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Chronic kidney disease, also called chronic kidney failure, describes the gradual loss of kidney function. Your kidneys filter wastes and excess fluids from your blood, which are then excreted in your urine. When chronic kidney disease reaches an advanced stage, dangerous levels of fluid, electrolytes and wastes can build up in your body.
In the early stages of chronic kidney disease, you may have few signs or symptoms. Chronic kidney disease may not become apparent until your kidney function is significantly impaired.
Treatment for chronic kidney disease focuses on slowing the progression of the kidney damage, usually by controlling the underlying cause. Chronic kidney disease can progress to end-stage kidney failure, which is fatal without artificial filtering (dialysis) or a kidney transplant.
The kidney has multiple functions, and one of it is to act like a filter and remove out waste substances. These filtered out substances are excreted through the urine.
Common kidney diseases including infections, kidney stones, diabetic effects, hypertensive effects, tumours, chronic kidney disease (effects of both hypertension and diabetes) and kidney failure.
Features of kidney diseases:
- Infections usually start with symptoms like burning with urination, change in colour of urine, and low abdominal pain.
- Kidney stones are usually identified by their characteristic pain in the sides of the back
- Smaller stones up to about 4 mm are passed through urine on their own.
- However, for larger stones, external shock waves are used to break them into smaller ones, which are then eliminated by the kidneys.
How Can I Prevent Kidney Disease?
The key to prevention or delay of severe kidney disease is early detection and aggressive intervention -- while there's still time to slow down the progression to kidney failure. Medical care with early intervention can change the course of chronic kidney disease and help prevent the need for dialysis or a kidney transplant.
Diabetes and high blood pressure account for two thirds of all cases of chronic kidney disease. By aggressively managing diabetes and high blood pressure with diet, exercise, and medications, you may be able to prevent kidney failure and help keep as much kidney function as possible.
- To prevent urinary tract infections, proper hygiene is very important.
- Thorough washing of the external urinary tract and use of clean underwear and toilet facilities is very important.
- Intravenous injections of pain relievers to help in pain control immediately on seeing the patient. If pain persists, an additional shot may also be required.
- Patients also have accompanying nausea and vomiting and may require antiemetics to control these.
- At the time of discharge, these medications can be continued at home.
- Hydration is very important, so drink at least 3 litres of water.
- Urine should be strained to ensure the stones have been passed
- Monitoring urine output including quantity and colour for any changes is also important. If urine is turbid, water intake should be increased.
- Avoid oxalate-rich foods. Most kidney stones are composed of calcium oxalate, and therefore foods rich in oxalate should be avoided. Beets, spinach, okra, tea, chocolate, soy, etc., should be minimised
- Reducing intake of salt and animal protein also helps in preventing recurrence. Legumes are a good option for proteins.
- Calcium supplements, if being taken, may need to be reduced or stopped. This can be managed by including enough calcium in the diet.
Chronic kidney disease: This is seen as a side effect of hypertension and diabetes.
- Constant monitoring of both BP and sugar levels is very essential.
- Keep cholesterol levels under check as suggested by your doctor
- Medicines should be taken as prescribed and not altered without medical supervision
- Quit smoking if the habit is still being continued
- Improve physical activity levels, which will also help control BP, sugar, and cholesterol levels
- Weight monitoring is essential to keep check, not just on kidneys but overall health.
- Kidney diseases put a person in a vicious cycle of health problems, so early detection and prevention are advised.
Here are some self-tips to prevent kidney diesease:
- Get Tested Regularly - At your next checkup, and at least within the next year if you haven't had these tests done:
- Ask for a urine test to see if you have excess protein, glucose, or blood in the urine.
- Ask for a blood pressure reading
- Ask for a fasting blood glucose test
- Ask for a creatinine test.
- Control Diabetes - If you have diabetes, work with your health care provider to keep your blood sugar levels under the best possible control. A program of diet, regular exercise, glucose monitoring, and medications to control blood sugars and protect kidney function can help.
- Control High Blood Pressure - If you have high blood pressure, work with your health care provider to get your blood pressure within target ranges. A program of diet, regular exercise, and medications can help.
