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If you are facing difficulties in breathing, especially in the process of exhaling, you are suffering from emphysema. Emphysema is a condition in which the air sacs of the lungs are damaged and enlarged, causing breathlessness. It occurs as a result of several triggers, smoking being the most common one. Emphysema is a type of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. People with this condition struggle to exhale, which implies that there is some obstruction in the air flow. This disease has no permanent cure but by quitting smoking, you can stop it from getting worse.
The progression and severity of emphysema occurs with the staging systems. The staging of the condition can help in developing a prognosis.
The Gold emphysema staging system
Gold is a major emphysema staging system created by a group known as the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease. The amount of air a patient can exhale forcefully in one second is determined during this stage. It is also referred to as the forced expiratory volume or FEV1.
The staging is as follows:
- Stage 1: Mild emphysema (FEV1 greater than 80% of normal)
- Stage 2: Moderate emphysema (FEV less than 80%, but more than 50% normal)
- Stage 3: Severe emphysema (FEV lesser than 50%, but more than 30% normal)
- Stage 4: Extremely severe emphysema. (FEV lesser than 30% of normal or lesser than 50% normal, with low levels of oxygen in the blood.
The BODE emphysema staging system
The condition affects several abilities. The BODE index, an acronym for BMI (body mass index), obstruction, dyspnea (breathlessness), exercise capacity (health index) is another staging system for emphysema in which the emphysema’s impact on several areas of life are measured. They include the following:
- Body mass index (B)
- Airflow limitation or obstruction (O), which is measured by pulmonary function tests
- Breathless or dyspnea (D), which is assessed thoroughly via a questionnaire
- Exercise capacity (E), which is measured to check how long a person with emphysema can walk in a span of six minutes
The prognosis of emphysema is impossible to be determined in any person individually. The staging system helps to identify the severity of the condition, but the future cannot be predicted. Not many studies have been undertaken for the determination of the effects of emphysema on life expectancy. The best research that has been carried out included around 100 people, which is very less. The condition varies largely among people, even if they are in the same stage.
The statistics available on emphysema are not reliable enough for individuals who wish to know their life expectancy. It is considered that if a patient falls in a higher stage, his/her long-term life expectancy is less. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Pulmonologist.
I have been suffering with high blood pressure problem since two years. I sometimes drinks. What can I do to reduce it?
I m 19 year old my heart asd closure operation 3 months before that time diet. This time non veg eating creates any problem.
What is the primary symptom of heart attack & blockage of artery and after angioplasty why pain continued in left leg.
I am a heart patient my bypass surgery had done in 2008 I am also a diabetic patient please suggests me tablets.
I some times press my fingers against my chest or when I sleep on my side I feel pain towards inside edges of my left lung. I have been smoking for 15 yrs.
I was suffering from chickangunia. But now joints pain and chest pain creating problem for me. How to overcome from this? Please suggest.
I am 64 years old and had undergone bypass surgery in 2007. I am taking following medicines as prescribed by the Consultant: IMDUR K-COR 5 CONCOR AM5 deplatt 75 GLYNASE MF ecosprin 150 MG I AM NOW SUFFERING FROM ED. I WANT TO KNOW WHETHER THESE MEDICINES ARE CONTRIBUTING TO ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION? AND IF YES WHAT IS THE REMEDY? KINDLY HELP WITH YOUR REPLY. THANKS.
Can high blood pressure best sex life ? I have a high bp about 140 I last two months I have a problem in erection pennies.
Plse advise ways to drop the high bp. In morning after getting m getting bp of 140, 135. Kindly advise the ways to reduce. 7 weeks back my bp has shouted to 160 doctor has prescribed metzok 50, however after taking that felt bit headache, night mare and body was felt dull all day long. Consulting cardiologist have changed the medicine to telma 40 feeling better now. Plse advise as I need to eradicate the use of any medicine going forward since this is the first time m taking bp medicine.
My wife is to undergo cataract operation. She is advised to stop taking CLOPITAB A75. Is it ok. She does not have any major heart problem. She had pulmonary Edima about 6 years back. Since then she is taking CLOPITAB
Hi doctor I am having high blood pressure and below are details 8TH April- bp - 150/100 pulse rate is 73 11th April- bp - 150/90. Pulse rate is 80 I am not sure why this there is sudden increase in bp. But need advise in lowering back to normal. I go for morning walk for 30 or 40 mins, thrice a week. Plus cycling for 1 hr once a week. Need advice soon. Thanks Sushil panchal.
Hello, respected doctor, I have been having my blood pressure above 130-140-150/70 for about a year, sometimes at normal range (i. E. Below 120/80) I do not want to start medications at this early age can you please suggest me about what am I supposed to do? Thank you.
I am 28 year guy and I am sufering from heart palpitation or rapid heart rate, high pulse rate, sometime it mid chest tightens, shortness of breath, ecg. Bp, sugar, lipid profile, lift, thyroid are normal, my local doctor say its gerd. Sm say panic attack. I am taking rabidoc it bbf and atrolip 10 mg hs, metlar 12.5 relieve this symptom. But it may decrease bp. Serum iron is 38. Suggest medicine, diagnosis.
I'm having 155/80 BP n I want to control it within a week. So how can I control it to normal pls suggest it's because if I don't control I may loose my job. Pls help.
My mother having problem of high blood pressure. When b. P. Is high she get headache. So what can she d0?
Am 21 years male. Am suffering serious mental torture because I lost my girlfriend. Worst part is my friend who was next to me cheated me. He disclosed my secret relation which I had with another girl.
High blood pressure can remain undiagnosed for years, because most people don't experience significant symptoms. Occasionally, some people with hypertension may have headaches, dizziness, or nosebleeds, but in most cases, hypertension goes undetected. This is why hypertension is known as “the Silent Killer.” When blood is flowing to body organs at elevated pressures, changes occur in your blood vessels that can result in damage to the eyes, kidneys, and other organs.
What Is Hypertension
If hypertension remains unrecognized, medical complications occur that could often be prevented with early treatment and good blood pressure control.
Measuring Your Blood Pressure
The only accurate way to determine whether or not you have hypertension is by measurement of your blood pressure. The diagnosis of hypertension is usually made after three elevated readings have been obtained, so when you measure your blood pressure, you should be aware of things that can cause a temporary rise in your numbers. Some things that can elevate your blood pressure include:
“White Coat Hypertension”
“White Coat Hypertension” refers to the increase in blood pressure you may experience when visiting your doctor. Often, your doctor will wait until you’ve settled into your visit to repeat measurement of an initially high blood pressure reading. Smoking and caffeine constrict your arteries, which results in elevated blood pressure measurement.
Your sympathetic nervous system reacts to exercise and stress by redistributing blood flow, which can also alter your blood pressure. You should measure your blood pressure at the same time each day, to get a consistent reading.