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Management of Abortion
Caesarean Section Procedure
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Termination Of Pregnancy Procedure
Treatment Of Pregnancy Problems
Well Woman Healthcheck
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Treatment Of Medical Diseases In Pregnancy
Treatment Of Menstrual Problems
Intra-Uterine Insemination (IUI) Treatment
Medical Termination Of Pregnancy (Mtp) Procedure
Gynecology Laparoscopy Procedures
Pap Smear Procedure
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Which. Test I should do to check whether I have STD or not I gave oral sex to a girl and without condom as well m worried please advice test name I can do.
I have had 2 miscarriages in 2009 n 2011 in the past before that I had a daughter who is 11 now. Both the miscarriagestook placebetween thhe 13-17 weeks n the foetus had no heart best. What is the reason for this ? Should I try to conceive again ?
Dear sir. My age is 35 and I am trying to get pregnant but it is not happening. What kind of medicines I should start taking. 2 month back I have gone through an operation of gall bladder removal. I used to take nexpro 40 mg tablet when feel acidic. please advise.
Sir i had sex with ma gf.Nw we r scared abt pregnancy.To avoid pregnancy after sex what we can do.Please reply as soon as possible ?
Dear doctor I am 34 years old. Married. She is 23 years old. We like three some sex. We want to doing. Is this possible my wife age? After there some sex any health problems?
My girl have an pregnancy test nd its is negative but still his periods has not occur almost 7 days late so can uh help me.
Indigestion refers to the discomfort in your upper belly or abdomen after you have eaten your food. Indigestion in many cases has an underlying problem like gastro esophageal reflux disease, ulcers or disorders of your gall bladder. Indigestion is also known as dyspepsia in medical terms.
The causes of indigestion due to the presence of any diseases or underlying medical conditions consist of the following:
1. Problems like ulcers
2. In rare cases it could be initial symptoms of stomach cancer
3. Chronic pancreatitis
4. Thyroid disease
5. Infections in your stomach and irritable bowel syndrome
6. Pregnancy could also result in indigestion
Some of the lifestyle habits that can cause indigestion are mentioned below:
1. Excessive consumption of alcohol
2. Smoking cigarettes
3. Stress and fatigue in daily life
4. Consumption of foods with high fat content
5. Regular and excessive intake of fried and oily foods
Medications can also cause indigestion and some of those could be:
1. Steroid medications
2. Thyroid medicines
3. Certain of antibiotics in heavy doses
4. Oral contraceptives and estrogen replacement medications
5. Non steroidal anti inflammatory drugs like ibuprofen and naproxen
Sometimes indigestion may not be related to the factors mentioned above and yet persist within your body. This type of indigestion is known as functional or non ulcer dyspepsia. You should contact a medical professional immediately if the symptoms of indigestion include some of the following:
1. Back pain
2. Jaw pain
3. Heavy sweating and anxiety
4. Indigestion that lasts longer than one day
5. Severe and sudden pain in the abdomen
6. Problems when you try to swallow food
7. Vomiting or presence of blood in your stool
8. Sudden loss in your weight
9. Skin and eyes turning yellow in color which is a tell tale sign of jaundice
In case your indigestion persists for too long and doesn’t respond to conventional treatment, your doctor might prescribe some of the following tests.
1. Ultra sound tests of your abdomen
2. Blood tests
3. Upper endoscopy
4. Physical examination of your digestive tract and the stomach area
5. Questions by the doctor about what symptoms you may be facing and how they are manifesting within your body. Consult an Expert & get answers to your questions!
My wife has had irregular periods in the past, off lately we performed a test at home with the pregnancy kit, to be more sure we did it twice, the doc asked us to take a sonography and it showed the sack and the doctor she is confirmed pregnant, she is almost in the 8th week and doc has asked to repeat the sonography, as he is saying the pregnancy is delayed, and my wife does not remember the last date she got her periods, we dint really understand why is it so could u help.
I am 22 Years old female. What type of monthly contraceptive pills should I take to avoid pregnancy. Please tell me the name of the medicine and the dosage.
Upper pait mai baby thahar jata hai jab us baby ko niche lane k liye kya tarika or khana chahiye avi 9th months chal rhaa hai or baby dilivery time pe woman k sareer mai kitna blood hona chahiye avi 9.4 gm hai plz.
Due to high stress my periods were late. I took primult n and in an hour I got periods and lasted for an hour hardly. Did primult n stopped my already started period. If so when will be my next period. Will it come in normal cycle. It has been 7 days since I took tablet. I am not married yet so no risk of pregnancy also. Please confirm when will be next period approximately.
