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Dr. Nayana Balakrishnan

MBBS, MD - Obstetrtics & Gynaecology

Gynaecologist, Mumbai

33 Years Experience
Dr. Nayana Balakrishnan MBBS, MD - Obstetrtics & Gynaecology Gynaecologist, Mumbai
33 Years Experience
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I believe in health care that is based on a personal commitment to meet patient needs with compassion and care....more
I believe in health care that is based on a personal commitment to meet patient needs with compassion and care.
More about Dr. Nayana Balakrishnan
Dr. Nayana Balakrishnan is a popular Gynaecologist in Santacruz East, Mumbai. She has helped numerous patients in her 33 years of experience as a Gynaecologist. She has completed MBBS, MD - Obstetrtics & Gynaecology . You can visit her at Sai Deep Nursing Home And Maternity Clinic in Santacruz East, Mumbai. You can book an instant appointment online with Dr. Nayana Balakrishnan on has a number of highly qualified Gynaecologists in India. You will find Gynaecologists with more than 33 years of experience on You can find Gynaecologists online in Mumbai and from across India. View the profile of medical specialists and their reviews from other patients to make an informed decision.


MBBS - DYL nair hospital - 1984
MD - Obstetrtics & Gynaecology - DYL nair hospital - 1988
Languages spoken


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Sai Deep Nursing Home And Maternity Clinic

Building No 3, Golden Flower, Kalina Village Road, Santacruz East,Landmark:-Near Police Station, Opposite Sony Centre, Kalina, Mumbai Get Directions
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I had sex with my girlfriend, 12-15 days before. We did without using any safety. But I have not discharge inside. After sex of next day she taken a tablet to be safe from any problem. Now she is not having her periods. Usually periods date starting from 6, 7 but she is not having till today. Suggest me is it possible she is pregnant. Advise for solution.

FIMSA, FICOG, MNAMS (Obstetrtics & Gynaecology) , MD - Obstetrics & Gynaecology, MBBS
Gynaecologist, Delhi
Sir, pill works in 80%cases only. Upt is needed. Secondly. A tvs ultrasound will exclude possibility of pregnancy. With 100% surety
7 people found this helpful
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I'm 17 yr old. At the time of periods my stomach pains too much it's really uncontrollable & because of that stomach pain vomiting occur about 4-5 times. The 1st day of period I can't get up from the bed. What can I do for it.?

B.H.M.S., Senior Homeopath Consultant
Homeopath, Delhi
I'm 17 yr old. At the time of periods my stomach pains too much it's really uncontrollable & because of that stomach ...
You can take ammon carb. 30 / 5 drops in little water thrice a day for one week. Inform after two weeks with feedback.
1 person found this helpful
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I had my last periods on 15th Oct and sex on 30th Oct. I got negative hcg test but still I feel I am pregnant. I don't want this. Can I take abortion pill. Please guide wat to do? If I m not pregnant and I ll take abortion pill then what will happen. Please help me? Which pill to take and how.

MRCOG, MD - Obstetrics & Gynaecology, DNB (Obstetrics and Gynecology), MBBS
Gynaecologist, Delhi
I had my last periods on 15th Oct and sex on 30th Oct. I got negative hcg test but still I feel I am pregnant. I don'...
If beta hcg is negative, then there are very less chances of pregnancy. If you have doubts, then repeat the beta hcg. Regarding the pills, take the pills under the guidance of any gynecologist.
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I am 5-6 week pregnant. I have heard that eating raw coconut early morning makes child healthy and fair. So I am consuming first sugar candy (1 tsp ) with little ghee and then eat little raw but fresh coconut as first thing in morning. Is it safe for early pregnancy ?

PGD Maternal Child Health, MBBS
General Physician, Akola
I am 5-6 week pregnant. I have heard that eating raw coconut early morning makes child healthy and fair. So I am cons...
A good diet to the mother is always good for the child. Coconut pulp and water is rich in natural electrolyte content which keeps the mother healthy. Mother's circulation delivers these things to the child making him gain weight and provide enough amniotic fluid around the child. Cannot comment upon the claims of fairness as these are not substantiated scientifically.
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How Our Genes Affect the Aging Process

MBBS, Diploma In Dermatology And Venerology And Leprosy (DDVL)
Dermatologist, Navi Mumbai
How Our Genes Affect the Aging Process

Every living thing goes through a cycle of birth, growth, development, aging, and based on its lifespan, die. Be it an insect with a lifespan of few hours to the giant tortoise who live for more than 150 years. Now what causes aging has been debated about widely. It is a combination of gradual wear and tear of the body combined with gradually declining pace of replacement of the worn out/missing parts. When younger, the body's ability to replace lost skin or bone is strong and it gradually declines with age.

