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Caesarean Section Procedure
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Termination Of Pregnancy Procedure
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Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Treatment Of Medical Diseases In Pregnancy
Treatment Of Menstrual Problems
Intra-Uterine Insemination (IUI) Treatment
Medical Termination Of Pregnancy (Mtp) Procedure
Gynecology Laparoscopy Procedures
Pap Smear Procedure
Urinary Incontinence (Ui) Treatment
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I found the answers provided by the Dr. Niraj Mahajan to be professional. Wen i read this article of miscarriage lots of doubt has been now clear
ya i m really happy about doctor answer
It is said that blocked fallopian tubes are the most common cause of female infertility in about 40% women who are infertile. Fallopian tubes are channels through which the egg travels to reach the uterus and blockage of these tubes can put a stop to this from taking place. Depending on the different parts of the tubes, this form of blockage is of several types.
What are the different types of fallopian tube blockages?
1. Proximal tubal occlusion
This form of fallopian tube blockage involves the isthmus (an area of about 2 cm long, this part of the fallopian tube connects the infundibulum and ampulla to the uterus). This problem occurs after an illness like complications associated with abortion, cesarean section, PID (pelvic inflammatory disease).
2. Mid-segment tubal obstruction
It occurs in the ampullary section of the fallopian tube and is most frequently a result of tubal ligation damage. The procedure of tubal ligation is performed to put a stop to pregnancy permanently.
3. Distal tubal occlusion
This is a kind of blockage wherein the section of the fallopian tube that is close to the ovary is affected and is commonly associated with a condition known as hydrosalpinx (a condition in which the fallopian tube is filled with fluid). The latter is often brought on by Chlamydia infection, leading to fallopian tube and pelvic adhesions.
The conditions that may give rise to this problem can include:
1. Genital tuberculosis (the TB infection that occurs in the genital tract)
2. Ectopic pregnancy (pregnancy in which the embryo places itself outside the uterus)
3. Tubal ligation removal
4. Complications related to surgery of the lower abdomen
5. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)
6. Uterine fibroids (benign growths that occur in the uterus)
7. Endometriosis (development of uterine tissue outside of the organ)
These disorders can lead to the development of scar tissue, adhesions, polyps or tumors to form inside the pathway. Additionally, the tubes can also get stuck to other body parts such as the ovaries, bladder, uterus and bowels. Two things can happen to the fallopian tubes, either they can become twisted or the tubes walls may stick together, leading to a complete blockage. Moreover, even if the fallopian tubes are partially damaged, they can remain open so as to enable pregnancy to occur, while increasing your risk for ectopic pregnancy. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a gynaecologist and ask a free question.
My wife had been pregnant about one and half month can we do intercourse. Or not. What could be possibilities. If had intercourse.
Hello doctor. I took ipill within half an hour after doing protected sex with my bf. Cozhe ejaculated near my vagina. That was the last day of my period all this happened. But coz of tension I took ipill on same evening. I also got bleeding 7 days after taking ipill. Now its been 4 weeks still im testing negative .im feeling vomiting sensation feeling gassy alot. Is there any change of pregnancy?
I wish to know if in every pregnancy that occurs after age 40, the delivery is done through C-section rather than the normal way? How is it determined whether a delivery should be done normally or through C-section?
M having pcod. But since 2 years I was not on medication. But from last 3months im facing d problem again. I hvnt gt d periods for 1.5mnth. My doc suggested me to take sysron ncr for 3 days. Still hvnt gt d periods. Please help.
My wife is pregnant. But doctor said not to have sex for 4.5 months. Is It compulsory not to have sex for 4.5 month?Please give me good suggestion.
This sunday I am going to my wife house and still she asking me about anal sex without condom. We are 100% sure that there is no problem in both my penis or her ass hole. Can we go for a anal sex again without condom? There is any chance of pregnancy when I ejaculated to her anus.