Hi doctor, I have kidneys stones. I did ultrasound and report says that I have 9.2 mm stone in lower calyx of right kidney with fullness of pelvicalyceal system. What does fullness of pelvicalyceal system means? And secondly it says that Lt. Ovary is bulky and shows multiple small peripherally arranged follies with echogenic stoma. It's volume is 7.6 cc. What does it mean?
I have stone problem shown in my sonography report about 11mm but I don't want to do operation any other option to cure it please tell me.
CBC. 4900 neutrophil 61.0 Lymphocytes 35.0 eosinophil 3.0 monocyte 1.0 Basiphils 0.0 Haemoglobin 12.9 PCV. 35.1 Total RBC. 3.97 RDW CV. 13.7 MCV. 88.4 MCH. 32.5 MCHC 36.8 Platelet 2.15 ESR. 10 Blood GLUCOSE 111 UREA 23.5 CREATININE 1.00 T3 84, T4 9.00, TSH 0.76 HbA1c. 6.5.
33 yrs male. Multiple stones in kidney. Having this problem from last 14-15 yrs. Urinated many without medicines. Sometimes took homeopathic berberis vulgaris Q. But medicines did not work from last 3 years. Went through Lithotripsy in December 2014 for 15 mm stone. Now I have 2-4 stones in both kidneys size between 4-8 mm. I drink 3-4 ltr water in a day, but can not drink on daily basis. Feels moderate pain both side of stomach at times. Please suggest.
I am suffering from foul smell of urine, like ammonia come from body every time please suggest treatment.
Hiii doctor im a urine infection patient but in testing report there is no infections. Many times my urine burn heavily how can I recove from this disease and which medicine I will use.
I am facing burn issue and pain at the end while urinating from last some day. Please suggest some natural treatment for it. I am unmarried.
The prostate gland is a male reproductive organ at the base of the urinary bladder and urethra is a thin tube that carries urine out of the penis. It runs through the prostate gland. A fluid produced by this gland helps to carry sperms produced by the testes outside during intercourse.
Cause of urinary problems in men:
Men experience urinary symptoms either due to inflammation of the prostate gland or prostatitis or symptoms may be the result of a blockage of the passage due to enlargement of the prostate gland.
Symptoms of urinary problems:
1. The need to urinate frequently during the night.
2. Urinating more often during the day.
3. Urinary urgency is the urge to urinate can be so strong and sudden that one may not reach the toilet in time.
4. The urine stream is slow to start.
5. Urine dribbling for some time after finishing urination.
6. A sensation that the bladder is not fully emptied after urination.
7. A lack of force to the urine flow, which makes directing the stream difficult.
8. The sensation of needing to go again soon after urinating
1. A long course of antibacterial medication (for bacterial prostatitis) is prescribed, because infection is difficult to get rid of, the antibacterial medication will need to be taken for many weeks.
2. Medication to improve urine flow and other symptoms (for obstruction caused by an enlarged prostate).
3. Surgical procedures (for blockage caused by an enlarged prostate), such as Transurethral Resection of the prostate(TURP), Laser Resection of prostate, Transurethral Incision of the prostate(TUIP).
UroLift: A new method of treatment for men, where medication has not been successful, but their prostates are not so enlarged that they need more invasive surgery. It involves the Transurethral Insertion of staples to separate the lobes of the prostate. It has minimal side effects and preserves ejaculatory and erectile function.
A number of other procedures that have been developed to reduce urinary symptoms.
Medication for urinary problems:
1. Medications to reduce the tone of the muscles of the urethra and prostate to minimize any obstruction to urine flow caused when these muscles contract.
2. Medication to reduce the size of the prostate gland. These drugs work by blocking the action of male hormones produced by the prostate gland.
3. Medications to relax the bladder, making unwanted contractions less likely and reducing the symptoms of urgency and frequency of urination.
4. Over-the-counter medicine 'Saw Palmetto' (Serenoa repens) is used sometimes. This may help some men, especially if frequent urination at night is a problem. However, recent reviews of the evidence for using Saw Palmetto as a treatment for mild or moderate urinary symptoms did not show any improvement compared to no treatment, in men with BPH. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Urologist.