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Normally, the body’s immune system recognizes any foreign body as an antigen and produces what are known as antibodies. However, in autoimmune disorders, the body produces antibodies against the body’s own tissue. This is an abnormality and depending on what factor is triggering the production of antibodies, there are various types of autoimmune disorders (AID). When we look at the musculoskeletal system, there are quite a few, the top 4 being:
In all these conditions, the body produces antibodies against its own tissue, producing these conditions.
- Family history is definitely an attribute to developing autoimmune diseases
- Environmental pollution
- Lifestyle including lack of exercise, smoking, excessive alcohol use
Know more about these:
- Scleroderma: Can be localized or generalized, the upper layers of the skin get thicker (sclerosis). This can be nodular or diffuse, and can also affect children. The skin and muscles are usually affected, but in severe cases, it can affect internal organs such as lungs and heart.
- Systemic lupus erythematosus: SLE, as it is often called, is very common and can be diagnosed as scleroderma in the initial stages. It can also occur with other autoimmune conditions and some of the types include cutaneous lupus, systemic lupus, drug-induced lupus, and neonatal lupus.
- Rheumatoid arthritis: The most common autoimmune rheumatic disease is RA, which causes inflammation of the joint spaces. There would be pain, stiffness, and swelling of the joints. This needs to be segregated as RA, as the symptoms are similar to any other form of arthritis. Treatment includes a combination of pain killers, heat and cold therapy, massage, steroid injections, and immune controlling agents.
- Sjogren’s syndrome: The symptoms are characteristic with dry mucous membranes including those of the eyes, mouth, and vagina. There could be accompanying pain and redness, significant fatigue, fibromyalgia, and complications relating to other organs.
Diagnosis: Autoimmune diseases are tricky to diagnose as other diseases with similar symptoms need to be ruled out first. In some cases, there are specific antibodies, and checking their levels can help identify the underlying condition.
Management: For all the rheumatic autoimmune diseases, treatment is a multipronged approach with lifestyle changes, drugs, and alternative therapies.
Lifestyle changes: A healthy diet, regular exercise, and adequate vitamin and mineral supplementation is a must.
Drugs: Some drugs used are:
- Anti-inflammatory drugs
- ACE inhibitors
- Immunomodulatory therapy
- Stem cell transplants
Alternative therapies such as massages with herbal oils, acupuncture, and cold therapy are widely used to control inflammation. In addition, alcohol and smoking and exposure to environmental pollution need to be controlled.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Actually madam I st pregnancy was unwanted. But 2nd one I took pills on advice of my Obs specialist as I had PROM at 4 months n AFI was 1.nw I've spontaneous miscarriage Kindly advice me why shall I do? All my blood reports including APLA and TORCH are negative.
I had sex with my girlfriend. I ejaculated outside her but just to be sure I gave her an I pill to consume just after 10-15 mins after the act. She started to bleed within the next two days. But she again bleed after 3 days after the last bleeding She feels it's like the Period bleeding. She had her last period on 30th of May. What is the reason of this and have we successfully avoided the unwanted pregnancy? Please reply urgently. Thanks.
I had 2 ultrasound for my abdomen.in January I was diagnosed with 3.1 x 2.5 cm follicular cysts right ovary. And in august I was diagnosed with 41x35 mm right ovarian cyst. Please suggest if its dangerous as im planning for pregnancy now.
I am hypothyroid since before pregnancy. Right now I am 19 weeks pregnant. At 7 week pregnancy checked my thyroid and it came 7.7 so my endocrinologist prescribed mon to fri 100 and sat sun 200 mcg od thyronorm after taking this dose my tsh was 0.4 which was good so Dr. Asked me to continue same and after one month my tsh came low o.1 so Dr. Decreased dose n made it mon to sat 100 and only on sunday 200. After taking this dose last week my tsh came high 6.63 so he agn started same dose mon to fri 100 and sat sun 200. Now my gynaec say to take 125 mcg daily and endocrinologist says to take mon to fri 100 and sat sun 200. Whom shud I follow? I am worried that wudnt be 125 mcg daily low as thyronorm needed more as pregnancy progresses? I just want my baby to be healthy so v.tense and concerned.
