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The body functions are controlled by hormones which are produced by various endocrine glands (named so because these glands secrete hormones directly into the body). There are various endocrine glands, and these are controlled by the master endocrine gland which is the pituitary gland.
The pituitary gland is attached to the base of the brain. It also produces prolactin which helps regulate milk production when a woman is breast-feeding. To a smaller extent, it also has some effect on other hormones.
Prolactinoma is a benign tumour of the pituitary gland which produces large amount of prolactin. The cells in the pituitary gland multiply to produce large amounts of prolactin. In people with prolactinoma, there are reduced amounts of oestrogen in females and testosterones in males.
Causes: Though the cause is unknown, a genetic connection believed to exist. Also, people who are hypothyroidic, pregnant, and/or breast-feeding have a higher chance of developing this condition. They can develop in men as well. Interestingly, this is the most common form of pituitary gland tumour.
Types: Depending on the size of the tumour, the tumour is of two main types—microprolactinoma (when the tumour measures less than 10 mm) and macroprolactinoma (when the tumour measures more than 10 mm).
Signs and symptoms: Though the most important function of prolactin is the regulation of breast milk production, it also has various other functions in both men and women. The symptoms, therefore, would depend on the gender and the age group.
If teenagers are affected, there could be reduced growth and delayed puberty.
In addition to the above symptoms, as the tumour continues to grow, there could be pressure on the surrounding nerves, leading to headaches, blurred of vision, and even double vision. As the tumour grows, the normal pituitary functioning may be affected, and other hormones may not be produced and accordingly the symptoms would appear.
Treatment: One of the main reasons it gets diagnosed is infertility. When ruling out causes for infertility, prolactinoma is suspected and to rule this out blood tests are done. Increased amounts of the hormone would lead to undergoing MRI scans and other tests to confirm the diagnosis.
Once confirmed, the treatment would depend on the symptoms and the patient. It causes reduced amounts of oestrogen and testosterone, which is usually harmless. Unless required, some people can choose to go without any treatment. Hormone supplements can be used to restore the normal hormone levels. Dopamine antagonists can be used to suppress the production of prolactin from the pituitary gland. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult an Endocrinologist.
I had intercourse with my partner on 22nd july during my periods. After that till date I did not have my periods. I did two home preg test they were negative and blood hcg test which was less than 1.2. What are the chances of getting pregnant? I took meprate for 5 days.
My belly is growing day by day. I am just 21. What will I do so that I can manage myself and be fit?
I am having problem of constant bloating and burping throughout the day which makes me very uncomfortable. When I lie down I have additionally severe burning sensation between stomach and chest. This may last anything up to and hour or so. To some extent it gets reduced when I drink little bit of cold milk. Please advise the cause and treatment.
Reasons for hairfall? 1. Due to wearing helmet 2. Wearing cap regularly 3. Washing hair daily with water Any food to be eaten for better growth and food which should be avoided?
I'm 18 years old I had a unprotected sex with my bf on 17 Nov and after 10 min I took ipill. And my monthly periods was over on 11 Nov but after 3rd day of ipill I had my periods again in very low amount. Plzzz reply me fast. Whether it is safe or unsafe. I'm so scared.
What is the best aayurved medicine for weight gaining, and best cream for facial use? Hope you will reply.
Lybrate | Dr. Premjot Singh Girgla speaks on IMPORTANCE OF TREATING ACNE EARLY
I hv a strange odor of vaginal area, I am going to be married nxt month. I am worried about it. What to do as home remedies?
45 days ago my mom was suffering from high blood pressure and long period knee pain issue, she is also suffering from thyroid and blood sugar issue. Within 45 days she got a wound in her armpit. When we consult doctor they told us all issues from that wound, they referred to another wound specialist. 1 day before operation her sugar down to 25 to 30. Then a sugar recovered in icu and again told to remove wound first, so we visit referred hospital where a big operation is done within her breast and armpit. Now 30 days happen of operation and we are maintaining sugar level from being down few days ago blood pressure was going normal. But now a pain and a paralysis feel in her west started. We have gone through MRI and get some Neuro doctor's doc take whole spinal, limbs mri and ncv test something like ECG and told us on mri her waist clearly showing twisted but that is from 6-7 years ago, they also told some white substances in her spinal which may be bacterial or tuberculosis infections, my mom is taking aayurved medicine for recovering paralysis effects also taking Neuro medicine Etocox 120 - 1 time Icon-od - 1 time Rb _DSR -1 time Tryptomer 8 mg Also one injection of depomedrol 80 mg one day nitro 2.6 - 2 times ranolz 500 - 1 time dilzem 30 - 2 time ondem 4 - 2 time 1 hr before meal eltroxin 100 mg - 1 time before taking food in morning Mom thinks she is getting better slowly by ayurveda but reality is that she is taking ayurveda from 20 days but condition not improve she walks 2 month before common but now after operation complete she can walk 3 trip a room by Walker, also she feels spasm all time and pain continue until she take ultracet. - 1 time myodril 8 mg - 1 time Suggested by an ortho doctors My problem is don't know how much time she will take many types of medicine and when this pain end for us. Please help sir.
