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Treatment of Kidney Stones
Treatment of Blood in Urine
Treatment of Kidney Disease
Treatment of Frequent Urination Problems
Kidney Dialysis Treatment
Treatment of Fluid Retention
Kidney Stones Treatment
Treatment of Kidney Transplant
Treatment of Kidney Failure
Treatment of Kidney Diseases
Treatment of Nephrotic Syndrome
Kidney Transplant Treatment
Treatment of TB in Kidney
Treatment of Nephropathy
Treatment of Nephrolithiasis
Treatment of Nephronophthisis
Treatment of Bartter Syndrome
Treatment of Renal Agenesis
Treatment of Alport Syndrome
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Patient Review Highlights
Nephrotic Syndrome is a condition which is characterised by the loss of protein into the urine (called proteinuria) as a result of increased glomerular permeability and oedema. This results in low protein level in the blood. The low levels of protein in blood result in the drawing of fluids into soft tissues. A severe form ‘hypoalbuminemia’ can cause scores of secondary diseases such as ascites (retention of fluid in the abdominal cavity), pleural effusion (build-up of fluids between the lungs and the chest), or high cholesterol. It can also result in retention of fluid in other parts of the body such as eyelids, lower extremities etc.
What can cause this?
Nephrotic syndrome is mainly caused by damage to the kidneys. This leads to an increase in the concentration of protein in the urine. In adults, it can be caused due to glomerulonephritis or damage to the glomerulus of the kidneys while in children it is likely caused by minimal change disease (kidney disease marked by the abnormal loss of protein through the urine).
The other common causes of nephritic syndromes are:
- Genetic disorder
- Immune disorder
- Use of specific drugs
- Certain diseases such as diabetes mellitus, lupus
- The incidence of this disease is seen more often in males than in females.
Diet that is recommended in Nephrotic Syndrome:
In patients diagnosed with Nephrotic syndrome, the intake of salt, fat and protein must be checked. There should be emphasis on the consumption of dietary fibres that are present in vegetables and fruits.
The intake of protein and fluid should also be monitored, but this solely depends on personal factors such as age, weight and condition of the patient. It is recommended to consult a renal dietician who can guide you appropriately.
- Sodium/salt intake: The sodium or salt intake must be restricted as it leads to high blood pressure and results in fluid retention in the body, thus causing oedema (build-up of fluids within the body cavities and tissues) in the body. Avoid processed food as it contains a lot of salt.
- Protein intake: Protein is an essential part of the diet as it helps in the general makeup of the body and development of muscles. The consumption of protein must be kept under check and it is the best to consult your dietician for this. Loss of protein in urine needs to be replaced by class 1 high quality proteins in nephrotic syndrome.
- Limit fat and cholesterol intake: It is always good to curb on bad cholesterol as it is the reason behind several heart diseases. But, with patients diagnosed with Nephrotic Syndrome, it is highly recommended to avoid food rich in fats. This means staying away from unhealthy fatty meat or junk food.
- Fluid intake: Fluid intake does not have to be necessarily reduced, but it is always good to consult your doctor for the same.
“You are what you eat”. Nephrotic syndrome can slowly progress to chronic kidney disease if the necessary steps are not taken to curb it in an early stage, and diet control is a major way to do so.
You're said to suffer from the problem of acute kidney failure if your kidneys suddenly stop working and lose their ability to eliminate waste materials including excess fluids and salts from the blood. The condition usually develops quickly over a few days or even a few hours. When this happens, waste materials accumulate in your blood, disrupting the chemical balance of your bloodstream.
So, what causes this problem?
