
Management of Pregnancy Query
Management of Abortion
Treatment of Painful Periods
Avoiding Pregnancy Procedures
Birth Control Treatment
Treatment of Painful Sexual Intercourse
Treatment of Pregnancy Symptoms
Treatment of Heavy Periods
Treatment of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome
Treatment of Breast Pain
Treatment of Vaginal Discharge
Treatment of Miscarriage
Treatment of Vaginal Itching
Treatment of Cervicitis
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Women have two ovaries — each about the size and shape of an almond — on each side of the uterus. Normally eggs (ova), which develop and mature in the ovaries, are released in monthly cycles during the childbearing years.
Ovarian cysts are fluid-filled sacs or pockets in an ovary or on its surface. Many women have ovarian cysts at some time. Most ovarian cysts present little or no discomfort and are harmless. The majority disappears without treatment within a few months.
Most cysts don't cause symptoms and go away on their own. However, a large ovarian cyst can cause:
- Pelvic pain — a dull or sharp ache in the lower abdomen on the side of the cyst
- Fullness or heaviness in your abdomen
- Seek immediate medical attention if you have:
1.Sudden, severe abdominal or pelvic pain
2.Pain with fever or vomiting
3. If you have these signs and symptoms or those of shock — cold, clammy skin; rapid breathing; and lightheadedness or weakness — it's a surgical emergency.
Most ovarian cysts develop as a result of your menstrual cycle (functional cysts). Other types of cysts are much less common
1. Functional cysts-
Your ovaries normally grow cyst-like structures called follicles each month. If a normal monthly follicle keeps growing, it's known as a functional cyst. There are two types of functional cysts: follicular cyst and corpus luteum cyst
Functional cysts are usually harmless, rarely cause pain, and often disappear on their own within two or three menstrual cycles.
2. Other cysts-
Types of cysts not related to the normal function of your menstrual cycle include:
- Dermoid cysts
- Endometrioma etc
Your risk of developing an ovarian cyst is heightened by:
- Hormonal problems
- A previous ovarian cyst
- Severe pelvic infection
- Ovarian torsion
- Cancer ovary
Most of the functional cyst subside spontaneously or with treatment provided they are simple cyst and smaller in size. If the size is more than 4-5 cm and is on an increasing trend or is symptomatic, it may require surgical excision either laparoscopically (preferred) or an open surgery. Another pathological cyst requires excision. For fertility issues, proper laparoscopic excision is to be done to avoid excessive damage to the ovary.
Although there's no way to prevent ovarian cysts, regular pelvic examinations help ensure that changes in your ovaries are diagnosed as early as possible.
I'm 22 years old and a female. I'm 5 weeks pregnant and decided to end the pregnancy. What should I do DOCTOR?
If you’re a woman trying to have a baby, you probably know that there are many parts of your body that have to work just right. Your ovaries need to produce an egg every month, called ovulation, your uterus has to be in good shape, and your fallopian tubes have to be open. If anyone of these important parts isn’t functioning correctly, you might have trouble getting pregnant.
If your fallopian tubes are blocked, sperm won’t be able to reach your egg or the fertilized egg won’t be able to get into your uterus. Blocked tubes can happen for several different reasons, but no matter the cause, your doctor will diagnose it with a test called a hysterosalpingogram.
Hysterosalpingogram (hsg) - A hysterosalpingogram or hsg is an x-ray procedure performed to determine whether the fallopian tubes are open and to see if the shape of the uterine cavity is normal. An hsg is an outpatient procedure that takes less than one half-hour to perform. It is usually done after menses have ended, but before ovulation, to prevent interference with an early pregnancy.
Hysterosalpingography can help diagnose the following causes of infertility.
- Structural abnormalities in the uterus, which may be congenital (genetic) or acquired
- Blockage of the fallopian tubes
- Scar tissue in the uterus
- Uterine fibroids
- Uterine tumors or polyps
How is a hysterosalpingogram done?
