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A cough is not necessarily to be worried about always. It is the natural response of our body to throw out harmful particles which somehow managed to enter our respiratory tract. There is sticky mucus situated in the pathway to lungs which plays a major role in trapping harmful particles. Coughing once or twice is generally a natural phenomenon but if it’s persistent it is called the chronic cough, and there is a reason to worry.
Is your cough chronic?
An acute cough aggravates within a very short span of time, maybe 2-3 days. There are situations when coughing doesn’t hinder your day to day activities and are easily neglected. Sometimes these infrequent bouts of a cough can persist for long and continue for more than 2 months, which has been characterized as a chronic cough.
A chronic cough is sometimes found associated with blocked or running nose. Persons suffering from a chronic cough feel very exhaustive and suffer from a headache, dizziness along with excessive sweating. Under such situations, you must consult a pulmonologist.
Know the causes of a chronic cough
There are several causes for persistent coughing, and the following are the common causes of a chronic cough and medication is taken in consultation with a trained medical practitioner only.
- Infections: Bacterial or viral infection in lungs can be one of the causes of a chronic cough. Tuberculosis is one of them which initiates as a chronic cough and is later characterized by emitting blood after cough bouts.
- Drug Interactions: Antihypertensive drugs have been found to be responsible for a chronic cough in some people. Hypersensitivity to the prescribed drugs is found to responsible for the cough bouts, and change in medication takes care of the issue.
- Asthma: It’s a situation characterized by blockages in the bronchi which disallows the normal air flow during inhalation and exhalation. Due to inadequate oxygen, brain assumes that there is a blockage which needs to be expelled and coughing pattern starts. However, asthma has to be treated, and the bronchi have to be brought back to normal with the help of medication by an expert medical practitioner.
- COPD: The most common cause of a chronic cough nowadays is COPD, better known as Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. This is one of the progressive diseases which means it deteriorates with time. Active smokers are the biggest victims of it. Persons exposed to high degree of pollution or similar occupational hazards are also at high risk. Exposure to these pollutants causes inflammatory responses in lungs resulting in the tapering of the airways and destruction of lung tissues. These can be measured by lung function tests. In asthma, the narrow airways can be broadened by external medication, but in case of COPD, it’s not possible.
To conclude, chronic cough is a preventable disease by reducing the exposure to risk factors as mentioned above. Quitting smoking, improving the indoor air quality with the use of solar cooking and moving on battery run vehicles can prevent COPD from further worsening. You can also undergo pulmonary rehabilitation program which is being counseled and coordinated by many physicians to benefit the individual suffering from the issue. Consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
My father age is 50 diabetic patient, sugar level 230, how it can reduce, what are the food he can take, what is the easiest way to control the sugar level, per day how many hours can walk? Or any other exercise he can do or not? Like yoga and gym exercise.
Sir main 22 year ka hu aur meri problem yah hai ki heart me dar sa baith gaya hai jisase bolane me bahut dikkt hoti hai kabhi kabhi to awaz hi nahi nikali hai aur Jubaan bhi ladakhadti hai aur hamesha ualjhan rahati hai heart hamesnha dhak dhak karata hai. Bolane me awaz bhi less ho jati hai.
The Internet has glorified our lives in numerous ways, but at the same time, too much of information available online has also become very appalling in certain cases. One of the main scenarios that have borne the brunt of information overload is sexual health. Now-a-days, the adolescents or the teenagers have become very much vulnerable to increasing sexual risks owing to exposure to excessive online information.
Sexual Studies: The eternal curiosity about sexuality amongst the humans along with the unnecessary stigmas or taboos related to these have together led to a severe situation where people are resorting to a wrong form of information by misusing the internet.
How are the teenagers affected?
This has mounted up, especially amongst the teenagers because this is the transitional stage of a child to an adult where one goes through the maximum hormonal changes in the body. These hormones affect the metabolism and development of sexual maturity in those who are passing through this sensitive stage of puberty.
The superficial study of biological sciences and the changes felt by the adolescents have compelled them to dig more about sexuality by making use of the wonder weapon today, the internet. However, the social and other digital media contain sexual contents and information in a distorted manner and this has proved to be extremely pernicious in the following ways:
- Pre-marital and unsafe sex.
- Increase of sexually transmitted infections.