I want to get pregnant, I am trying since last 9 months, few months I feel that I am conceived but after three or four days of my period missing. My period again started. Me and my husband are trying our effort took medicine had check up but still 0. Can you just please suggest me something to try at home.
Hello Mam, My age is 32 years, I had conceived on third clomid cycle but had a miscarriage a year ago. After that have gone through more 4 clomid cycles, tried IUI, had laparoscopy (which came out to be negative having no issues). Have gone through baseline cycles also which even had good results. But inspite of all this I am still not able to conceive. So kindly suggest me what further should be done.
Hi, am 25 and want to know about hymenoplasty. Is this facility available at your clinic, if yes then what could be the associated risk and estimated cost for this. Thanks in advance.
My friend had unprotected sex with her boyfriend on 27th August and she took ipill (ecp) after 7 hours of intercourse. After 4 days I.e. On 1 september she started bleeding which continued till 4th September. Then she did home 4 urine pregnancy test after 21 days of intercourse, 28 days, 35 days and 42 days of intercourse. All the test came NEGATIVE. She did a beta hcg test on 18th October which was 51 days after intercourse. The result was <1.2miU/mL. Then after 5 days i.e. On 23 October she started bleeding which continued till 29th October. Last month also she bleed from 23 November to 29th November. This month also bleeding started from 21st December. Question 1: Pregnant or not? Question 2: are these the actual periods?
Toxic shock syndrome is a severe condition resulting from a bacterial infection. This infection is caused by the bacteria, Staphylococcus Aureus, which enter the bloodstream. Once into the bloodstream, the bacteria start producing toxins in the body. This is common among menstruating women who have a habit of using super-absorbent tampons. It can, however, also affect men and children.
In case of toxic shock syndrome, one might experience symptoms of low blood pressure and fever. Dryness of the eyes and the mouth, muscle pain and diarrhea are also common symptoms of this disorder. Your blood pressure may drop suddenly, making you prone to fatigue and nausea.
This type of infection occurs when the bacteria enter the body through a cut or sore on the skin. Women who use tampons during their menstrual cycles are vulnerable as tampons happen to be thriving spots for bacteria if aren’t changed frequently. Fibers present in the tampons may also create friction against the vagina, thus creating an opening for the bacteria to enter the bloodstream.
In addition to the causes, there are certain risk factors for toxic shock syndrome:
- Presence of an open wound on the skin
- Giving birth to a child
- Using vaginal sponge or diaphragm as contraceptives
This disorder is considered to be a medical emergency. To combat the bacterial infection, antibiotics are administered into the body via intravenous means. The course of the antibiotic treatment lasts for about 7-8 weeks. There are other treatments for this disorder, which mainly depend on the causes. If the cause of the disorder is a tampon or a vaginal sponge, then it will need to be removed from the body. In case of a wound being the cause, the pus from the wound will need to be drained. Blood pressure medications are also possible treatment modes for toxic shock syndrome.
You can also follow these preventive measures:
1. Replace your tampon regularly
2. Avoid using super absorbent tampons
3. Use sanitary napkins when the volume of bleeding is low
4. In case of wounds, keep the area clean and dry
If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a doctor and ask a free question.
Endometriosis is a painful condition where the endometrium tissue lining the walls of the uterus, grows as implants outside the womb of the patient. This can lead to a number of painful conditions and is often considered as a common cause behind severe pelvic pain, as far as women are concerned. Here is all you need to know about Endometriosis and pelvic pain.
- Painful Menstruation: Depending on the stage of the condition, the implants could remain on the surface or go deeper into the ovaries which may cause acute and severe problem during ovulation as well as the menstrual cycles. This is one of the symptoms that one must not ignore. If you are having painful cramps that affect the pelvic area and the abdomen, and if these cramps last throughout the duration of the cycle, then there are strong chances that you are experiencing the pain that comes with Endometriosis.