I am 24 years old I have acne and hormonal problem I consulted skin doctor she advice me aldactone and isotroin tablets since 3 months then I have some side effects dry skin dry lips burning eyes. Its common side effects. But since 3days I have bleeding in my vagina. But my 15 days after periods.
I'm 17 years old. My height 5'1" I want to raise my height. I want to increase 6 to 7 inches. For what medicines can I eat?
I am 19 years old male, I do not have asthma but sometimes I experience severe pain in my chest and shortness of breath. This does not happen on a regular basis, but every alternate day.
We store water in all sorts of plastic bottles, jugs or containers. It can be low grade or high grade, but plastic is plastic! This is a very harmful daily practice as plastic containers carry lot of chemicals and bacteria.
Let's see the harmful effects of drinking water in plastic bottles:
1. Harmful Substances: Apart from harmful chemicals in plastic, water when get stored in plastic bottles also produces harmful substances like fluoride, arsenic and aluminium which can be poison for human body. So, drinking water from plastic bottles would mean drinking slow poison that will slowly and steadily deteriorate your health.
2. Dioxin Production: Plastic does melt in hot environment. And we, often store water in plastic bottles while driving and so many times leave it in the car where it is in the direct exposure of sun. Such heating releases a toxin called Dioxin which when consumed can accelerate breast cancer.
3. BPA Generation: Biphenyl A is an estrogen-mimicking chemical which can lead to lot of health problems like diabetes, obesity, fertility problems, behavioural problems and early puberty in girls. It's better not to store and drink water from a plastic bottle.
4. Liver Cancer and Reduced Sperm Count: Because of presence of a chemical called phthalates in plastic, drinking water from plastic bottles can also lead to liver cancer and reduction in sperm count.
5. Vitamin-Based Bottled Water: Nowadays, we get water mostly in plastic bottles and to increase its health content, manufacturers make it vitamin-enriched to attract buyers. But this is even more harmful as it carries health-harming additives like food dyes and high fructose corn syrup.
6. Impact on immune system: Our immune system is immensely affected when we drink water in plastic bottles. The chemicals from plastic bottles are ingested and tend to disturb our body's immune system.
I hope the above reasons are enough for you to think carefully before you drink water from a plastic bottle the next time. If you need more convincing or would like to understand the effects better, feel free to ask me your query.
Also, if you found this helpful, please Share this with people you love and care for.
For long, there have been campaigns and discussions about the harmful effects and diseases associated with alcohol consumption. In most cases, it is not the alcohol, but the quantity consumed that affects a person. Limited consumption of alcohol can, in fact, work to your advantage. Alcohol, when consumed in moderation, helps to avert, check or improve many medical conditions and health ailments.
- Deal with common cold effectively: According to research, the antioxidants present in wine helps to fight common cold better. Limited intake of alcohol, red wine to be precise (~1-2 glasses per day), can, thus, help to reduce the instances of common cold significantly.
- Weight loss made easy: Studies conducted by the Oregon State University suggest that certain varieties red wine (the Red Muscadine Wine) can play a pivotal role in weight reduction. The Red Muscadine, a variety of wine grapes used to make red wine contains ellagic acid. It is this ellagic acid that helps to cease or slow down the growth and development of the fat cells. Red wine also helps to manage fatty liver effectively.
- Keep cardiovascular diseases at bay: The high-density lipoprotein (HDL), also known as the Good Cholesterol is indeed good for the body. It acts as a shield, keeping the heart hale and hearty. Moderate alcohol consumption helps to elevate the level of HDL. One of the main reasons attributing to heart attacks are the small blood clots that block the arteries of the brain, heart, and neck. Alcohol (limited intake) has been able to put a check in the formation of such blood clots.
- Reduced instances of cognitive impairment: Reports suggest that people who consume alcohol within limits are less likely to develop dementia and Alzheimer's disease. Moderate consumption tends to make the brain cells fit and more active, thus, enabling the cells to deal with stress and other related factors.
- A little wine for a better libido: Limited consumption of wine is good for a better sexual life. Research indicate that the antioxidants present in wine act as a catalyst, resulting in an improved libido (lowers the incidences of erectile dysfunction in men). A little wine can work wonders for women as well (increasing their sexual desires and feelings).
- Enjoy a diabetes-free life: Type 2 Diabetes and the associated ailments and complications can make life miserable. However, people who consume a small quantity of alcohol (preferably 1-2 glasses per day) are at a lower risk of developing diabetes (Type 2). A path-breaking finding indeed!
People with moderate alcohol consumption are also at a lower risk of developing gallstones. The high silicone content in beer helps to strengthen the bones, but only when consumed within limits. Beer is also rich in calcium, magnesium, and vitamins (thiamine, riboflavin). If you wish to discuss any specific problem, you can consult a general physician.