Recent studies have shown that there is a strong genetic component related with aging. We all have noticed how not everybody ages at the same pace, while some continue to look younger than their biological age, the reverse is also true. Intrigued by this finding, a lot of research have gone into what contributes to aging. It has been discovered that a lot of aging factors are inherited, especially from the mother.

Now, a little bit of cellular details:

There is a part of the cell that is called mitochondria, which is the energy production unit within each cell. It has been discovered that the DNA of the mitochondria which is mDNA has a lot to do with how a person ages, specifically what is inherited from the mother. If this has undergone mutation, the inherited mutated DNA accelerates the aging process.

To add to this, there is also a lot of research studying the details of how young genes look different from old genes. The idea is to study this difference and then find out the difference and then see how we can make the older ones look more like the younger ones. This will indirectly reduce the aged look and produce a younger outlook.

Since, the most obvious and apparent aging is seen on the skin, research is being conducted how the cellular membranes called aquaporins act. These are important for regulation of water movement to and from the cell. It is well known that younger skin is more hydrated compared to older skin, and ways are being identified to keep the older skin more hydrated and thereby produce a younger look.

There is also a lot of correlation between nutrition and environmental factors and the overall aging process. Genetic mutations are produced by these factors which also lead to accelerated aging.

While everybody tries to maintain the younger look, aging is something inevitable. While we can do a lot of things by modifying our lifestyle and with chemical support, it cannot be completely halted. While we can try to manage the diseases related to old age, aging may not be something that can be stopped completely.

3953 people found this helpful

oral care for kids

Dentist, Jalgaon
oral care for kids
Now a days childers are getting used to fast food that affects overall growth and equally affects oral tissues and teeth. Junk food are sticky that gets embeded on tooth surface donot get cleaned easily. These food gets fermented by bacteria present in saliva and produce high amount of lactic acid that dissovles enamel and dentine and causes cavity in tooth. Food with high level of complex carbohydrate and sugars are responsible for cavitation. Balance and high nutritional diet is a very important part of childern life as it directly affects overall growth and health of kids. Restrict intake of junk food to once or twice a week. Soft drinks and airated drinks should be avoided too. Twice daily brushing in parents supervision. After intake of any sticky food gargle with warm water or brushing should be done. Regular visit to dentist can also help reduce dental problems in childern.
137 people found this helpful

Miscarriage - Can You Prevent it?

MRCOG, Laparoscopic Suturing Skills in Surgical Disciples, Medical Writing Course, Laparoscopic Training, Diploma in Gyanecology Endoscopy, Diploma in Minimal Access Surgeries, MD - Obstetrtics & Gynaecology, Fellowship in Basic Endoscopy Training, FOGSI Ethi Skills Course, Training Course in Ultrasound-Obstetrics & Gynaecology, MBBS
Gynaecologist, Delhi
Miscarriage - Can You Prevent it?

The most devastating period for any pregnant women is a miscarriage. This normally happens because of genetic abnormality noticed in the fetus caused due to tripling of a chromosome. This is also called ‘spontaneous abortion’ because the body rejects the random genetic abnormality. Apart from this, there are many other reasons for miscarriage namely blood clotting, deshaped uterus, uterine fibroids, unhealthy cervix and so on. Now, this could lead you to the next question - What can we do to prevent miscarriage?

Time to meet the gynaecologist:
When there is tripling of chromosomes or genetic mismatch, the body actually rejects the fetus, thereby preventing birth of an unhealthy baby. But, if the miscarriage repeats several times, then you have to meet your gynaecologist for further tests and appropriate medical intervention.

Symptoms of miscarriage:
In the normal course, when miscarriage occurs, the women would experience back pain or vaginal bleeding or blood in the vaginal mucus or cramping or abdominal pain. Ironically, sometimes the miscarriage may happen without any of these symptoms. It would get noticed only during routine scanning. However, in the normal course, the chance of a miscarriage is highest before the 12th week. But if miscarriage happens after the 12th week and before the 24th week, then it is called spontaneous abortion. Thereafter, it is known as a ‘still born’ baby.