Acute kidney failure can occur because of any one of these reasons:
1. A drop or slowdown of blood flow to the kidneys - Adequate blood circulation to the kidneys is of great importance as without it the kidneys may end malfunctioning. If blood flow to the kidney is hampered, a part of or the entire kidney may die. You may suffer from acute kidney failure if blood flow to the kidneys gets impaired due to conditions like
- Heavy blood loss
- Sepsis (body's inflammatory reaction to an infection, which can bring about organ failure, tissue damage, and death)
- Use of certain drugs
- Heart disease
2. Urinary obstructions - A sudden blockage that hampers your kidney's ability to eliminate urine can also bring about acute kidney failure. When this happens, it leads to a build up of toxins in the body, causing an overload of the kidneys. Conditions that bring about this urinary obstruction include:
3. Disease within the kidneys - Even instances of clotting within the blood vessels of the kidneys can lead to acute kidney failure. This is because if the movement of blood cells within the blood vessels gets hampered, kidneys are not able to filter out toxins from the body. The conditions and diseases that may cause clotting, and subsequently damage to the kidneys include:
- Scleroderma (an autoimmune disease that affects connective tissues and skin)
- Build-up of cholesterol deposits
- Glomerulonephritis (an inflammatory condition of the kidney's ball-shaped structures called glomeruli)
- Hemolytic uremic syndrome (a condition that occurs due to untimely death of red blood cells)
- Lupus (a disorder of the body's immune system that brings about damage to the body's own organs and tissues)
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Glomerulonephritis is a disease that is caused due to inflammation of the small filters that are present within the kidneys or glomeruli. Glomeruli eliminate the excess waste, electrolytes and fluids from the blood, discharged through urine. A glomerular disease can be either acute or chronic. If the condition arises without a combination of any other disease, it is termed as primary glomerulonephritis. Secondary glomerulonephritis is characterized by diabetes or lupus (an auto-immune disorder) being at the root of the disease. Prolonged or severe inflammation can take a toll on the kidneys.
Nephrotic syndrome can be primary, being a disease specific to the kidneys, or it can be secondary, being a renal manifestation of a systemic general illness. In all cases, injury to glomeruli is an essential feature. Kidney diseases that affect tubules and interstitium, such as interstitial nephritis, will not cause nephrotic syndrome.
Primary causes of nephrotic syndrome include the following, in approximate order of frequency:
- Minimal-change nephropathy
- Focal glomerulosclerosis
- Membranous nephropathy
- Hereditary nephropathies
Secondary causes include the following, again in order of approximate frequency:
- Diabetes mellitus
- Lupus erythematosus
- Viral infections (e.g., hepatitis B, hepatitis C, human immunodeficiency virus [HIV] )
- Amyloidosis and paraproteinemias
- Allo-antibodies from enzyme replacement therapy
Nephrotic-range proteinuria may occur in other kidney diseases, such as IgA nephropathy. In that common glomerular disease, one-third of patients may have nephrotic-range proteinuria.
Nephrotic syndrome may occur in persons with sickle cell disease and evolve to renal failure. From a therapeutic perspective, nephrotic syndrome may be classified as steroid sensitive, steroid resistant, steroid dependent, or frequently relapsing.
Whether one is suffering from acute or chronic nephrotic glomerular , with symptoms moderate or severe, the treatment lies in treating high blood pressure and other underlying conditions of the disease.
Water pills help control sweating, thus increasing the fluid flushed from the kidneys.
Statins reduce cholesterol level.
Blood thinners such as anticoagulants lower the risk of blood clots.
Corticosteroids regulate the immune system and ease the inflammation that results from kidney disorders.
Incorporating certain lifestyle changes such as opting for lean proteins, cutting on the intake of fat in the diet and consuming lesser amounts of salt can treat inflammation and swelling.
For kidney failure, dialysis can come to the aid in eliminating excess fluids and regulating hypertension.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
What is diabetic nephropathy?
- Nephropathy is the leading cause of kidney failure in the united states.
- Kidney damage can occur years before symptoms first appear.
- Nephropathy affects many people with diabetes.
- Nephropathy, or kidney disease, is among the most serious complications for many people with diabetes. It’s the leading cause of kidney failure in the united states. According to the national kidney foundation, 465, 000 americans have end-stage kidney disease and are living by means of dialysis. Nephropathy has few early symptoms or warning signs, similar to other diseases associated with type 2 diabetes. Damage to the kidneys from nephropathy can occur for as long as a decade before the first symptoms appear.
- “a person can have type 2 diabetes for 9 to 12 years before it’s discovered. During those years, harmful changes are already occurring, causing 5 to 10 percent to [already] have kidney disease at the time of diagnosis.”
