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The problem of an enlarged prostate or benign prostate hyperplasia is a very common occurrence as you grow older. It's known to strike men above the age of 50, with more than 50% of men after the age of 60, having this complaint.
Causes of enlarged prostate
A non-cancerous condition, enlarged prostate makes the passing of urine from the bladder through the urethra difficult. The multiplication of the prostate cells causes an enlargement of the gland, leading to a buildup of pressure on the urethra, affecting the discharge of urine from the body. The narrowing of the urethra, due to this benign condition, forces the bladder to contract more vigorously so as to push urine out of the body.
As time passes, the muscles of the bladder get significantly affected, causing them to become extremely sensitive, thicker and stronger. As a consequence, the bladder begins to contract, even if the amount of urine in the organ is negligible, causing episodes of frequent urination. Gradually, the bladder fails to completely empty itself of urine due to the constriction of the urethra. This can give rise to a number of health problems including the formation of bladder stones, urinary tract infections, blood in the urine and so on.
How can you identify the signs of the condition?
Signs of enlarged prostate are very easy to identify and include:
- A slow or weak urine flow
- Difficulty in initiating urination
- Instances of frequent urination
- A feeling of not completely emptying one's bladder
- Frequent urination during the night
- Exerting a lot to urinate
- Instances of dribbling
- Urgency to pass urine
- A feeling of urinating again minutes after doing so
- Urination that starts and stops. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a General Surgeon.
My doctor is asking for rs. 45000/- for I-131 treatment after iodine test being done and confirmed presence of cancer nodule near thyroid, after being operated for complete thyroidectomy. Please advise me is it right?
My mother is a cancer patient (breast cancer - removed with MRM surgery followed by chemotherapy - now on oral medication of Altraz 1 mg). She is 59 - diabetic (but now controlled) - having a problem of upset stomach and constipation which is not treated properly with ishabgol and looz syrup also - taking rifagut 550 with normaxin everyday (as per gastrointestinal specialist) along with some other prescribed medications (for diabetes, peripheral neuropathy, high BP, Hyperthyroid) - suffers from gastric problems also - in low energy all the time Now facing a problem in eating CURD which further creates problem like gas and indigestion. You are requested to guide me for this. Thanks.
What you have to cure cancer forever? Why there is not a Single method to cure cancer in its last stage? What about blood cancer? How to prevent cancer? And WHY we can't use small robo-cells to cure cancer, to help destroy cancer cells and strengthen healthy cells?
Hi. I am 26, married male. I have a lump in my right chest. Under my nipple. Painful sometimes. Is it serious?
The cancer of the ovaries is known as ovarian cancer. In women there are two ovaries present on each side of the uterus. These ovaries are as big as an almond in size and produce egg also known as ova. They also secrete the hormones progesterone and estrogen.
Ovarian cancer goes undetected until it spreads to the abdomen and pelvis. When detected at this stage then it might be fatal and the treatment gets difficult. An early stage ovarian cancer where the cancer is restricted in the ovaries is much easier to treat with high success rates.
Risk Factors of Ovarian Cancer
1. Age - With increasing age the risk of ovarian cancer is higher and is more common in women who are 60 and above. It is less common in women below 40 years of age and develops often after menopause.
Obesity Women who have a body mass index of 30 are at a risk of developing ovarian cancer.
2. History of Reproduction - It is believed that women who conceive before 26 and carry the full term have a lower risk of ovarian cancer. However, the risk is higher in those women who get pregnant after 35 or who do not have a full term pregnancy. Also, breastfeeding the baby lowers the risk.
3. Gene Mutation - Inherited gene mutation causes some percentage of ovarian cancer. These genes are called breast cancer genes 1 and 2 (BRCA1 and BRCA2). These were initially found in cases with breast cancer but also pose great risk for ovarian cancer. Also, gene mutation leading to Lynch syndrome plays an important role in increasing the risk of ovarian cancer.
4. Family History - If a woman's mother, sister or daughter is suffering from ovarian cancer then she is at a higher risk of developing the same. The risk also increases if someone from the father's side also has ovarian cancer.
5. Fertility Drugs - Drugs like clomiphene citrate, if used for more than a year can increase the risk of the cancer. The risk is even higher if a woman taking the drug does not get pregnant.
6. Hormone Therapy and Estrogen Therapy - Long term use and large doses of estrogen can cause an increased risk. However, if estrogen is used in combination with progesterone then the risk is less.
7. Age of menstruation and menopause - If menstruation starts before 12 and menopause occurs before 52 then there is a higher risk of getting the cancer.
8. Diet - A low fat vegetarian diet has less risk of the disease. Fresh fruit and vegetables should be included in diet along with pulses, rice, pasta, beans, cereals and breads. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a gynaecologist.
Cervical cancer is a malignancy that grows in the lining of the cervix. Cervical cancer screening includes 2 types of screening tests such as HPV testing and the Cytology based screening. The Cytology based screening is also referred to as Pap smear. The abnormal cells that can develop into cancer, if they are left untreated, can be detected with the Pap test. It is the best method for preventing cervical cancer and even to check for the HPV Virus. Pap tests are done in different ways but the most common method is to brush the cells off to get a sample from the cervical region. These cells are then sent to the lab for testing which is done by placing them on a glass slide and observing them under a microscope.
When cervical cancer screening should be done-
It is necessary for women to get the cervical screening done at the age of 21 years. Pap test should be done every 3 years by women who are between the ages of 21-29 years and unless it is really needed the HPV test need not be done. Whereas women who are in between the ages of 30-65 should get the Pap test as well as the HPV test once in 5 years.
The precancerous changes in the cervix can be detected through the Pap smear screening. The number of deaths that have occurred due to this cancer have been reduced by using this effective screening tool which was introduced 50 years ago. The possible causes of cervical cancer are a weak immune system, smoking, consuming oral contraceptives and having several sexual partners.
Important Guidelines to Follow
Women who are over 65 years and who have done regular Pap smear screening over the past 10 years must not do the screening tests unless they have any serious pre-cancers found.
Women of any age must not opt for any of the screening methods every year. Even women who have removed their cervix and uterus must not do the screening tests.
Many women feel that they do not have to do the screening tests after they have delivered or birth of a child but it is not true. The main benefit of screening is that most cervical cancers can be prevented and it is the best way to find abnormal changes in the cervical cells.
Why cervical cancer screening is important?
The cervical cancer screening is an important test in the health checkup for women. There are certain risks involved in cervical screening and it is better to consult the doctor for advice on the right age to do the screening and how often it must be done. These days there are vaccines available that are used to prevent infections by targeting the several strains of HPV. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!