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Treatment of Neurological Problems
Treatment of Nerve And Muscle Disorders
Treatment of Paralysis
Cerebral Palsy Treatment
Brain Tumor Surgery
Electroconvulsive Therapy (Ect) Treatment
Surgery Of The Facial Nerve
Radiofrequency Neurotomy Procedure
Spine Surgery Treatment
Traumatic Brain Injury (Tbi) Treatment
Treatment of Traumatic Brain Injury (Tbi)
Assistive Walking Device Training
Vagus Nerve Stimulation ( Epilepsy )
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Epilepsy is a chronic disorder of the brain that affects people worldwide. It is characterized by recurrent seizures, which are brief episodes of involuntary movement that may involve a part of the body (partial) or the entire body (generalized), and are sometimes accompanied by loss of consciousness and control of bowel or bladder function.
Seizure episodes are a result of excessive electrical discharges in a group of brain cells. Different parts of the brain can be the site of such discharges. Seizures can vary from the briefest lapses of attention or muscle jerks to severe and prolonged convulsions. Seizures can also vary in frequency, from less than 1 per year to several per day.
One seizure does not signify epilepsy (up to 10% of people worldwide have one seizure during their lifetime). Epilepsy is defined as having 2 or more unprovoked seizures.
Fear, misunderstanding, discrimination and social stigma have surrounded epilepsy for centuries. This stigma continues in many countries today and can impact on the quality of life for people with the disorder and their families.
Signs and symptoms
Characteristics of seizures vary and depend on where in the brain the disturbance first starts, and how far it spreads. Temporary symptoms occur, such as loss of awareness or consciousness, and disturbances of movement, sensation (including vision, hearing and taste), mood, or other cognitive functions.
People with seizures tend to have more physical problems (such as fractures and bruising from injuries related to seizures), as well as higher rates of psychological conditions, including anxiety and depression. Similarly, the risk of premature death in people with epilepsy is up to 3 times higher than the general population, with the highest rates found in low- and middle-income countries and rural versus urban areas.
A great proportion of the causes of death related to epilepsy in low- and middle-income countries are potentially preventable, such as falls, drowning, burns and prolonged seizures.
Epilepsy is not contagious. The most common type of epilepsy, which affects 6 out of 10 people with the disorder, is called idiopathic epilepsy and has no identifiable cause.
Epilepsy with a known cause is called secondary epilepsy, or symptomatic epilepsy. The causes of secondary (or symptomatic) epilepsy could be:
- brain damage from prenatal or perinatal injuries (e.g. a loss of oxygen or trauma during birth, low birth weight),
- congenital abnormalities or genetic conditions with associated brain malformations,
- a severe head injury,
- a stroke that restricts the amount of oxygen to the brain,
- an infection of the brain such as meningitis, encephalitis, neurocysticercosis,
- certain genetic syndromes,
- a brain tumor.
Epilepsy can be treated easily and affordable medication. Recent studies in both low- and middle-income countries have shown that up to 70% of children and adults with epilepsy can be successfully treated (i.e. their seizures completely controlled) with anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs). Furthermore, after 2 to 5 years of successful treatment and being seizure-free, drugs can be withdrawn in about 70% of children and 60% of adults without subsequent relapse.
Idiopathic epilepsy is not preventable. However, preventive measures can be applied to the known causes of secondary epilepsy.
- Preventing head injury is the most effective way to prevent post-traumatic epilepsy.
- Adequate perinatal care can reduce new cases of epilepsy caused by birth injury.
- The use of drugs and other methods to lower the body temperature of a feverish child can reduce the chance of febrile seizures.
- Central nervous system infections are common causes of epilepsy in tropical areas, where many low- and middle-income countries are concentrated.
- Elimination of parasites in these environments and education on how to avoid infections can be effective ways to reduce epilepsy worldwide, for example those cases due to neurocysticercosis.
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Seizures can occur for a number of reasons and often they can be prevented. One common cause of seizures is epilepsy, and in most cases, seizures associated with the condition can be prevented if you know what's triggering them and take steps to modify or avoid those triggers.
Epilepsy Causes, Treatment, and Prevention
Epilepsy — a disorder in which a person has recurring, unprompted seizures due to abnormal electrical activity in the brain — affects an estimated 50 million people worldwide. In about half of those people, the cause of the epilepsy is unknown. Among the other 25 million individuals, the cause may be a defect in the structure of the brain, a tumor or stroke, or a severe head injury — the most common known cause in young adults, according to the Epilepsy Therapy Project. Therefore, it's important to protect your head with a helmet any time you're engaged in an activity in which your head could be damaged, such as playing a contact sport like football or riding a bicycle, all-terrain vehicle, or motorcycle.
There are several medications that can successfully treat and manage epilepsy and help keep seizures to a minimum. Anticonvulsant drugs can work if taken correctly. In some cases, a low carbohydrate, high-fat diet known as the ketogenic diet may be prescribed to help treat children with epilepsy and prevent seizures.
Know Your Triggers, Prevent Seizures
Epileptic seizures are often associated with particular triggers or changes in your daily habits or routine. Here are some common behaviors and factors that may trigger an epileptic seizure:
.Stress, anxiety, or other emotional issues
.Alcohol or drug abuse or the process of quitting alcohol or drugs
.Change in sleep schedules, feeling very tired, or significant sleep deprivation
.A change in medications, or skipping or missing a dose of .anti-seizure medication
.Something that overstimulates the senses, like lights that flash brightly, watching television, playing video or computer games, or working on a computer
.Hormonal changes in women, often from pregnancy or menstruation
.Mental strain, such as from solving complex problems
You can't always predict what will trigger an epileptic seizure; sometimes they'll occur for no apparent reason. But many people are able to see a correlation between certain behaviors and their seizures. By taking steps to minimize these factors, you may be able to prevent seizures.
Seizure Prevention Tips
Here are some tips that may help reduce your risk of having an epilepsy seizure:
Get plenty of sleep each night — set a regular sleep schedule, and stick to it.
Learn stress management and relaxation techniques.
Avoid drugs and alcohol.
Take all of your medications as prescribed by your doctor.
Avoid bright, flashing lights and other visual stimuli.
Skip TV and computer time whenever possible.
Avoid playing video games.
Eat a healthy diet.
Until more is known about the causes of epilepsy and how it can be prevented, your best bet to prevent seizures associated with epilepsy is to avoid the things that can trigger your seizures. This can make a measurable difference in the number of seizures you have.