Symptoms of nephropathy
Often, no symptoms of kidney disease appear until the kidneys are no longer functioning properly. Symptoms that indicate your kidneys could be at risk include:
- Fluid retention
- Swelling of the feet, ankles, and legs
- A poor appetite
- Feeling exhausted and weak most of the time
- Frequent headaches
- Upset stomach
- Difficulty concentrating
Risk factors for diabetic nephropathy
Early diagnosis of kidney disease is essential for preserving good health. If you have prediabetes, type 2 diabetes, or other known diabetes risk factors, your kidneys are already overworked and their function should be tested annually.
- Besides diabetes, other risk factors for kidney disease are:
- Uncontrolled high blood pressure
- Uncontrolled high blood glucose
- High cholesterol
- A family history of kidney disease
- A family history of heart disease
- Cigarette smoking
- Advanced age
- A higher prevalence of kidney disease exists among:
- American indians
- Hispanic americans
Causes of diabetic nephropathy
- Kidney disease doesn’t have just one specific cause. Experts believe its development is likely associated with years of uncontrolled blood glucose. Other factors likely play important roles as well, such as genetic predisposition.
- The kidneys are the body’s blood filtration system. Each is made up of hundreds of thousands of nephrons that clean the blood of waste. Over time, especially when a person has type 2 diabetes, the kidneys become overworked because they’re constantly removing excess glucose from the blood. The nephrons become inflamed and scarred, and they no longer work as well.
- Soon, the nephrons can no longer fully filter the body’s blood supply. Material that would typically be removed from the blood, such as protein, passes into the urine. Much of that unwanted material is a protein called albumin. Your body’s levels of albumin can be tested in a urine sample to help determine how your kidneys are functioning.
- A small amount of albumin in the urine is referred to as microalbuminuria. When larger amounts of albumin are found in the urine, the condition is called macroalbuminuria. The dangers of kidney failure are much greater with macroalbuminuria, and end-stage renal disease (esrd) is a risk. Treatment for ersd is dialysis, or having your blood filtered by a machine and pumped back into your body.
Preventing diabetic nephropathy
The main ways to prevent diabetic nephropathy include the following:
The best way to preserve kidney health is to watch your diet carefully. People with diabetes who have partial kidney function need to be even more vigilant about maintaining:
2. Healthy blood glucose
3. Blood cholesterol
4. Lipid levels
Maintaining a blood pressure of less than 130/80 is also essential. Even if you have mild kidney disease, it may be made much worse by hypertension. Follow these tips to help lower your blood pressure:
5. Eat foods low in salt.
6. Don’t add salt to meals.
7. Lose weight if you’re overweight.
8. Avoid alcohol.
Your doctor may recommend that you follow a low-fat, low-protein diet.
Based on your doctor’s recommendations, daily exercise is also a must.
Most people with type 2 diabetes who have high blood pressure take angiotensin converting enzyme (ace) inhibitors for heart disease treatment, such as captopril and enalapril. These drugs also have the potential to slow the progression of kidney disease. Doctors also commonly prescribe angiotensin receptor blockers.
11. Stopping smoking
If you smoke cigarettes, you should stop immediately.
The kidneys are responsible for the elimination of waste from the body. The blood is filtered in the kidneys and all toxic wastes are filtered out and excreted through urine. When this filtration does not happen effectively, a lot of waste can be found in the blood, which affects normal body function.
Kidneys may lose their functioning either due to age, injury, or disease conditions. Whatever the reason, when kidney function is hampered, the body suffers. If there was an injury or congenital problem, it could be unilateral and the non-affected kidney could still do the function. However, if it is infection or old age, normally both kidneys are affected and then replacement should be looked for externally. This is where a kidney transplant comes into the picture.
What is it?
It is a surgery where a healthy, functioning kidney is placed into the body. The donor could be
- Living: These donors have to be related or unrelated. Related is often termed someone, who is a family member and is willing to donate one kidney (one kidney is sufficient for normal, healthy individuals) to the diseased person.
- Cadaver: If a person is willing to donate kidneys post death, these are used for transplant, within a specified time.