A patient is positioned under a fluoroscope (a real-time x-ray imager) on a table. The gynecologist or radiologist then examines her uterus and places a speculum in her vagina. Her cervix is cleaned, and a device (cannula) is placed into the opening of the cervix. The physician then gently fills the uterus with a liquid containing iodine (contrast) through the cannula. The contrast then enters the tubes, outlines the length of the tubes, and spills out their ends if they are open. Any abnormalities in the uterine cavity or fallopian tubes will be
Visible on a monitor. The hsg is not designed to evaluate the ovaries or diagnose endometriosis. Frequently, side views of the uterus and tubes are obtained by having the patient change her position on the table. After the hsg, a patient can immediately resume normal activities, although some physicians ask that the woman refrains from intercourse for a few days.
Risks and side effects-
- Mild pain during or after the procedure.
- Light bleeding for two to three days following the procedure.
- Feeling of light-headedness or faintness during or after the procedure.
- Exposure to a small amount of radiation
A radiologist will look at the x-ray images and send a report to your doctor. Your doctor will talk about the results with you and explain if more tests are needed. It may show a complete normal report suggesting bilateral tubal patency and a good uterine cavity. In case, if a pathology is suspected like blocked single tube/ both tubes, an irregular filling defect in the uterine cavity necessary management can be advised accordingly. It's relatively a safe and cheap alternative to laparoscopy surgery. However, a hystero-laparoscopy is the gold standard for evaluation of the entire female genital tract as it is not only diagnostic but also corrective in case if pathology is diagnosed in the same sitting.
If the report shows that your fallopian tubes are blocked, you might need a procedure called a laparoscopy. It lets your doctor look directly at the fallopian tubes. She may also recommend in vitro fertilization (IVF. Your doctor will talk to you about your options and help you make the decision that is best for you.
We are trying to conceive for last six months no result but this month I got periods twice in a month what the reason.
Polycystic ovary syndrome (pcos) is a hormonal disorder common among women of reproductive age. Women with pcos may have infrequent or prolonged menstrual periods or excess male hormone (androgen) levels.
Signs and symptoms of pcos vary. A diagnosis of pcos is made when you experience at least two of these signs:
Irregular periods. Infrequent, irregular or prolonged menstrual cycles are the most common sign of pcos. For example, you might have fewer than nine periods a year, more than 35 days between periods and abnormally heavy periods.
Excess androgen. Elevated levels of male hormone may result in physical signs, such as excess facial and body hair (hirsutism), and occasionally severe acne and male-pattern baldness.
Polycystic ovaries. Your ovaries might be enlarged and contain follicles that surround the eggs. As a result, the ovaries might fail to function regularly.
The exact cause of pcos isn't known. Factors that might play a role include:
Low-grade inflammation (role of reactive oxygen species)
3) gestational diabetes or pregnancy-induced high blood pressure
4) miscarriage or premature birth
5) nonalcoholic steatohepatitis
6) metabolic syndrome comprising of high blood pressure, high blood sugars and impaired cholesterol levels leading to increase risk of cardiovascular disease
7) pre diabetes/ type 2 diabetes
8) sleep apnoea
9) depression, anxiety, eating disorders
10) abnormal uterine bleeding
11) cancer uterus
There's no test to definitively diagnose pcos. Your doctor is likely to start with a discussion of your medical history, including your menstrual periods and weight changes. A physical exam will include checking for signs of excess hair growth, insulin resistance and acne. Other modalities include a pelvic examination, blood tests and an ultrasound
Pcos treatment focuses on managing your individual concerns, such as infertility, irregular periods, hirsutism, acne or obesity. Specific treatment might involve lifestyle changes (weight reduction/ limit carbohydrates/ active exercises) or medication (depending upon the focus of concern).
I would like to know if mirena IUD or provera injection is better for birth control. Any irritations or side effects one should be worried about w.r.t IUD? If going for injection what day of the period should one go for it?
Dysmenorrhea, also known as painful periods, or menstrual cramps, is pain during menstruation. Its usual onset occurs around the time that menstruation begins. Although it's normal for most women (20-90%) to have mild abdominal cramps on the first day or two of their period, about 10% of women experience severe pain.It is the most common menstrual disorder. Typically it starts within a year of the first menstrual period.
