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Dr. Rajendra Jhawad

Neurologist, Mumbai

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Dr. Rajendra Jhawad Neurologist, Mumbai
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Hello and thank you for visiting my Lybrate profile! I want to let you know that here at my office my staff and I will do our best to make you comfortable. I strongly believe in ethics; a......more
Hello and thank you for visiting my Lybrate profile! I want to let you know that here at my office my staff and I will do our best to make you comfortable. I strongly believe in ethics; as a health provider being ethical is not just a remembered value, but a strongly observed one.
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Dr. Rajendra Jhawad is a popular Neurologist in Malad West, Mumbai. You can consult Dr. Rajendra Jhawad at Shri Siddhivinayak Polyclinic in Malad West, Mumbai. Save your time and book an appointment online with Dr. Rajendra Jhawad on

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Shri Siddhivinayak Polyclinic

Plot No.101 Marve Link Building, Link Road, Malad West. Landmark: Behind Uncles Kitchen Mith Chowky, MumbaiMumbai Get Directions
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Epilepsy: Knowledge for General Public

Diploma in Psychological Medicine, MBBS
Psychiatrist, Ludhiana

Epilepsy is a chronic disorder of the brain that affects people worldwide. It is characterized by recurrent seizures, which are brief episodes of involuntary movement that may involve a part of the body (partial) or the entire body (generalized), and are sometimes accompanied by loss of consciousness and control of bowel or bladder function.

Seizure episodes are a result of excessive electrical discharges in a group of brain cells. Different parts of the brain can be the site of such discharges. Seizures can vary from the briefest lapses of attention or muscle jerks to severe and prolonged convulsions. Seizures can also vary in frequency, from less than 1 per year to several per day.

One seizure does not signify epilepsy (up to 10% of people worldwide have one seizure during their lifetime). Epilepsy is defined as having 2 or more unprovoked seizures.

Fear, misunderstanding, discrimination and social stigma have surrounded epilepsy for centuries. This stigma continues in many countries today and can impact on the quality of life for people with the disorder and their families.

Signs and symptoms

Characteristics of seizures vary and depend on where in the brain the disturbance first starts, and how far it spreads. Temporary symptoms occur, such as loss of awareness or consciousness, and disturbances of movement, sensation (including vision, hearing and taste), mood, or other cognitive functions.

People with seizures tend to have more physical problems (such as fractures and bruising from injuries related to seizures), as well as higher rates of psychological conditions, including anxiety and depression. Similarly, the risk of premature death in people with epilepsy is up to 3 times higher than the general population, with the highest rates found in low- and middle-income countries and rural versus urban areas.

A great proportion of the causes of death related to epilepsy in low- and middle-income countries are potentially preventable, such as falls, drowning, burns and prolonged seizures.


Epilepsy is not contagious. The most common type of epilepsy, which affects 6 out of 10 people with the disorder, is called idiopathic epilepsy and has no identifiable cause.

Epilepsy with a known cause is called secondary epilepsy, or symptomatic epilepsy. The causes of secondary (or symptomatic) epilepsy could be:

  • brain damage from prenatal or perinatal injuries (e.g. a loss of oxygen or trauma during birth, low birth weight),
  • congenital abnormalities or genetic conditions with associated brain malformations,
  • a severe head injury,
  • a stroke that restricts the amount of oxygen to the brain,
  • an infection of the brain such as meningitis, encephalitis, neurocysticercosis,
  • certain genetic syndromes,
  • a brain tumor.


Epilepsy can be treated easily and affordable medication. Recent studies in both low- and middle-income countries have shown that up to 70% of children and adults with epilepsy can be successfully treated (i.e. their seizures completely controlled) with anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs). Furthermore, after 2 to 5 years of successful treatment and being seizure-free, drugs can be withdrawn in about 70% of children and 60% of adults without subsequent relapse.


Idiopathic epilepsy is not preventable. However, preventive measures can be applied to the known causes of secondary epilepsy.