Identifying the right donor and recipient:
- Blood type and tissue type should be matched; a good tissue type match improves the chances of success
- Overall health of the donor to ensure there is no heart disease, lung disease, or diabetes
- The recipient also should be healthy
What to expect during surgery?
- Once a donor is identified, in living donors, the surgery to remove the kidney and to transplant it are done simultaneously
- The surgery usually takes about 3 to 4 hours
- Antibiotics are given prior to the surgery to prevent infection
- The blood vessels and ureter are connected back to the kidney after the transplant
- Hospital stay can range from 5 days to 2 weeks, depending on the overall health of the patient and the anticipated risk of rejection.
- Most transplanted kidneys work effectively almost immediately. A kidney stored from a cadaver may take a little longer compared to a fresh kidney from a living donor
- People who have had transplants are put on immunosuppressants on a chronic basis to reduce chances of rejection. The new kidney will always be recognised by the body as a foreign body, and so this is essential.
Kidney transplant success rates are quite high, and more and more people are opting for transplants as opposed to dialysis.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
At a point when our bodies process the protein we eat, the procedure creates waste products. In kidneys, millions of tiny blood vessels act as filters since they have even tinier holes in them. As blood flows through these vessels, little molecules such as waste items may press through the gaps. These waste items turn out to be a part of the urine. Helpful substances, such as protein and red blood cells are too enormous to go through the gaps in the filter and stay in the blood.
Diabetes and kidneys: Diabetes can harm the kidneys. Abnormal amounts of glucose make the kidneys filter a lot of blood. After a couple of years, they begin to spill and helpful protein is thereby, lost in urine. Having low protein levels in the urine is called micro albuminuria.
Medication: When kidney disease is analyzed on time, during micro albuminuria, a few medications may keep kidney disease from getting worse. Having elevated levels of protein in the urine is called macro albuminuria. When kidney disease is looked up some other time during macro albuminuria, end-stage renal disease (ESRD) usually follows.
Causes: Strain on the organs may cause the kidneys to lose their filtering capacity. Waste items then begin to develop in the blood. Finally, the kidneys start to fail. This failure, ESRD, is intense. A patient with ESRD needs a kidney transplant or a blood filtration by a machine (dialysis).
Other complications: Individuals with diabetes will probably have other kidney-related issues such as bladder infections and nerve damages in the bladder.
Preventing complications: Not everybody with diabetes goes through a kidney disease. Elements that can impact kidney disease improvement include genetics, blood-sugar control and blood pressure. The more a person keeps diabetes and blood pressure under control, the lower the chances of getting a kidney disease.
Keeping your glucose level high can counteract diabetic kidney problems. Research has demonstrated that blood glucose control diminishes the danger of micro albuminuria by 33%. For individuals who suffer from micro albuminuria have now a reduced danger of advancing to macro albuminuria. Different studies have recommended that blood glucose control can reverse micro albuminuria.
Treatment: Essential treatments for kidney infection include control of blood glucose and blood pressure. Blood pressure dramatically affects the rate at which the condition progresses. Indeed, even a gentle increase in blood pressure can rapidly aggravate a kidney infection. Four approaches to bring down your blood pressure are:
- Shedding pounds
- Eating less salt
- Maintaining a strategic distance from liquor and tobacco
- Exercising regularly
List of foods to eat with kidney failure
Kidney failure creates different needs in the body for someone with healthy kidneys, and it therefore requires a special diet. Although following a diet can feel restrictive, by focusing on consuming foods recommended for people with kidney failure, you can enjoy a broad range of healthy, delicious foods. People with kidney failure should consult with their doctor and dietitian to get individualized direction on their diet. Many cookbooks and websites offer recipes
1- Dietary recommendations for kidney failure focus on limiting these five nutrients: sodium, potassium, phosphorus, protein and fluid. Food labels can help identify some appropriate foods. For sodium, look for foods that have a daily value of less than 20 percent per serving eaten. Potassium and phosphorus are not usually listed, but if they are, look for less than 20 percent of the daily value per serving eaten. For protein and fluid, there is no percent you should look for. A doctor or dietitian may make specific recommendations for protein and fluid intake.