Precocious puberty is a medical condition in which the process of a child turning into an adult i.e. puberty is initiated at an earlier stage than what is considered as normal. Certain characteristics like rapid growth of bones and muscles change the body structure, its ability to reproduce and manifest during puberty. If puberty is initiated before the age of 8 in girls and 9 in in case of boys, then it is a case of precocious puberty.
Studies to determine the actual cause as to why precocious puberty occurs have been inconclusive. In some cases, due medical conditions, such as hormonal disorders, brain abnormalities, brain tumor, and infections might cause precocious puberty. Generally medication is prescribed in such conditions to delay the process of puberty until later.
In case of girls, if you notice the below mentioned symptoms in a child who is about 8 years of age then it is a sign of precocious puberty:
- Breast Growth
- Menarche (First Period)
In case of boys if you notice the below mentioned symptoms in a child who is about 9 years of age then it is a sign of precocious puberty:
Also, there are few characteristics or traits which are common to both girls and boys and indicate precocious puberty if it occurs at an early age:
- Underarm hair or pubic hair
- Rapid growth
- Adult body odor
Precocious puberty might induce a few complications. A few have been stated below:
Short height: Children who are suffering from precocious puberty in many cases grow taller at a quicker rate at first. This generally causes such children to be of below average height when they enter adulthood. By early diagnosis and treatment of precocious puberty, such a situation could be avoided and the child in question would be taller than he/she would if they did not undergo treatment.
Social and emotional problems: Children who undergo puberty before their peers can end up being self-conscious about their body, which may result in low self-esteem or in extreme cases substance abuse.
Treatment of patients suffering from precocious puberty can be administered through medications like GnRH antagonist treatment. This is a monthly injection, which delays further development and has to be continued up to the point till normal puberty period sets in. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Pediatrician.
Hi doctor, my wife is 3 months and 20 days pregnant as of today. We already have a 2 years old child. We do not want to have a child as of now for the next two years. We want to abort this pregnancy. However, I came to know that abortion is through operation after 3 months. Is it true?
The fiber and beta carotene content in carrots makes them extremely healthy. Carrots also have a number of other nutrients including Vitamins B8, K, A and C as well as iron, folate, potassium, copper and manganese.
Here are the benefits which these nutrients give to your body:
- Reduces cholesterol: Studies have shown that eating carrots lowers your blood cholesterol level. The most recent theory for why this happens is because carrots have a large amount of soluble fiber. This soluble fiber has been claimed to lower blood cholesterol levels.
- Chances of cancer reduced: Carrots have a lot of bioflavonoids and alpha carotene. Both of these have been said to lower the risk of cancer, especially lung cancer.
- Keeps your vision good: You must have heard from your parents that eating carrots is good for your eye health. While it is not true that they can cure any significant eye illnesses, they can prevent many illnesses caused by a vitamin A deficiency. They do this because beta-carotene which is there in carrots can be converted to Vitamin A. Vitamin A prevents include cataracts, night blindness as well as macular degeneration.
- Prevents memory loss: Beta-carotene is crucial for preventing memory loss. According to a recent study conducted by Harvard University, it was concluded that people who ate vegetables, such as carrots which contained beta-carotene had their chances of suffering from memory loss reduced.
- Diabetes prevention: Beta-carotene is an antioxidant in carrots, which lowers your risk of diabetes. It has been found that people with high levels of beta-carotene had 32% more insulin in their blood than people with low levels of beta-carotene.
- Improves bone health: Carrots also contain vitamin C and calcium, both of which are good for bone health. This is especially important for postmenopausal women who usually have a deficiency of calcium in their bodies.