  • Preventing head injury is the most effective way to prevent post-traumatic epilepsy.
  • Adequate perinatal care can reduce new cases of epilepsy caused by birth injury.
  • The use of drugs and other methods to lower the body temperature of a feverish child can reduce the chance of febrile seizures.
  • Central nervous system infections are common causes of epilepsy in tropical areas, where many low- and middle-income countries are concentrated.
  • Elimination of parasites in these environments and education on how to avoid infections can be effective ways to reduce epilepsy worldwide, for example those cases due to neurocysticercosis.
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I recently read that researchers believe certain foods might cure Alzheimer�s disease. Is this true? If so, which foods do this and how much would you have to consume to get the benefits?

Diploma in Hospital Administration, MD - Obstetrtics & Gynaecology, MBBS
General Physician, Delhi
For Alzheimer, you eat things from these 10 food groups: • Green leafy vegetables (like spinach and salad greens): At least six servings a week • Other vegetables: At least one a day • Nuts: Five servings a week • Berries: Two or more servings a week • Beans: At least three servings a week • Whole grains: Three or more servings a day • Fish: Once a week • Poultry (like chicken or turkey): Two times a week • Olive oil: Use it as your main cooking oil. • Wine: One glass a day You avoid: • Red meat: Less than four servings a week • Butter and margarine: Less than a tablespoon daily • Cheese: Less than one serving a week • Pastries and sweets: Less than five servings a week • Fried or fast food: Less than one serving a week
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My problem is insomnia and disturbed sleep for about 5 years now. Would sleeping tablets help or would they be habit forming? Is their anything I can take over the counter for this?

General Physician, Fatehabad
My problem is insomnia and disturbed sleep for about 5 years now. Would sleeping tablets help or would they be habit ...
Hi lybrate-user, These all-natural sleep aids will have you drifting off in no time, no Rx necessary. 1. Consider Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: Cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia or CBT-I is considered the gold standard for insomnia treatment, the method with the most scientific evidence to support it. Typically, CBT-I involves meeting regularly with a therapist for various sleep assessments, according to the National Sleep Foundation, and you may be asked to keep a sleep journal and change a number of your sleep habits. 2. Take A Warm Bath: You can skip the candles and rose petals, but a soothing soak really can help you get to sleep. That's because relaxing in the tub will raise your body temperature slightly, and when you get out, the rapid cooldown will mimic the natural temperature drop the brain triggers as it prepares for sleep. A small 1985 study found that people who take a warm bath before bed not only fall asleep more quickly, but also report better quality of sleep. 3. Meditate: f you'd rather quiet your mind but leave your muscles out of it, a simple mindfulness meditation may also do the trick. A 2009 study found that meditation can help fight insomnia. The researchers found that meditators slept longer and better thanks to the deep relaxation powers of the practice. Try this 10-step meditation for better sleep tonight. If that's not quite your style, even just some deep breathing can help clear your mind and better prepare you for sleep. 4. Break a sweat: Regular exercisers may not realize it, but they're onto something. The physically active report getting better sleep than people who don't work out, according to the 2013 National Sleep Foundation's Sleep In America poll. It seems that the particular timing or form of exercise isn't as important as whether or not you simply move, says Grandner: "The evidence is out there that people who are even getting mild exercise are sleeping better than those who aren't. If that doesn't convince you to exercise even just a little, we don't know what will. 5. Do yoga: As a form of mind-quieting physical activity, yoga may just be the best of two worlds. And while there aren't exactly scientific studies showing a regular yoga practice can help you get more or better sleep, we do know that yoga does wonders for relaxation. "If your sleep problem is that you're unable to relax, [yoga] could be a way to intervene. 6. Aromatherapy: Whether it's an essential oil, a bath scrub, a sachet in an eye mask or even a pillow or mattress, lavender is the scent you're searching for if you want more and better sleep. In a small 2005 study, a whiff of lavender before bed resulted in more deep sleep. And a 2008 study found that smelling lavender helped a small group of women with insomnia fall asleep more easily. Hope this helps. Good Luck.
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Prevention of Seizure

BHMS, MD - Homeopathy
Homeopath, Chennai
Since the cause of epilepsy is often unknown, it can't be prevented, but the seizures associated with epilepsy can be.