Fruits and vegetables
Appropriate foods for kidney failure include low potassium fruits and vegetables. Low-potassium fruits include apples, pears, peaches, pineapple, strawberries, grapes, blueberries, blackberries, raspberries, apricots, mandarin oranges, plums, lemons, limes and cranberries. Low-potassium vegetables include green beans, raw cabbage, cooked cauliflower, celery, corn, lettuce such as iceberg and romaine, raw spinach, cooked sweet peppers, raw broccoli, cooked summer squash and onions.
Grains and starches contain some sodium, potassium and phosphorus. When choosing grains and starches, choose low sodium, potassium and phosphorus grains such as bagels, white or whole-wheat bread, oatmeal, popcorn, pasta, white or brown rice, english muffins, and rice or corn-based, ready-to-eat cereals. Other grains and starches that are higher in sodium, potassium, and phosphorus may be eaten in smaller portions. Asking a doctor or dietitian can also help clarify which foods are appropriate.
Diary and nuts
Many dairy products, beans and nuts contain significant amounts of potassium and phosphorus. Sodium may also added to these foods as part of processing or seasoning. However, smaller portion sizes and eating these foods less often is appropriate for people with kidney failure. Some dairy substitutes, dairy foods that fit in a kidney diet are mozzarella and parmesan cheese, rice or almond milk, some brands of greek and regular yogurt and cottage cheese. Beans and nuts that are lower in potassium and phosphorus in small amounts and include macadamia nuts, sunflower seed butter, almonds, pecans and chickpeas
Protein foods are only limited in kidney failure when the person is not on dialysis. About 50 percent of protein intake should be from complete protein foods, such as meat, fish, poultry, eggs, dairy products, tofu, and soy products.
Beverages may need to be limited; water and other drinks still play an important role in a kidney-friendly diet, however. Apple, grape and cranberry juice are good options. Other drinks like herbal and iced tea, coffee and clear sodas are all acceptable for a person in kidney failure.
Six common myths about kidney disease:
Myth 1: kidney disease is a rare condition.
You may be surprised to learn just how common kidney disease is. In fact, one in seven american adults today is living with some level of kidney disease. What puts you at risk? having high blood pressure, diabetes, a family history of kidney failure, and being over 60 years are major risk factors for kidney disease. Being african-american/black, hispanic, asian, american indian, or pacific islander also increases your risk.
Myth 2: you will know if you have kidney disease.
Unfortunately, most people who have kidney disease don't know it. Why not? because in the early stages of kidney disease, most people do not have any symptoms. Symptoms may not appear until kidney disease is in the advanced stages. The best way to find out if you have kidney disease is to get tested—and once you are diagnosed there are many steps you can take to reduce the progression of the disease.
Myth 3: testing for kidney disease is a long and costly process.
Testing for kidney disease is surprisingly easy. It can be done with two simple, inexpensive tests during a routine visit with your healthcare provider.
• A simple urine test to check for protein in your urine. Having a small amount of protein in your urine can be a sign kidney disease.
• A simple blood test to estimate gfr (glomerular filtration rate). Your gfr number tells you how well your kidneys are working.
Myth 4: if you are at risk for kidney disease, there is nothing you can do about it.
Not everyone who is at risk will get kidney disease. You can help protect your kidneys. Eat healthy, get regular exercise, control blood pressure and blood sugar, keep a healthy weight, quit smoking, and don’t overuse pain medications like ibuprofen. All these steps will help you keep your kidneys healthy and lessen your chances of getting kidney disease.
Myth 5: no one knows what causes kidney disease.
The two most common causes of kidney disease are diabetes and high blood pressure. Both can harm your kidneys by causing damage to the tiny blood vessels in your kidneys. Many other conditions can harm the kidneys. These include:
• Heart disease
• Glomerulonephritis, a disease that causes inflammation in the kidneys
• Diseases you are born with, like polycystic kidney disease, which causes cysts to form in the kidneys
Myth 6: the only treatment for kidney disease is dialysis.
