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No Blood, No needle, No visit to hospital, you can do yourself at home with water. A thin layer of transparent screen like structure hangs in front of the abdominal muscles known as peritoneum. This peritoneum protects the abdominal structures and the muscle. This can also be used for performing dialysis which is carried out when the functioning of kidney gets affected. In peritoneal dialysis a thin and soft catheter is placed in the person’s belly one week before performing the procedure.
The catheter has numerous holes in order to facilitate the transformation of fluids. Dialysis solution is prepared in a bag and the tubing is connected to the catheter placed in the abdomen thereby, the fluids absorb the waste materials from the body. The fluid is allowed to stay in your body for a particular period of time which is commonly referred as dwell time and later the fluid is drained out.
There are two types of peritoneal dialysis, continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis and automated peritoneal dialysis. This is the simple form of dialysis which anybody can perform after a short training period and this can be done anywhere in clean private place like hotels, home and even in office.
Procedure followed during Peritoneal Dialysis
All you need to perform a peritoneal dialysis is catheter and transfer set, cycler, dialysis solution and safety precautions materials to stay away from getting infections.
Step 1 - Perform a sterile aseptic technique. Wear a glove and surgical mask before connecting the catheters and transfer set. Clamp the tubing and remove the catheter once the dialysis solution enters your abdomen
Step 2 - Allow the solution to remain in your abdomen for a particular period of dwell time
Step 3 - Drain the fluid from the abdominal cavity into the drain bag. You may feel a mild tugging sensation when adequate amount of fluid is drained.
Step 4 - After drain close or clamp the transfer set and later flush a fresh solution directly to drain bag so as to remove the air from the tubing.
Step 5 - Close your drain bag and open your transfer set and refill your belly with fresh solution.
Make sure you perform without giving way for infection and excess fluid and dextrose absorption.
The inflammation of the kidneys as an effect of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is known as Lupus Nephritis. Like lupus, this is an autoimmune disease. Inflammation of the kidneys hinders kidney functioning by not allowing the kidneys to regulate the optimum amount and types of fluids in the body and restricts the removal of waste through urine. It can also cause the protein to leak out of the kidneys. If not managed in time, this can eventually lead to kidney failure by scarring the kidney tissue. However, this is a rare occurrence.
On an average, 6 out of 10 lupus patients suffer from lupus nephritis. In most cases, this disease develops within the first five years of lupus symptoms making their appearance. The symptoms of this disease are mild and can vary from person to person. Very often, the first signs of lupus nephritis become visible only in lab tests as the symptoms are similar to those exhibited by other kidney diseases.
- Swelling of the feet, ankles and calves
- High blood pressure
- Weight gain
- Frothy, dark urine
There are five stages types of this disease and hence, the first step to treating this disease is to identify its type. For this, your doctor will begin with a thorough physical examination and understand your medical history. He or she will also ask for a few tests including urine tests, blood tests, an ultrasound and a kidney biopsy to confirm the diagnosis.
Lupus nephritis is usually treated with corticosteroids and immunosuppressive drugs. Medication may also be prescribed to lower blood pressure and prevent the clotting of blood. However, in some cases, this treatment may not be enough to stop the progression of the disease and some kidney function may be lost. If both kidneys fail, dialysis is the next medical step. This involves the use of a machine in place of the kidneys to filter and removes waste products from the body. This may be followed by the need for a kidney transplant.
Since lupus patients are at a high risk of lupus nephritis, here are a few conscious lifestyle changes that can help prevent this condition:
Alport Syndrome, first detected by Dr. A. Cecil Alport and named after him is a rare inherited disease. It affects the kidney and also the inner cochlea or ear and the eyes. Passed down through families, it is caused by genetic mutations that affect the type IV collagen family of proteins. Collagen is an important tissue that forms the basement structure of the kidney, inner ear and eye.
Types of Alport syndrome
X-Linked Alport Syndrome: A most common form of Alport Syndrome, boys who are affected with this type tend to develop serious complications and kidney failure.
Autosomal recessive Alport syndrome (ARAS): When both the parents carry the abnormal gene and pass it down to their offspring, this type of syndrome is caused. If affects the male and female with equal severity.
Autosomal dominant Alport syndrome (ADAS): This happens when the child inherits the abnormal gene from one of the parents. Only one copy is needed to cause a mutation.