Types of dysmenorrhoea
1) primary dysmenorrhoea where there is no apparent pathological cause for it. Almost 50% woman suffer from this. Seen particularly in adolescents and young women and mostly resolves post pregnancy
2) secondary dysmenorrhoea is generally related to some kind of gynecologic disorder. Most of these disorders can be easily treated with medications or surgery.
Causes may be:
Fibroids – benign tumours that develop within the uterine wall or are attached to it
Adenomyosis – the tissue that lines the uterus (called the endometrium) begins to grow within its muscular walls
Sexually transmitted infection (sti)
Endometriosis – fragments of the endometrial lining that are found on other pelvic organs
Pelvic inflammatory disease (pid), which is primarily an infection of the fallopian tubes, but can also affect the ovaries, uterus, and cervix
An ovarian cyst or tumour
The use of an intrauterine device (iud), a birth control method
The main symptom of dysmenorrhea is pain. It occurs in your lower abdomen during menstruation and may also be felt in your hips, lower back, or thighs. Other symptoms may include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, lightheadedness, headache, or fatigue.
For most women, the pain usually starts shortly before or at the beginning of their menstrual period, peaks around 24 hours after the start of bleeding, and subsides after 2 to 3 days. Sometimes clots or pieces of bloody tissue from the lining of the uterus are expelled from the uterus, causing pain.
Making a diagnosis
If you experience painful periods, check with your doctor to see whether you might have an underlying disorder that is causing secondary dysmenorrhea. You may be given a pelvic examination, and your blood and urine may be tested.
A doctor may also wish to use ultrasound to get a picture of your internal organs or even use the technique of laparoscopy for a direct look into your uterus.
Primary dysmenorrhea is usually treated by medication such as an analgesic medication, ocp'sTreatment for secondary dysmenorrhea will vary with the underlying cause. Diagnostic laparoscopy, other hormonal treatments, or trial of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (tens) are potential next steps. Surgery can be done to remove fibroids or to widen the cervical canal if it is too narrow.
My wife is pregnant 11 weeks now and she consume misoprostol and mifepristone when she was 9 weeks but didn't bleed at all. So we are worried that her foods might have been damage and we want to go for abortion.
Uterine fibroids are noncancerous growths of the uterus that often appear during childbearing years. Also called leiomyoma/ myoma, fibroids aren't associated with an increased risk of uterine cancer and almost never develop into cancer.
Types of fibroids
Location wise: submucosal, intramural, serosal
Size wise: small to large
Pedicle wise: sessile or pedunculated
Most women with uterine fibroids have no symptoms and are found accidentally on an ultrasound. However, fibroids can cause a number of symptoms depending on their size, location within the uterus, and how close they are to adjacent pelvic organs. These are most commonly abnormal bleeding, pain and pressure.
- Heavy bleeding or painful periods (60-70%)
- Bleeding between periods (15-20%)
- Pressure, pain, or fullness in your lower stomach
- Enlarged abdomen
- Needing to pee often or trouble emptying your bladder
- Pain during sex
- Miscarriages or infertility
What causes them
-Hormones-Estrogen and progesterone are the hormones that make the lining of your uterus thicken every month during your period. They also seem to affect fibroid growth. When hormone production slows down during menopause, fibroids usually shrink.
-Genetics-Researchers have found genetic differences between fibroids and normal cells in the uterus.
Diagnosis and management
-Uterine fibroids are diagnosed by pelvic examination and by ultrasound
-Most of the fibroids do not require treatment as they are asymptomatic
If treatment for uterine fibroids is necessary, there are several options available that include
1) Conservative management includes treatment to reduce bleeding and pain during periods
2) Medical management such as mifepristone, danazol, gnrh analogs, low-dose oral contraceptives, lng- intra uterine device, etc depending upon the case
3) Surgery (hysterectomy, myomectomy)
4) Non surgical mri-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (mrgfus or hifu), and uterine artery embolization (uae)