- Pain During and After Intercourse: While there are many reasons why women may face pain during intercourse, it may be noted that vaginal and pelvic pain that come during and after intercourse could point towards the presence of Endometriosis, which is causing irritation and discomfort due to the implants.
- Bowel Movements and Urination: Usually, pelvic pain may trickle down to and also get activated by the bowels when there is a motion as well as urination. This is a common problem that can cause pain, which spreads throughout the region if the patient is suffering from Endometriosis.
- Bloating and Other Symptoms: When the abdomen and nearby regions face bloating due to the implants and their painful spread, the pelvic region as a whole bears the brunt in terms of severe pelvic pain. The bloating and other symptoms like loose motions and constipation can also create pain in the abdomen and pelvic region on a persistence basis. Sharp pains may also shoot up and down the lower back due to such symptoms which should not be ignored if they do not abate within a few days.
- Misdiagnosis: Many times, the bloating and pelvic pain may be linked with pelvic inflammatory disease, which causes pain in the muscles and joints. But if you are having pain in the abdomen as well as problems during your menstrual cycle, then it may be helpful to have the tests for Endometriosis done as well.
In order to diagnose the condition, the doctor must ensure that proper imaging tests like MRI and CT scans as well as an ultrasound with lab tests based on blood samples have been conducted. The pelvic pain that comes with this condition can be treated with the help of pain relievers like ibuprofen and aspirin.
Pregnancy is a thrilling time period for every woman, but at times things can go wrong and turn out to be scary due to certain complications. Pregnancy Induced Hypertension or Preeclampsia is a high blood pressure disorder of pregnancy. It is a major problem that occurs in women during their pregnancy and it has an effect on nearly 7% of the first-time mothers. The Pregnancy Induced Hypertension causes serious complications and in severe cases, it is dangerous for the baby as well as the mother. Pregnant women suffering from this condition are induced with labor early if they suffer from PIH or pregnancy
The Three levels of Pregnancy Induced Hypertension include:
- Only high blood pressure
- High blood pressure and protein in urine or swelling
- High blood pressure, protein in urine, convulsions and swelling
Common Symptoms of Preeclampsia:
The main symptoms that occur are:
- Blurred vision
- Upper right Abdominal Pain
- Swelling in the Face and Hands
- Infrequent Urination
- Rapid weight gain
The methods that are used to test Pregnancy Induced Hypertension
- Cold pressor test
- Rollover test
- Isometric handgrip tests
These tests are carried out in pregnant women during their 29th to 31st week of pregnancy. These Pregnancy Induced Hypertension tests when proved positive and the diastolic rise in pressure was found to be about 20 mmHg. The pressure observed was not more than 140/90 in women in any case of two consecutive occasions. These results specify that not any of these trouble free physiologic tests are of any application as a predictor of Pregnancy Induced Hypertension.
Preeclampsia occurs in women with a history of hypertension in parents, high proteinuria, BMI or Body Mass Index and family history of diabetes. It is by using a partial set of maternal characteristics that pregnant women are at an increased risk of developing Pregnancy Induced Hypertension.
The cure for this condition-preeclampsia is delivery and in many cases, doctors insist their patients go for a caesarian section. Sometimes the Doctors suggest for an early delivery as it includes an additional threat of loss to the mother to be due to prematurity.
The inflammatory disorder is characterized by anti-angiogenic protein in high levels and soluble forms like tyrosine kinase in the maternal circulation. It is very important that pregnant women adopt the process of self evaluation to safeguard from risk of high blood pressure. They must monitor their blood pressure from time to time as it would empower them to care for their pregnancy and reduce the chances of complications during pregnancy.
Contraceptive methods of birth control are usually quite successful. By these methods, you can enjoy your life without the worry of pregnancy. Modern technology has led to the formulation of avid techniques of contraception; some are temporary and the others permanent. However, no matter how well these methods work, almost all of them have got a variety of side effects on your body and health.