Signs and symptoms of Alport syndrome
With all types of Alport Syndrome, the tiny blood vessels of the kidney called glomeruli are damaged and the kidney will be unable to filter the toxins from the body. The most common symptoms include:
- Hematuria – Blood in the urine
- Proteinuria – Protein in the urine
- High blood pressure
- Edema – Swelling in the legs, ankle, feet and around the eyes
- Hearing and vision problems
- Flank pain
The following tests and examinations can be performed to assess the condition and type of Alport Syndrome:
1. Urine test – It helps in finding the presence of blood or protein in your urine
2. Glomerular Filtration Rate – The blood work assesses the levels of waste and protein in your blood
3. Kidney Biopsy – A tiny piece of kidney is removed with special needle and analyzed
4. Hearing Test – It checks, if hearing is affected
5. Vision Test – This is conducted to check any abnormalities in vision
6. Genetic Test – It determines the type of Alport syndrome and confirm the diagnosis
There is no specific treatment for Alport Syndrome. However, treatment aims to relieve the symptoms and slow the progression of kidney disease.
- Medications to control high blood pressure
- Diuretics or water pills
- Limiting salt or sodium intake in your diet
- Kidney transplantation if patient is progressing towards kidney failure
- Medications to slow down the onset of kidney damage
Awareness of family history of this disorder will help in detecting Alport Syndrome at an early stage and also help you take the right steps to prevent any further complications. Seek medical attention and contact a nephrologist immediately if you have a family history of this disease.
Nephropathy is also known as renal disease. It is any type of damage or disease relating to the kidneys. Though not everyone with diabetes has nephropathy, however, diabetic nephropathy can cause kidney failure.
How does diabetes affect the kidney?
Kidneys are responsible for taking waste out from your blood. They have a lot of tiny blood vessels to do this. High blood sugar may kill such blood vessels. Once these blood vessels are destroyed, the kidneys may not function as well or it may even lead to kidney failure.
What increases your risk of getting diabetic nephropathy?
There are several factors which increase your risk of getting diabetic nephropathy including:
1.High blood pressure
4.Being Native American, African American or of Hispanic origin, for whom risk factors have proved to be magnified
5. If you have family history of diabetic nephropathy
There are very few noticeable symptoms, which appear when you have diabetic nephropathy, except swelling in your arms and legs. The diagnosis is done by checking for a type of protein in your urine known as albumin, which is not supposed to be there. Getting the diagnosis done early is crucial.
You can prevent kidney damage by doing the following:
1. Keeping your blood sugar levels under control - keep HbA1C < 6-7%
2. Keeping your blood pressure under control in the range of 130/80
3. Eating healthy food
4. Exercising regularly
5. Not eating too much protein
6. Not eating too much salt
7. Reducing smoke or excessive tobacco usage
Medicines for treatment
If you do get diabetic nephropathy, here are some medicines, which can help cure it
1.ACE inhibitors which are also called angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors
2.Angiotensin II Receptor - blockers (ARBs)
1.Blood pressure may rise
2.Triglyceride levels and cholesterol levels may rise.
Renal hypertension is a disorder which is characterized by a rise in the blood pressure that results from kidney disease. The blood flow to the kidney is impaired due to the narrowing of the arteries and this leads to renovascular hypertension.
The various symptoms of renal hypertension are -
1. High blood pressure
You may experience symptoms of high blood pressure.
2. Impaired functioning of the kidneys
Your kidneys may not function properly due to the impaired supply of blood
3. It may lead to presence of blood in your urine
4. You may be affected by pulmonary edema that results in accumulation of fluid in the lungs
5. It may result in severe headaches and confusion
6. You may experience blurred vision
7. You may have nosebleeds
The impaired kidney function may also lead to chronic kidney damage.
The various causes of renal hypertension are -
1. Accumulation of cholesterol in the body may lead to blockage of the artery due to plaque buildup
2. Smoking may increase your chances of getting affected by narrow arteries
The narrowing of the arteries causes a reduction in the blood supply to the kidneys. This results in the kidneys to release various hormones that instruct the body to hold on to water and sodium. This causes the fluid to accumulate in the blood vessels, thus resulting in high blood pressure.
The various risk factors renal hypertension are -
Medications used to treat high blood pressure are used to treat renal hypertension. It is important that you get your blood pressure levels checked on a regular basis. You need to make certain lifestyle changes such as -
1. Exercise on a regular basis to keep your heart and body healthy
2. Limit consumption of alcohol and reduce smoking
3. Eat well balanced meals to keep obesity at bay
4. Keep your mind free of stress
5. Restrict consumption of salt
6. Maintain optimal weight levels