Seizures can occur for a number of reasons and often they can be prevented. One common cause of seizures is epilepsy, and in most cases, seizures associated with the condition can be prevented if you know what's triggering them and take steps to modify or avoid those triggers.

Epilepsy Causes, Treatment, and Prevention

Epilepsy — a disorder in which a person has recurring, unprompted seizures due to abnormal electrical activity in the brain — affects an estimated 50 million people worldwide. In about half of those people, the cause of the epilepsy is unknown. Among the other 25 million individuals, the cause may be a defect in the structure of the brain, a tumor or stroke, or a severe head injury — the most common known cause in young adults, according to the Epilepsy Therapy Project. Therefore, it's important to protect your head with a helmet any time you're engaged in an activity in which your head could be damaged, such as playing a contact sport like football or riding a bicycle, all-terrain vehicle, or motorcycle.

There are several medications that can successfully treat and manage epilepsy and help keep seizures to a minimum. Anticonvulsant drugs can work if taken correctly. In some cases, a low carbohydrate, high-fat diet known as the ketogenic diet may be prescribed to help treat children with epilepsy and prevent seizures.

Know Your Triggers, Prevent Seizures

Epileptic seizures are often associated with particular triggers or changes in your daily habits or routine. Here are some common behaviors and factors that may trigger an epileptic seizure:

.Stress, anxiety, or other emotional issues
.Alcohol or drug abuse or the process of quitting alcohol or drugs
.Change in sleep schedules, feeling very tired, or significant sleep deprivation
.A change in medications, or skipping or missing a dose of .anti-seizure medication
.Something that overstimulates the senses, like lights that flash brightly, watching television, playing video or computer games, or working on a computer
.Hormonal changes in women, often from pregnancy or menstruation
.Mental strain, such as from solving complex problems

You can't always predict what will trigger an epileptic seizure; sometimes they'll occur for no apparent reason. But many people are able to see a correlation between certain behaviors and their seizures. By taking steps to minimize these factors, you may be able to prevent seizures.

Seizure Prevention Tips

Here are some tips that may help reduce your risk of having an epilepsy seizure:

Get plenty of sleep each night — set a regular sleep schedule, and stick to it.
Learn stress management and relaxation techniques.
Avoid drugs and alcohol.
Take all of your medications as prescribed by your doctor.
Avoid bright, flashing lights and other visual stimuli.
Skip TV and computer time whenever possible.
Avoid playing video games.
Eat a healthy diet.
Until more is known about the causes of epilepsy and how it can be prevented, your best bet to prevent seizures associated with epilepsy is to avoid the things that can trigger your seizures. This can make a measurable difference in the number of seizures you have.
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Sir I recently noticed that while doing push ups my left elbow was popping every time I did push ups. It felt like something is rolling up and down the side of elbow. I also noticed some tingling sensation in my fifth finger. Please tell me what should I do.

MBBS, MD - Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
Pain Management Specialist, Jaipur
Sir I recently noticed that while doing push ups my left elbow was popping every time I did push ups. It felt like so...
Hello lybrate-user As per your symptoms, you are having ligament weakness of left elbow, causing ulnar nerve compression resulting in tingling sensation in 5th finger. Get X-ray Left elbow-AP/Lateral view done. We need to discuss more about your symptoms and find out correct disease so, kindly get these investigations done and review as early as possible. Kindly consult me in private as I can't write medicines here. Thank you. Get well soon.
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I am suffering from migraine. Many a times I have to face severe attacks of headache. Many a times I require allopathic injections for the headache to subside. Please prescribe a medicine that will help me get rid of headache.