- The most alarming effect of all is the accelerated amount of crimes related to maliciously-oriented sexual attitudes and behaviours such as eve-teasing, molestation, rapes, child abuse, sexual harassment, etc.
- Unhealthy tendency of masturbation amongst the males.
- A healthy post-marriage sexual life is getting badly affected.
Studies have shown the present social media is flooded with illicit sexual content to the extent of almost 80% in the movies and 60% in the videos that are creating a severe psychological impact on everyone, irrespective of the gender. This is reaching to such an extent that sometimes they are getting addicted to watching these that is undermining their overall mental health.
Probable remedies: Now-a-days, various sexual awareness programmes are coming up and sexual orientation programme is becoming a part of the course curriculum in schools as well. Yet, unless and until the hush-hush mentality of the society regarding this particular aspect decreases, there will not be a significant change. There is always hope at the end of a dark tunnel and anybody who feels disturbed due to these issues can always consult and take help of the psychiatrists and sexologists who can handle such issues with the utmost consideration and under strict confidentiality.
However, one needs to open up completely before them or else, the treatment or counselling, whichever is applicable, will not be fulfilled in a proper manner. One has to break the boundaries, get enlightened, confront the facts and in turn, lead a healthier sexual life. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Sexologist.
My father is suffering from breathing problem is it curable we had made a full body check up he has some problem in right lung and diaphragmatic hernia in left lung. How to solve it he had already undergone surgery and resolved for diaphragmatic hernia in left lung but he had a problem in right lung doctor said it would be ild if so it is Intestinal disease is it curable.
I have very big pain since last 3 year what I am do I wake in morning just pain down in my stomach every day.
I have hearing loss problem and using hearing aid from last 25 years. How I can improve my hearing capacity ?
I don't have desire for sex. I can enjoy masturbation. But I don't have feelings for sex. I didn't do sex since 1 year. But can masturbation once in 2 days. I am very depressed.
I have itching problem from past two months , the itching comes suddenly almost on body i.E back ,legs arms, neck and creates red patches and then disappears ! its pathetic after doing a r& d i found on hives on Google i don't if it has any similarity
Sir I already told that I have light blood in stool and I go to bathroom many times and when I pressure I felt pain in lower side. And also fell light fever is this piles.
I have less sexual desire now a days. Wanted to know what went wrong in between also I haven't had sex till now worried abt having a baby.
Many people are hesitant to see a doctor for incontinence as they feel embarrassed or believe it can't be treated or that the problem will eventually go away by itself. This may be true in a few cases, but many cases can be successfully treated or managed. The treatment of incontinence will vary according to whether it is faecal or urinary incontinence and will depend on the cause, type and severity of the problem.
1. Stress incontinence
• Weight loss
• Cessation of smoking
• Pelvic floor exercises
• Vaginal weights
• Electrical stimulation
Non-medical treatment can be very effective in motivated patients with minor degrees of stress incontinence. The short-term results are often very good, but this isn't always maintained in the long term. Published studies quote cure/improvement rates of 50-80% for pelvic-floor exercises.
• Combination of the above
Medical treatment doesn't have a great role in stress incontinence. Postmenopausal atrophy affects the closure of the urethra. Oestrogens, which can be taken orally or applied locally, restores the bulk of urethral tissue leading to more effective closure. Alpha-agonist s increase the tone in the bladder neck, thereby increasing outflow resistance. Some studies indicate a beneficial effect using a combination of oestrogen and an alpha-agonist in older post-menopausal women.
• Periurethral injections of bulking agents
• Suspension operations
• Sling operations
• Artificial urinary sphincters
Periurethral injections involve the injection of bulking agents into the urethra to improve effective urethral closure. Commonly used agents include fat, collagen, Teflon paste and silicon particles. Injection therapy is suitable for women with intrinsic sphincter deficiency rather than hyper mobility, as well as for men with post-prostatectomy incontinence. The major advantage of injection therapy is that it's a minor procedure. Short-term results are good, but often not maintained long-term.
The various suspension operations restore the normal anatomy in patients with hyper mobility and improve the support of the urethra and the bladder neck. Open suspension operations like the Burch copo suspension provide the best long-term results. The various needle suspensions have fallen into disuse due to high failure rates.