However, there are some steps that can help women prevent a miscarriage. These steps are briefly explained here.

  • Nicotine retards growth of fetus and it is for this reason the couple should shun smoking, months before they plan pregnancy. This change in lifestyle has remarkable effects in preventing miscarriage. Similarly, caffeine can also be the cause of miscarriage. Therefore, women should regulate their intake of coffee as per the advice given by the gynaecologist.
  • Women suffering from chronic ailments like lupus, problems with thyroid, epilepsy and such other ailments are prone to a miscarriage. Similarly, it is also advisable that women should get tested for STD/HIV because these ailments can cause a miscarriage. Women suffering from such ailments should be under constant medical care.
  • In addition to these, the women should take food rich in vitamins, proteins, Omega-3 and fibres. Further, they should also do physical exercises as per the instructions given by the gynaecologist. One should drink enough water so as to keep oneself sufficiently hydrated. Women must practice meditation, which helps in reducing stress.

The causes of a miscarriage are many; women should discuss about the issues relating to a miscarriage with a gynecologist. This helps them take appropriate preventive steps against this unwanted situation.

2807 people found this helpful

Tips for a Healthy and Safe Holi

M.Sc - Dietitics / Nutrition
Dietitian/Nutritionist, Delhi
Tips for a Healthy and Safe Holi

The festival of colours is here. Along with fond memories of Gulal, rain dancing, pichkaris and bhang, if you have repeated nightmares of skin and eye allergies or other serious problems due to the colours, this article’s for you.

Why you need to avoid synthetic colours

Recent studies have found safety issues with all three forms in which the Holi colors are produced: pastes, dry colours and water colours. The various ingredients found in synthetic colours like lead oxide (black), mercury sulphide (red), aluminium bromide (silver), copper sulphate (green), Prussian blue have been known to cause various health problems ranging from dermatitis (skin becoming red and blotchy), eye allergies, skin problems and even temporary blindness.

What kind of colours should you use?

Natural is best! Make the colours at home, like they used to in the good old days. Mix the following natural colour producing ingredients by making a paste and mixing with besan or gramflour:

  • henna, palak (green)
  • turmeric, marigold flowers (yellow)
  • red hibiscus flowers, tomatoes, beetroot, kumkum (red)
  • tea leaves (brown)
  • You can also buy organic/herbal colours to play safe this Holi.

Tips to protect your hair and skin from synthetic colours:

Hair: After playing Holi, you might have noticed that your hair becomes very dry, frizzy and brittle. To avoid this, Massage your hair well from scalp to hair tips with coconut, olive or castor oil. This oil gives your hair a protective covering and shields it from harmful chemicals, dust and dirt. This will help the colours come off easily later, Try and cover your hair with a bandana or cap to decrease contact with colours.

Skin: Wear clothes that cover a lot of your skin, Cover the skin on your face, arms, legs etc with copious amounts of olive oil, coconut oil, almond oil or mustard oil, Use a waterproof sunscreen (SPF 30 and above), Cover your lips with a thick coat of Vaseline or lip balm.

Other potential dangers of Holi:

  • If you are a known asthmatic or suffer from severe dust allergy, it is advisable not to venture out to play Holi with colours, especially the dry variety.
  • If you wear contact lenses, do remove them before going out to play holi. If someone is spraying coloured water on your face, close your eyes.
  • Bhang, the official drink for Holi, when consumed in large quantities can lead to effects like increased blood pressure and heart rate, psychosis. Never consume it on an empty stomach and do not mix it with alcohol.
11 people found this helpful

My wife is getting her period from last 1 month and also she ia suffering from swelling on every part of her body. Please suggest me some solutions for this problem.