General Physician, Delhi
I am suffering from migraine. Many a times I have to face severe attacks of headache. Many a times I require allopath...
Migraine can b prevented now by a number of drugs but you have to take medicine for at least two years and you will b free of headaches I need more details regarding the headache pattern and your triggers which induce headaches in you.
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I have headache problem. Please tell me the symptoms of migraine and prescription for that.

MBBS, MD Psychiatry, DNB Psychiatry
Psychiatrist, Nagpur
Migraine is a kind of relapsing headache. Its symptoms include - episodic unilateral or bilateral, severe and pulsating headaches, associated at times with nausea and vomiting, relieved momentarily on rest or taking medications and aggravated by precipitating factors. The treatment of migraine is mainly done for relief from acute headache attacks and later treatments to prevent future relapses. Also treatment of factors which tend to cause relapses is also important. Consult a headache specialist for a composite and complete treatment. You may contact me online for further queries and assistance in treatment in this regard.
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Hi Sir, My brother had cough & fever from Sept-Nov 2015 he was on Antibiotics, Paracetamol and cough syrup for same time but didn't got any relief finally done Chest CT scan in Nov and found Pleural Effusion, pleural fluid aspirate done on 24th Nov but whole fluid didn't not aspirated because patient get vertigo problem during aspiration so doctor stop aspiration, from 24th Nov TB treatment started. He got mild relief from cough and fever But after 15-20 days he again faced severe cough and mild fever, again CT scan and Chest sonography done and found some pleural fluid. Again, pleural fluid aspiration done and TB treatment continue, from that day he started getting relief day by day. Now is feeling absolutely fine. TB treatment is continue from Nov till today. From April he started feeling Hip shoulder back knee and Feet pain, some blood test done and found Vitamin B12 & Vitamin D is very much deficient. Both vitamin B12 and D injections and capsules Tablets supplement started and got felling better but didn't get any relief in Feet pain. Since last 40 days he having pain, pin needles and burning sensation in both feet.As per doctor prescription all types pain killer reliever like Dynapar SR, Zobid Zerodol SP etc taken but till today didn't got any relief in feet pain, even pain killer didn't work for 1 hour. We took opinion from Orthopedic and Neuro Surgeon and done MRI of Spine and Feet, MRI is normal as per MRI report but Feet pain and burning is still persist Now we consult with Neurologist, he said it look that it's Neuropathy due to TB medicine Isonizad. He said to consult TB physician and stop taking Isonizad and he prescribed Tab Pregabalin, Zen 100, Ultracet and Deep Senz ointment. We again consult with our TB physician, he said TB drug Isonizad can't be withdrawal because if we stop it TB May relapse later. As per doctor TB treatment will continue for more 3 months i. E. Till the end August Feet pain burning pin needles sensation is still persist. So now we are very confused and can't understand what to do. We have following questions 1 Please advise us what to do 2 Is Neuropathy is permanent? 3 Can neuropathy can be cured? 4 Can we stop Isonizad? Thanks & regards.

DNB(Respiratory Diseases), MBBS
Pulmonologist, Jabalpur
Hi Sir,
My brother had cough & fever from Sept-Nov 2015 he was on Antibiotics, Paracetamol and cough syrup for same t...
Neuropathy is usually irreversible, but can be benefited after some time and taking few drugs with tb drugs to prevent further neuropathy. Isoniazid can be stopped but it may weaken the course of treatment and the chances of getting tb again may increase with a weak course.
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I'm a 24 year old who is suffering from AVM in brain.Please let me know what could be the cause of it.

General Physician, Nashik
The cause of brain avm is unknown, but researchers believe most brain avms emerge during fetal development. Anyone can be born with a brain avm, but these factors may be a risk: being male. Avms are more common in males. Having a family history. Cases of avms in families have been reported, but it's unclear if there's a certain genetic factor or if the cases are only coincidental. It's also possible to inherit other medical conditions that predispose you to having vascular malformations such as avms.
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