Here is a list of different modes of contraception and the side effects they may cause:
This long term method of birth control is an effective one. The side effects are:
- A surgery is required where rods are inserted under your skin. This might be risky surgery
- If you want to remove it, again another surgery has to be carried out
- An Infection may develop in the area where the thin rods are inserted
Intra Uterine Device
A device is fitted into the uterus, which does not cause pregnancy. An effective method with the following side effects:
- There is a risk of the device falling off
- This causes puncture in the uterus
- The device made of copper may lead to menstrual cramps and spotting
Depo Provera Hormonal Injection
This mode of contraception involves taking an injection, which restricts pregnancy for a period of three months. The side effects are:
- Gaining of extra weight, fatigue
- Decrease of bone density
- Menstrual bleeding along with spotting takes place
Birth Control Pills
Birth control pills are one of the most common and most effective ways of birth control or contraception. However, several side effects may be observed.
- Causes nausea, headaches and also blood clots in rare cases
- In case you use other prescribed medicines along with birth control pills, severe damage may be inflicted
This mode of contraception is very effective. It also helps in making menstrual periods of women much lighter and in continuity. The side effects are:
- May cause nausea and headache
- There is a vast increase in appetite
- There is a risk of blood clot formation.
A very successful mode of contraception where a diaphragm is inserted and fitted into the vagina. The negatives of this mode are:
- It may get out of place during sex and is likely to cause damage
- The process can be a mess
- Causes urinary infections
All modes of contraception irrespective of their effectiveness have got some side effects on your health. Hence, you must choose them wisely.
There are two methods by which abortion can be done:
- Medical Abortion - Non-surgical abortion in which medicines are used to induce abortion
- Surgical Abortion - Use of transcervical procedures for terminating a pregnancy, including vacuum aspiration, and dilatation and evacuation (D and E).
Surgical or Medical Abortion for Unwanted Pregnancy
- If pregnancy is lesser than = 7 weeks; medical method with Mifepristone with Misoprostol is favorable as the success rate is as high as 97%.
- If pregnancy is between 7-12 weeks; surgical abortion is the only option.
- If pregnancy is beyond 12 weeks - 20 weeks, then the woman needs to be hospitalized and will be given either Mifepristone followed by Misoprostol tablet or only Misoprostol tablets and woman will then abort like a miscarriage in the hospital. If any products are remaining, then it will be evacuated surgically.
Surgical abortion is preferred if patient desires concurrent tubal ligation or IUCD (CuT) insertion. If a woman fulfills the criteria for selecting either method i.e. before 7 weeks, final choice has to be given to the woman.
Summary of choice between Surgical or Medical abortion in India
- Lesser than = 7 weeks - Medical method or surgical method
- 7-12 weeks - Surgical abortion
- 12 - 20 weeks - Medicines with or without surgical procedure in hospital
Advantages of Medical Abortion
- Avoid surgery - Controlled by the woman and may take place at home
- No need for admission to the hospital
- Usually, well tolerated by women, if properly counselled and motivated
- No need to take leave from work, as bleeding can be managed with menstrual pads even while in the office or at work.
Disadvantages of medical abortion
- Takes time (hours to days) to complete abortion, and the timing may not be predictable. Women experience bleeding and cramping, and potentially some other side-effects (nausea, vomiting, fever, and shivering). May require more clinic visits than surgical abortion.
Advantages of Surgical Abortion
- Quick procedure
- Complete abortion easily verified by evaluation of aspirated products of conception
- Takes place in a hospital so Sterilization or placement of an intrauterine device (IUD) may be performed at the same time as the procedure. It can be performed under local anaesthesia if woman is properly motivated and counselled
Disadvantages of surgical abortion
- Requires instrumentation of the uterus
- Small risk of uterine or cervical injury
- Timing of abortion controlled by the doctor and hospital
- Anaesthesia needs to be administered. Most doctors perform this procedure under short general anaesthesia. A woman needs to be in the hospital for at least 6 hours. Effect of sedation will be there throughout the day.