Hypertension or high blood pressure can be defined as a condition wherein the thrust of the blood against the walls of the arteries is excessively high, thereby, increasing chances of health hazards. The amount of blood that is pumped by the heart and the resistance put up by the arteries usually determine one’s blood pressure count. For instance, if the heart pumps excess amount of blood while the arteries shrink, the blood pressure can soar high. High blood pressure or hypertension may give rise to symptoms such as nosebleeds, short breaths or headaches.
There are two types of hypertension, one is primary and the other is secondary. For essential or primary hypertension, there is no significant reason and the condition slowly develops over years. The secondary one appears all of a sudden as a result of a repressed condition such as thyroid or kidney problems, defective blood vessels and certain medications such as pain-killers, cold relievers, pills for birth control and others.
Other factors responsible for hypertension are:
- As you age it increases
- Family history
- Being obese or overweight
- Being physically inactive
- Consuming too much of sodium or salt in your diet
- Little intake of potassium and Vitamin D in meals
- Being subject to high levels of stress
- Chronic medical disorders such as diabetes
- Excessive alcohol consumption or drug abuse
- Thiazide diuretics can be administered. These help to flush out excess water and sodium from the body in order to reduce excessive volume of blood thrusting against the arteries.
- Beta blockers ease the workload of the heart by opening up the blood vessels.
- Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors help inhibit the production of chemicals narrowing the blood vessels.
- Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) are used to obstruct and curb the action of the chemicals contracting the blood vessels.
- Calcium channel blockers help to loosen the blood vessel muscles
- Renin inhibitors can delay the production of an enzyme called ‘renin’ by the kidneys that increase one’s blood pressure
- One should follow a well-balanced diet that comprises of less salt.
- There is no substitute to regular exercises. Exercising regularly helps one maintain a balanced body weight that further reduces the chances of this condition.
- Abstaining from smoking and limiting alcohol intake helps provide that holistic cover to all the treatment modes mentioned above. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a General Physician.
My problem is irregular periods. I am in stress to this problem. Please help me to out of this problem.
The biological basis of mental illness
Mental illness is, in part, an illness of the brain. Learning about the brain can:
? give information from a biological and medical perspective (and some idea of its complexity)
? help you understand and support treatment
? assist you in dealing with the stigmas of mental illness
? support the realisation that no one is to blame for the onset of mental illness.
About brain research
A lot of what the community commonly thinks and knows about mental illness is based on previous experience and social stigma. It is often information that is out of date and leaves us with an impression of hopelessness. In fact:
? Over half of what we know about the brain in relation to mental illness we have learnt in the last 10 years. As a consequence, medications and treatments have improved significantly and people who are now being diagnosed with mental illness have a better prognosis than people diagnosed before that time.
? New imaging technology allows the brain to be examined while the person is experiencing mental illness, whereas before we relied on autopsy information.
? Research indicates that physical changes commonly occur within the brain in
? The brain pathways responsible for ?higher? mental functioning (feeling emotions, interpreting information) are affected.
? The linking of an illness to particular changes in the brain is extremely difficult. (Brain scanning techniques are used alongside assessment of behaviour and symptoms.)
? Brain research has already achieved much, and has further capacity to improve medications and other physical treatments.
What changes in the brain when mental illness is present?
Like other body parts, the brain is susceptible to injury and change.
Both the chemical messaging system and the physical structures of the brain can be
altered in mental illness.
The chemical, or neurotransmission system in the brain Neurons.The brain is made up of billions of cells called neurons. Each neuron is a link in a chain and can have thousands of connections to other neurons. These connections of neurons form chains through which messages are relayed in the brain.
The synapse is the meeting point of two neurons. A signal must be transmitted from one neuron across the synapse to the other neuron. These events occur within
? Neurotransmitters are the chemicals that conduct the messages across the
? When a signal arrives at the end of a neuron, the neurotransmitter spills into the gap and crosses the gap.
? Scientists have identified over 50 neurotransmitters that are messengers communicating information from one part of the brain to another, and to all
parts of the body.
? From this simple system, complicated brains are built. And this system seems
affected in many mental illnesses.
Neurotransmitter malfunctions can occur because there is:
? not enough neurotransmitter
? too much neurotransmitter
? malabsorption of the neurotransmitter.
Some important neurotransmitters and their roles are:
? dopamine: activation level, mood, movement Understanding the Brain and
Mental Illness continued.
? norepinephrine: mood, activation level
? serotonin: mood, sleep, appetite, aggression
? acetylcholine: mood, autonomic nervous system.
Malfunction in these neurotransmitters is found in many forms of mental illness. It is possible that, in biologically vulnerable individuals, high stress levels ?trigger? malfunctioning in neurotransmitters (e.G. Production of neurotransmitters cannot
keep up with the body?s demands or the neurotransmitters are
not effectively removed from the system).