Urethral slings can be used in people with intrinsic sphincter deficiency as well as those with hyper mobility. It involves the placement of a strip of tissue or artificial substance that supports the urethra and bladder neck like a hammock. It increases outflow resistance and improves urethral closure by supporting the mid urethra. The vast majority of patients can be rendered dry in this way, but the operation does carry the risk of difficulty with passing urine afterwards. Other complications include infection or erosion of the synthetic sling material which then has to be removed.
An artificial urinary sphincter (AUS) made of silicone can be used in someone with total incontinence resulting from irreparable damage to the sphincter. The AUS consists of a small cuff that is placed around the urethra (bladder tube), with a reservoir (balloon) that is placed in the lower belly next to the bladder. Both of these are connected with a small tube to a valve placed in the scrotum, which the person then uses to inflate or deflate the cuff. An AUS is very effective, but it is quite expensive, and there is a risk of infection or erosion of the synthetic material.
2. Urge incontinence
• Bladder training
• Pelvic floor exercises
Voiding by the clock and progressively increasing the time between voids can improve the symptoms of patients with urge incontinence and otherwise normal bladders. This can be combined with biofeedback and pelvic floor exercises.
Drug therapy forms the mainstay of treatment for patients with urge incontinence due to bladder instability. These anti cholinergic agents relax the bladder muscle and increase bladder capacity. Side effects include a dry mouth, constipation and blurred vision.
Injection of botulinum A toxin (Botox) into the bladder muscle (detrusor) can be used if the urge incontinence is due to a neurological disease causing overactive bladder contractions.
Tiny bladders due to radiation or tuberculosis can be enlarged surgically. A segment of intestine is patched onto the opened bladder, thereby increasing the capacity. Patients with intractable bladder instability who have failed medical treatment can also be treated in this way.
3. Overflow incontinence
Overflow incontinence due to bladder outflow obstruction is treated by surgically alleviating the obstruction. The most common example would be a man with prostatic enlargement treated by resection of the prostate gland. If the incontinence is due to failure of the bladder to contract then intermittent clean self-catheterisation is the most appropriate treatment. Permanent indwelling catheters should be avoided if at all possible.
4. Total incontinence
Total incontinence due to a vesico vaginal fistula or auretero vaginal fistula is treated by surgical repair of the defect.
Treating faecal incontinence
Once your doctor has established the underlying cause of faecal incontinence, they will decide on the most suitable treatment, which could involve a combination of medication, exercise and other methods.
Let’s look at some of the treatment options available for FI:
Dietary changes: If your FI is caused by diarrhoea or constipation, making changes to your diet may sometimes help to normalize and regulate bowel movements. Your doctor may ask you to keep a food diary to monitor the impact of dietary changes. For example, he or she may suggest increasing your intake of high-fibre foods and fluids, or to eliminate foods that may exacerbate the problem.
Medications: Your doctor may recommend specific medication or bulking agents such as fibre supplements to change stool consistency, depending on whether you suffer from diarrhoea or constipation. Another option is Solesta, an injectable FDA-approved gel that's injected into the anus and effectively reduces or completely treats FI in some people. This gel narrows the anal opening by increasing the growth of rectal tissue and helping it to remain tightly closed.
Bowel retraining: This routine encourages normal bowel movements and helps you achieve greater control by becoming more aware of the need to use the toilet. It may incorporate various aspects such as making a conscious effort to have a bowel movement at a specific time of day and using suppositories to stimulate bowel movements.
Biofeedback: This improves the strength and coordination of the anal muscles that help control bowel movements, and heightens the sensation related to the rectum filling with stool. It usually involves a specially trained physiotherapist teaching you simple exercises to strengthen your pelvic-floor muscles, sense when stool is ready to be released and contract the muscles if it's not appropriate to have a bowel movement at a specific time.
Kegel exercises: Also called pelvic-floor exercises, these focus on strengthening the muscles of the anus, buttocks and pelvis. When done correctly, they can be effective in improving or resolving FI. They involve a routine of repeatedly contracting muscles used when making a bowel movement. Hold these muscles as if you're trying to stop the flow of stool or passing gas for a slow count of five, and then relax. Kegel exercises should be done in a series of 30 contractions three times a day. They usually strengthen the pelvic-floor muscles within a few weeks.
Surgery: In some cases, surgery may help people with severe FI who haven't responded to other treatments or people with an underlying condition causing incontinence that need surgery to regain control. There are various surgical options and your doctor will probably refer you to a specialist.