MBBS (Gold Medalist, Hons), MS (Obst and Gynae- Gold Medalist), DNB (Obst and Gynae), Fellow- Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility (ACOG, USA), FIAOG
Gynaecologist, Kolkata
We need to find out the cause and at the same time stop bleeding ASAP. Get check up by gynaecologist ASAP.
2 people found this helpful
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My friend: my breasts are little bit swollen, the difference between now and before is very minute. I had sex with my boyfriend on 31st December & 1st January. After that my menstrual cycle started on 14-16. That too went normal. Before the cycle I visited a physician for my 3 issues. First, feeling of nausea/ vomiting in the morning after waking up (this issue was continuing from last 3-4 months). Second, upset stomach which means I had difficulty in passing stools. Sometimes I used to force myself for passing the stool and all this while I had a very heavy stomach. Third, going to pee very frequently. This also was continuing from last 3-4 months. Now, I've been taking medicines for almost 10 days after which I've felt a sigh of relief but not about the feeling of nausea or vomiting after waking up in the morning. Also, there is burning sensation in the stomach which sometimes increases at times. Five tests were also done, none of them indicated any serious issue. Today when I was making out with my friend we noticed that my breasts are leaking with milk. We checked it was pale & off-white colored fluid which looked like milk to us. I certainly didn't miss my periods. Now at this point in time what I'm afraid of is pregnancy. Am I pregnant? How to be triple sure of it? What can be other signs of being pregnant by which I can be sure at home that I'm pregnant? Tests which were done earlier before around 10 days didn't indicate anything about pregnancy. Tests included blood test and urine test.

General Physician, Kolkata
My friend: my breasts are little bit swollen, the difference between now and before is very minute. I had sex with my...
Do an ultrasound of whole abdomen. It will reveal if there is a fetus growing within the uterus as well as other intra abdominal causes for nausea. Like gall stone disease, pancreatic disease. Etc.
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I am pregnant & my blood was 8.9. What should I eat to increase my blood I m in 36th week. Please advise me what should I do to increase.

General Physician, Mumbai
I am pregnant &  my blood was 8.9. What should I eat to increase my blood I m in 36th week. Please advise me what sho...
To increase your Heamoglobin value apart from medication eat green vegetables, jaggery, carrots , beet etc
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I'm 24 years old. I have periods only 1 and half days but it regularly came every month. But the days are very low. Is there any problem in my uterus?

DNB (Obstetrics and Gynecology), MBBS
Gynaecologist, Mumbai
I'm 24 years old. I have periods only 1 and half days but it regularly came every month. But the days are very low. I...
Hi lybrate-user, reduced bleeding during periods could be due to hormonal variations but anaemia that means less haemoglobin is also a very common cause. Pls check your cbc. Its a blood test. Then later we can do some more tests.
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Sir my wife platlate count allays 70000-80000 I am found this problem sice 2012 pregnancy time, all doctor tried to increase the platlate count but that time not increase, docter says after delivery she will fine, but stil her platlate count not increase. She is fete and normal no any problem but any suggestion? regards .

BSc Home Science, M.Sc - Dietitics / Nutrition
Dietitian/Nutritionist, Bangalore
I will increase her platelet count by improving her diet as well as dealing with the deficiencies by giving her few dietary supplements in just 2.5 months. It is generally noticed that the people who fast for long hours (self dieting), tend to put on more weight because their body start storing even carbs. To loose with heathy food like eat every 3 hours in moderate amounts, a combination of more fibre, whole grains, sprouts, legumes, salads, 3-4 cups green tea, 1 fist dry fruits to have virgin fats, limit aerated & sugary beverages, junk foods, fast foods etc. And exercise for 45 min including yoga especially kapal bharti - 15 min every day. For in-depth understanding, dealing with imbalance diet & other concerns with extra weight and customised diet planning you can contact me separately.
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PCOD - How Ayurveda Is Beneficial For You?

Bachelor of Ayurveda, Medicine and Surgery (BAMS)
Ayurveda, Kolhapur
PCOD - How Ayurveda Is Beneficial For You?

Polycystic ovary disease or PCOD is a kind of hormonal disorder in which a woman produces a surplus of male hormones like testosterone.
High levels of male hormones produce symptoms like irregular ovulation or no ovulation at all. In simple words, women with PCOD or PCOS don’t release a mature egg from their ovaries every month resulting in infertility. PCOD affects one in 10 women worldwide.

Women suffering from PCOD suffer from symptoms like heavy vaginal bleeding. This is because, as they don’t ovulate and produce the hormone Progesterone like normal women do and have normal periods, the lining of their uteri becomes thick leading to heavy bleeding and sometimes uterine cancer.