There is evidence to strongly suggest that some brain structures are altered or damaged in mental illness. It is clear, however, that many parts of the brain are affected by mental illness, including the following:
The main purpose of the frontal lobe is control of movement
It is also thought to be responsible for behaviour, character, emotional state, short-term memory and planning.
Think of the behaviours that are often displayed when someone is psychotic. They often have poor concentration, they can be emotional or lack emotion and display odd behaviours.
Movement can also be random and disjointed.
The parietal lobe is involved in:
? long-term memory
? obtaining and retaining accurate knowledge of objects
? sensory speech (responsible for perceiving the spoken word).
When a person develops certain mental illnesses, these pathways/speech may be affected. Hence someone with schizophrenia, when psychotic, may develop a language of their own or words of their own, called neologisms. Often people?s
ability to retain information is limited.
Roles of the temporal lobe include:
? auditory (hearing), the area that receives and interprets
impulses from the inner ear
? olfactory (smell), the area that receives and interprets
impulses from the nose
? taste, the area that interprets nerve impulses from the tongue.
The cells in this area receive and interpret impulses from the various parts of the body, i.E. Nose, taste buds and ear. When someone is psychotic they may be hearing voices, but the parts of the ear usually involved in hearing (the anvil hammer, etc.)
are not physically moving from sound waves. However, the impulses in the brain are working and sending messages, as if the person is hearing. This also occurs in relation to smell and taste ? people may think the food is being poisoned because it
Message Occipital lobe
The occipital lobe receives impulses from the eye and interprets them as visual impressions. The eyes do not actually do the seeing ? it is the brain that receives the impulses from the eyes and interprets them. When someone experiences visual
hallucinations, the occipital lobe is seen to be very active ? impulses are interpreted and processed ? thus the person sees objects that may not be present.
Thought to influence muscle tone ? if control is inadequate, movements are uncoordinated.
Receives impulses from the body?s sensory nerves associated with pain, temperature, pressure and touch. Here crude, uncritical sensations reach consciousness (e.G. Awareness of pain but not the ability to identify the body part involved). People with schizophrenia may wear lots of clothes on hot days because
this part of their brain is affected by the illness.
Involved in the pituitary gland?s orchestration of hormone release and in the autonomic nervous system (hunger, thirst, body temperature, heart and blood vessels, and defensive reactions such as fear and rage).
? Controls and co-ordinates the movements of various muscle groups to ensure smooth, even and precise actions.
? Maintains balance and equilibrium of the body.
? Jerky, unco-ordinated movements indicate the involvement of the cerebellum in mental illness.
The limbic system
? Is more a functional than an anatomical entity.
? Involves parts of the brain essential for organising emotional responses and processing information.
? Is involved in schizophrenia, which affects the emotions of the person and their ability to process information.
Applying the knowledge ? theories about what happens in the brain relating to
schizophrenia, depression and obsessive compulsive disorder
Current research indicates the following theories about what is happening in the brain in relation to schizophrenia:
There is an excess of the neurotransmitter dopamine. Dopamine is involved in regulating thoughts and feelings, both of which are disturbed in schizophrenia. It is also thought that high dopamine levels make someone more sensitive to stress.
Research indicates that some people with schizophrenia appear to have larger ventricles. Research also indicates that some people experiencing schizophrenia seem to have a loss of tissue in the anterior hippocampus, which may account for memory problems and irrationality. Recent research carried out in Melbourne seems
to indicate some people have this tissue reduction before the onset of psychosis, which leads to the hope that results of
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) can be used as a predictor
In depression, not enough neurotransmitter appears to be released into the gap between neurons, or too much of it is removed before it has completed its function.
When antidepressants are used, there is more neurotransmitter is available in the gap between neurons, which eases a depressed mood.
Obsessive compulsive disorder
Researchers think obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) may be linked to parts of the basal ganglia involved in fixed patterns of behaviour resulting in an imbalance among a variety of neurotransmitters.
One hypothesis is that the brain signals for a contaminant (like dirty hands) cause the cortex to send signals to preprogrammed cells in an area of the basal ganglia that produce the neurotransmitter serotonin, with other neurotransmitters also involved.
In short, we provide this basic information about the brain and mental illness for the following reasons:
To increase your familiarity with the terms so that when they are described by people in the treating profession, you might recognise them and be able to engage in a discussion that is fruitful for you.
For you to understand more about some of the behaviours associated with mental illness and their origins.
Because our experience is that many families when they first come into contact with mental illness believe that it is due solely to a negative psychological experience early in life (that the family may have caused). More information about the biological origins of mental illness gives you an opportunity to revisit these ideas. Mental Illness Fellowship Victoria - for people with mental illness, their families and friends