Not everyone with kidney disease needs dialysis. Kidney disease is a progressive disease. In its early stages, it is usually managed with exercise, diet, and medication. With this approach, most people can slow or stop the progression of kidney disease and enjoy a normal lifestyle. That’s why it’s so important to find and treat kidney disease early. Dialysis or a kidney transplant is only needed if your kidney disease gets worse and progresses to kidney failure.
Six-step guide to protecting kidney health
Chronic kidney disease (ckd) is a major public health concern. Ckd often goes undetected until it is very advanced (when someone would need dialysis or a transplant). But when it is diagnosed early through very simple tests, progression of ckd can be slowed or even stopped. Know your kidney score! regualar testing for everyone is important but it is especially important for people at risk. Follow these 6 steps to learn more about kidney disease, your risk, and how to prevent kidney disease.
Step 1: know these facts
6 things healthy kidneys do:
• Regulate the body’s fluid levels
• Filter wastes and toxins from the blood
• Release a hormone that regulates blood pressure
• Activate vitamin d to maintain healthy bones
• Release the hormone that directs production of red blood cells
• Keep blood minerals in balance (sodium, phosphorus, potassium)
8 problems ckd can cause:
• Cardiovascular disease
• Heart attack and stroke
• High blood pressure
• Weak bones
• Nerve damage (neuropathy)
• Kidney failure (end-stage renal disease, or esrd)
• Anemia or low red blood cell count
Step 2: assess your risk
4 main risk factors:
• Diabetes (self or family)
• High blood pressure (self or family)
• Cardiovascular disease (self or family)
• Family history of kidney disease or diabetes or high blood pressure
10 additional risk factors:
• African-american heritage
• Native american heritage
• Hispanic, asian, pacific islander heritage
• Age 60 or older
• Low birth weight
• Prolonged use of nsaids, a type of painkillers, such as ibuprofen and naproxen
• Lupus, other autoimmune disorders
• Chronic urinary tract infections
• Kidney stones
Step 3: recognize symptoms
8 possible trouble signs:
Most people with early ckd have no symptoms, which is why early testing is critical. By the time symptoms appear, ckd may be advanced, and symptoms can be misleading. Pay attention to these:
• Fatigue, weakness
• Difficult, painful urination
• Foamy urine
• Pink, dark urine (blood in urine)
• Increased thirst
• Increased need to urinate
• (Especially at night)
• Puffy eyes
• Swollen face, hands, abdomen, ankles, feet
Step 4: Get tested
If you or a loved one belong to a high-risk group, ask your primary-care physician about these tests—and be especially insistent about the last one. Your doctor may want to perform other tests as well.
4 simple, life-saving tests:
High blood pressure can damage small blood vessels (glomeruli) in the kidneys. It is the second-leading cause of kidney failure after diabetes.
Below 140/90 is good for most people. Below 130/80 is better if you have chronic kidney disease. Below 120/80 is best.
Protein in urine
Traces of a type of protein, albumin in urine (albuminuria) is an early sign of ckd. Persistent amounts of albumin and other proteins in the urine (proteinuria) indicate kidney damage.
Less than 30 mg of albumin per gram of urinary creatinine (a normal waste product)
Creatinine in blood(serum creatinine)
Healthy kidneys filter creatinine (a waste product from muscle activity) out of the blood. When kidney function is reduced, creatinine levels rise.
0.6 to 1.2 mg per deciliter of blood, depending on other variables
Glomerular filtration rate (gfr)
This is the most sensitive and accurate gauge of kidney function. Doctors measure blood creatinine levels and perform a calculation based on age, race, and gender.
Over 90 is good. 60-89 should be monitored. Less than 60 for 3 months indicates ckd.
Step 5: stay healthy
6 things people with ckd should do:
• Lower high blood pressure
• Keep blood-sugar levels under control if diabetic
• Reduce salt intake
• Avoid nsaids, a type of painkillers
• Moderate protein consumption
• Get an annual flu shot
9 things everyone should do:
• Exercise regularly
• Control weight
• Follow a balanced diet
• Quit smoking
• Drink only in moderation
• Stay hydrated
• Monitor cholesterol levels
• Get an annual physical
• Know your family medical history