The other common symptoms of PCOS are:

  1. Acne
  2. Weight gain
  3. Oily skin
  4. Heart problems
  5. Irregular periods
  6. Migraines
  7. Hirsuitism
  8. Infertility
  9. Mood swings and depression

There is a propensity for developing diabetes as well in PCOS affected, as a number of women with PCOD are resistant to the action of the hormone insulin used for sugar metabolism. This means that it takes larger than normal amounts of insulin to maintain normal blood sugar levels. Though fairly common, PCOD has no surefire cure in mainstream allopathic medicine but Ayurveda can help alleviate PCOD symptoms in a big way.

PCOD - How Ayurveda Can Help?

  • In Ayurveda, PCOD is caused due to an imbalance of any of the two doshas - Pitta (Fire) and Kapha (Water). Aggravated Pitta causes contamination of the dhatus or tissues like blood and plasma. This causes a buildup of toxins or ama in the body.
  • In PCOS patients, these toxins get accumulated in the channels of the mind, leading to an imbalance of hormones secreted by the pituitary gland. This results in an imbalance of female hormones and causes the formation of ovarian cysts which is nothing but a collection of fluids within the ovary, anovulatory periods or periods with no ovulation etc.

Ayurvedic herbal remedies for PCOD

Ayurveda works on these problems:
-Correcting hormonal imbalance
-Reducing obesity
- Reducing high cholesterol levels
-Treatment for insulin resistance
Herbs like Ashoka (saraca asoca), Dashamoola are amongst a group of herbs which are used to prepare Sukumara Kashaya like Ashwagandha, Eranda, Shatavari etc for correcting hormonal imbalance.
Other drugs for curing PCOS are-
1. Shatavari or Asparagus racemosus
This helps mainly in promoting normal development of ovarian follicles. It also regulates periods and aids in revitalizing the female reproductive system. Shatavari also helps in controlling high levels of insulin due to PCOS, due to its phytoestrogen or natural plant based estrogen levels.
2. Guduchi
Guduchi is a powerful anti- inflammatory herb. We know that chronic inflammation in body tissues is the root cause for insulin imbalance and ovarian cysts in women. This herb helps in revitalizing body tissues and lowering insulin resistance.
3. Shatapushpa or fennel
Fennel seeds are used as a supplement as the phytoestrogens in them bring down inflammation and control insulin resistance.
Triphala is rich in vitamin C- a powerful natural antioxidant that helps in reducing inflammation by reducing free radicals. Hence this remedy is excellent for cleansing and detoxifying systems and is therefore best taken prior to taking any other Ayurvedic medicines to improve outcome.
5. Aloe Vera- Kumari (Aloe barbadensis)
Aloe Vera is yet another Ayurvedic herb that is extremely beneficial in treating PCOS as it helps in regularizing menstrual cycles and promote normal menstruation. It also normalizes hormonal imbalance.

I am 7+ weeks pregnant. My weight is 80 KGS. Please suggest some diet chart so that I can maintain proper weight for my baby.

MD - Obstetrtics & Gynaecology
Gynaecologist, Mumbai
I am 7+ weeks pregnant. My weight is 80 KGS. Please suggest some diet chart so that I can maintain proper weight for ...
For reducing your weight you should have brisk walk for 4-5 km daily, high protein diet (fish, chicken, mutton without fat, pulses, mushrooms), low carbohydrate diet (avoid rice, chapatti, bread, poha, upma, idli, dosa, potato, sugar etc and can use bhakri instead) and low fat i. E. Less oil and preferably use rice bran oil.
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I am 23 years old I am married I am suffering from vaginal itching and rashes b urning, redness, and swelling of the vagina and the vulvaPain when you urinate ,burning severe and vaginal lips I got a pimples like cyst. Daily I did not go for motion .when I take tablet that day I went motion.

MS - Obstetrics and Gynaecology, DNB (Obstetrics and Gynecology), DMAS, MBBS
Gynaecologist, Lucknow
U seem to be suffering from urinary infection as well as vaginal and vulval infection. Pimples like cysts can be due to sexually transmitted infection too. U need to be examined by a gynaecologist and started on antibiotics and other medications. Get a urine culture test done. For constipation increase your fibre and fluid intake. For details for medications you can contact me if you like.
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I have this PCOD problem from past 2 yrs. I am having proper medication for this. I wish to ask if I can overcome this menstrual problem by doing yoga and following a diet plan only?

