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Management of Abortion
Caesarean Section Procedure
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Termination Of Pregnancy Procedure
Treatment Of Pregnancy Problems
Well Woman Healthcheck
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Treatment Of Medical Diseases In Pregnancy
Treatment Of Menstrual Problems
Intra-Uterine Insemination (IUI) Treatment
Medical Termination Of Pregnancy (Mtp) Procedure
Gynecology Laparoscopy Procedures
Pap Smear Procedure
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My wife done preganews test last day and it was positive. Would you please suggest what precautions we should take care of and please tell me about healthy diet for my wife during every day.
Gonorrhoea is a bacterial STD that can affect both men and women. It can be transmitted from one person to another through oral, vaginal or anal intercourse. A person who is already suffering from an STD is at a high risk of suffering from Gonorrhoea as well. This disease affects the eyes, throat, vagina, urethra, anus and female reproductive tract. Gonorrhoea can be treated with antibiotics as long as it is diagnosed in time. In order to do so, it is essential to understand the symptoms of this disease.
Some people do not show any visible symptoms of gonorrhoea. This is known as nonsymptomatic Gonorrhoea. Even though there are no symptoms, these people can infect others through unprotected intercourse. However, in most cases, the symptoms of this STD can be seen in 2 to 14 days after exposure to the bacteria. These symptoms are different for men and women.
Men infected with this disease may not show symptoms for several weeks. Some of the symptoms of this disease as seen in men are:
- Frequent urge to urinate
- A burning or painful sensation while urinating
- Pus-like discharge from the penis
- Inflammation and redness of the tip of the penis
- Swelling that may or may not be accompanied by pain in the testicles
- Sore throat
In some cases, the pain may even spread to the rectum.
Gonorrhoea is more difficult to diagnose in women as the symptoms were shown are milder and tend to be similar to other infections. Some of the symptoms to look out for are:
- Watery or creamy discharge from the vagina
- Painful or burning sensation while urinating
- Increased urge to urinate frequently
- Heavier periods
- Spotting in between periods
- Sore throat
- Painful intercourse
- Pain in the lower abdomen
Gonorrhoea can be diagnosed with a simple blood test or by taking a sample swab from the infected area and subjecting it to lab tests. Once diagnosed, it can be treated with antibiotics. In some cases, an injection may also be required. It is important to complete the full course of antibiotics even if the symptoms disappear in a few days. As with any other STD, prevention is better than cure. To avoid suffering from this disease, always use a condom while having intercourse. If you have more than one partner, insist on getting tested regularly. This is extremely important as many cases of Gonorrhoea go undetected for the lack of symptoms shown. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a sexologist.
Was on novelon 21 day pill pack from june. Missed second last pill of june but took it along with the last. Then took a 6 day break on which I had menses. Started new pack from 8th july and on 9th july had protected intercourse for the first time but the condom was used thrice. Then had very protected intercourse on 14th. This was my last intercourse. I did not ve any intercourse further. Missed only one pill in july on 21st july doubled up on 22nd july. On 22nd july morning had a very light bleeding. My pill pack ended on 28th july and menses came from 1-6 aug. Test at 4,5,6,7,8 weeks all negative. No intercourse in aug. Due date of period was on 1st sept. No periods. Did serum beta hcg test on 8th sept its negative (0.11).usg done on 8th shows bulky anteverted uterus rest normal and bulky ovaries with pcod. Why my period is late if I have no intercourse in aug. Am getting all stressed. And m having bad gas. Is gas is due to stress. Doctor advice me to take deviry 2 tablets for 5 days. Is it safe? When will I get my periods after stopping deviry?
Good evening. I am Dr Anju Yadav and I am working as a Fertility consultant at Bourn Hall Fertility Clinic, Gurgaon. Today I will be speaking about the donor egg IVF.
With an advancement of IVF technique, now it has become possible for those females to conceive who have crossed their reproductive age group and have attained menopause. It happens with the help of donor egg IVF.