MBBS, DNB (Obstetrics and Gynecology), MD - Obstetrtics & Gynaecology
Gynaecologist, Delhi
I have this PCOD problem from past 2 yrs. I am having proper medication for this. I wish to ask if I can overcome thi...
Any diet plan which helps lose weight is good for you, and yoga by a trainer may help. However gynae consultation is mandatory cause only yoga n diet may not help
1 person found this helpful
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Hi, My age is 21. I use to work in night shift from the past 2 years. I am getting periods every month. But it's not bleeding much only having two or three drops of bleeding. Due to this am gaining more and more weight. Is there any permanent solution for this to reduce my weight and to bleed well.

B.Sc.- Food & Nutrition, M.Sc- Food Science & Nutrition, NET (LS)
Dietitian/Nutritionist, Kolkata
Hi, My age is 21. I use to work in night shift from the past 2 years. I am getting periods every month. But it's not ...
These tips will help you lose weight. 1. Have small frequent meals at 2-3 hrs intervals. 2. Avoid junk/ fried/ sugary foods& drinks, alcohol. 3. Have healthy snacks in between main meals - whole fruits, coconut water, nuts, oilseed, soup, dal chila, dhokla, sprouts. 4. Include salads in lunch ,& dinner. 5. Take stairs instead of lift & walk instead of hiring transport. 6. Drink 3 litres water daily. 7. Take 15 mins light walk post main meals. 8. Eat slowly chewing each bite well. 9. Reduce oil/ ghee/ butter consumption for cooking. 10. Exercise daily for 1 hr. 11. Avoid eating out, packaged & processed foods. Consider getting a test for pcod done.
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I want to reduce my post delivery Weight When can I start as I delivered my baby on 19 July 2016 normal delivery and what are home remedies which I can follow now.

MBBS, MS - Obstetrics & Gynecology, Fellowship in Infertility (IVF Specialist)
Gynaecologist, Aurangabad
I want to reduce my post delivery Weight
When can I start as I delivered my baby on 19 July 2016 normal delivery
and ...
Hi lybrate-user, you can start loosing weight after 6 weeks post delivery, start with yoga initially, no crash diet while breastfeeding. Daily exercise for 30-40 minutes increase it gradually. Have diet rich in proteins, lots of salad, green vegetables. Avoid high carbohydrates like sweet, oily fatty food.
1 person found this helpful
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The Link between Posture and Technology - How Your Gadgets May Lead to Injuries

MS - Orthopaedics, MBBS
Orthopedist, Delhi
The Link between Posture and Technology - How Your Gadgets May Lead to Injuries

In today’s world, which is technologically advanced, we don’t even realize that the whole day has passed by looking at or using our electronic devices. Our life sways between checking the social media on smart phones to using the computer in office, which just makes it easy for us to spend the whole day locked up with a screen. Though this could be fun at times, but it has some definitive effects on our body.

Link between posture and technology
When looking at people at office gives you a good idea of how they sit while they use their devices. Average person waiting in a doctor’s office usually sits with a hunched back, shoulders slumped and a bent down neck. In office these people might lean on their desks, push their neck forward in order to see what is on their screen and their hand is constantly scrunched over the mouse. The human body is not really designed to sit in this way and can have serious life impending issues.

The biggest problem with technology posture is position of the head. When the head is evenly balanced between the shoulders it weighs between 10 and 12 lbs. But with a slight tilt even 15 degrees, the weight on the spine spikes to 27 lbs. Another 15 degrees and it weighs 40 pounds. At 60 degrees, the position where the chin touches the chest weighs 60 pounds on the spine. The extended weight on the spine causes the lower spine to collapse along with a low back pain. Low back pain can further cause knee pain and a referred ankle pain and further leading to much more damage.

How to prevent technology posture?
There are many ways in which the damaging effects of the technology posture can be reduced. At office you can elevate the monitor so that top of the screen is at the eye level. The height of the chair should be such that the feet are firmly placed on the ground. The desk should be in such a manner that the forearms are parallel to the floor when the shoulders are relaxed.

While using the smart phone, avoid bending and slouching and use arms to place the phone in front of the face. The phone should be at eye level when browsing and should not be balanced by the neck when talking on the phone. The head should be kept straight and these easily avoid the damaes of technology posture.

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