Donor egg IVF involves giving injections to egg donor for egg growth. Taking out eggs from her using a simple surgery and fertilizing an egg with the male partner's sperm culturing these embryos in the lab and then transferring these eggs in the female partner's uterus.
So, apart from these females who have attained menopause, who else can be benefitted using the Donor egg IVF?
These include the female who has attained pre mature ovarian failure, patients with the poor quality egg, patients with repeated IVF failure and females who have genetically transmissible diseases, some females who are older than 40 years of age. In such cases, donor egg IVF is helpful because as the female age increases, their egg quality and the number of eggs decreases. So, females with advanced age are also benefitted with this Donor egg IVF.
If you want to know more about this, you can contact me through Lybrate.
The rising incidences of cancer have made it important for us to be vigilant about our health. It has been proven medically that if cancer is detected at an early stage -stage I & II , then the chances of cure and treatment along with full recovery are very high. For early cancer detection & for people at greater risk of cancer, PHC-Preventive Health Care plays a major role. Preventive Health Check is particularly important for the people who have a family history of cancer.
Almost all cancers are caused by damage or mutation in their genes, which, may be acquired from environmental exposure, dietary factors, hormones or through normal aging. In 90% of cases, these genes are not passed from parents to children. These are known as sporadic mutations and the cancers that they cause are called as sporadic cancers. But 5-10% of cancers are caused by gene mutations which are inherited from one or both parents & passed on to the children .These are hereditary or germline mutations & these cancers are known as hereditary or familial cancers.
People /children, who carry gene mutations have a higher risk of developing cancer at an earlier age or at some point in their life time.
Some of the common such cancers, which run in families, are:
- Breast cancer
- Ovarian cancer
- Colo-rectal cancer (cancer of large intestine )
- Prostate cancer
Breast, ovary & colo-rectal carcinoma have well established gene mutation studies.Mutation of BRCA 1 & BRCA2 Genes is responsible for 85% of hereditary breast cancers.
Estimated life time risk for developing breast cancer in woman with BRCA1 & BRCA2 mutation is 56-87% & risk for developing-bilateral /contralatral breast cancer is about 20-40%. These statistics make a preventive health check for women with breast cancer history in their family a necessity. Mutation in these genes confers about 20-40% increased life time risk for developing ovarian cancer. Hence the presence of gene mutation for breast cancer can trigger ovarian cancer.
However as stated above, other environmental and lifestyle factors can also cause breast cancer other than genetic BRCA1 & BRCA 2 gene mutations.
- Increasing age
- Early menarche
- Late menopause
- First birth after the age of 30
- Atypical lobular hyperplasia or Atypical ductal hyperplasia
- Prior breast biopsies
- Long term postmenopausal estiogen replacement
- Early exposure to ionizing radiation
Other Familial Cancers:
Familial cancer syndromes associated with colo-rectal cancers are familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP).It is an autosomal dominant inherited syndrome with more than 90% penetrance, manifested by hundreds of polyps developed by late adolescence .The risk of developing invasive cancer is almost 100% .So such patients should start getting colonoscopy at an earlier age- say by 20yr of age & should undergo Total Collectomy on development of significant polyps .
Other familial cancer syndromes are hereditary non -Polyposis Colo Rectal Cancer (HNPCC), Gardner's Syndrome, Turcot's Syndrome, Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome, Juvenile Polyposis.
Cancer Assessment & Conclusion:
For breast cancer risk assessment, we have the GAIL model & IBIS model, which take into consideration ,all the risk factors, apart from BRCA1 & BRCA 2 gene mutation. These models calculate the over all life time risk of development of breast cancer for any lady. For this, you have to consult a specialist experienced in area of hereditary cancers, cancer risk assessment, genetic counseling & testing.
To conclude, all people with cancers in their family should undergo genetic testing & counseling, to detect high risk individuals should take adequate measures & treatment.