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Treatment of Child and Adolescent Problems
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Valvar aortic stenosis, commonly called aortic stenosis, is a disorder which occurs when the aortic valve of the heart becomes narrow (know Main Indicators of a Heart Disease in a Child). The narrowing of the valve prevents its full opening, and hence, blood flow from the heart to the aorta is restricted. When the aortic valve gets obstructed, the heart has to exert much more effort to pump the blood. The heart muscles get weakened as a result. This condition is more common in children.
Diagnosis of Valvar Aortic Stenosis:
Before diagnosis, we should know about the symptoms of valvar aortic stenosis in children. They include:
- Feeling breathless
- Angina or chest pain with a feeling of pressure or tightness
- Syncope of fainting
- Palpitations and enhanced heartbeats
- A steady decline in regular activities and energy levels
- Fatigue due to little exertion
- Not gaining weight
- Poor eating patterns
- Problems in breathing
The wall of the left ventricle also thickens muscularly, and the thick wall occupies more space in the lower chamber of the heart and hence, the room for adequate blood supply is reduced. This may lead to heart failure.
Echocardiogram: The initial test that is recommended for patients with symptoms of valvar aortic stenosis is Doppler Echocardiography. This test enables the doctor to estimate the aortic valve region, peak or mean transvalvular gradients and the maximum aortic velocity. These primary measures are required to assess the severity of the disease. Echocardiography provides important information on the valve function, left ventricular filling pressure and disruptions in other valves.
Other major tests which help in the diagnosis of valvar aortic stenosis include:
- MRI or magnetic resonance imaging, which provides images of internal body structures with great detail.
- CT scan or computed tomography where three-dimensional images are extracted.
- Chest X ray
- Cardiac catheterization where a dye is used to highlight blockages, if any, in the heart.
Treatment: Usually, there are no medicines for fixing valvar aortic stenosis as the disease is not reversible. Medicines can be used to treat the problems, which are caused by the condition.
Replacement of the damaged valve by surgery is the best treatment for valvar aortic stenosis. The surgery performed is called valvuloplasty. This is a cardioscopic surgery where a tube with a small balloon is inserted into a vein. The tube is guided into the heart, and the balloon is inflated. The balloon and tube are removed after the valve is opened. The damaged valve is replaced by mechanical valve or the valve of a cow or pig by an open-heart surgery.
Valvar aortic stenosis is a severe heart condition in children, and the only permanent remedy for this disease is a valve replacement surgery.
Is it fine to introduce liquid diet to 3 months baby as breastfeeding is insufficient for my baby's need?
Hii. My baby born on April 1. I am using lactogen for feeding. He is not feeding my milk. How my hours does the powder milk can keep and give powder milk to my son.
It is the first vaccine that the doctor will ask your child to get if he/she gets wound. Tetanus is a rare but severe condition which occurs when bacteria enter into an open wound. It can turn fatal if left untreated, so you need to follow the vaccination schedule in order to control the infection. Indulging in substance abuse (especially the ones that require injecting with syringes) increases the risk of tetanus.
This disorder is caused by the bacteria called ‘Clostridium tetani’. The bacterium is known to survive for an extended period outside the body, and is found in places such as soil and the manure of cows and horses. The bacteria enter the body through a wound, multiply rapidly and then release a toxin. This toxin causes muscle spasms and stiffness, thus affecting your nerves. The bacteria can enter the body through cuts, burns, animal bites, body piercings and eye injuries. However, this disorder is not contagious.
The symptoms of this disease can take 5-20 days to develop fully in the body. Your child may experience symptoms such as a rise in the body temperature, sweating, rapid heartbeats, muscle spasms and stiffening of the jaw muscles. These symptoms will worsen if left untreated, eventually leading to cardiac arrest or suffocation in some cases.
If your child has a wound, the first step is to administer an injection of tetanus immunoglobulin. Tetanus immunoglobulin contains antibodies that effectively kill the tetanus bacteria. In case the symptoms start, then the child might need to be admitted to a hospital. Here, antibiotics and muscle relaxants are administered and breathing support may also be provided if required.
The preventive measure of this disorder is to be vaccinated against the ‘tetanus’ bacteria. The vaccine consists of five injections that are administered in a specific order. Once the entire course has been completed, it usually provides lifelong protection against the tetanus bacteria. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a pediatrician.
My daughter 2 year old she understands every thing she also follow our actions nd babbles wid expressions nd speaks very few words nd keep on watching YouTube nd doest speaks what to do.
Hello Lybrate consultant, I am having a daughter of 1-1/2 year .she is having a problem of dandruff n there r scratch marks of black color. N continue itching .dr r saying that it is type of atopic dermatitis. Please suggest treatment. N if there is any home remedies for this.
Hi, My baby boy will be 3 months in August 1st week. Baby was born via normal delivery and weight was 2.6 Kgs at birth. Baby's health is good and there is no medical problems that he currently has. I wanted to travel to home town delhi via flight in august 2nd week. Please advice if it is safe to travel in flight when the baby is 3 months old.
I was scratched by a dog 1 month ago. But, I didn't took any immediate treatment. After 1 week I went to a doctor and the vaccine course has started. Though the dog was ill but it was alive for 25 days after the incident. 4 days ago it has died. Is there anything to worry about for me as I didn't took any immediate treatment? I found on a website that" The quarantine is set at 10 days because a rabies-infected animal can only transmit the disease after clinical signs have developed AND once these signs have developed, the animal will die within 10 days. So, am I completely safe from rabies as the dog was alive for 25 days?
I am having learning disability with ADD, dyslexia, dysgraphia. How can I concentrate and study for exams. I study but their comes a question that would I remember.
My 3 year old son shows very strong resistance to take antibiotics (because of the bitter taste) and refuses to take them. When we try to forcibly give him, he spits it out. At times it happens that he gulps the medicine but immediately vomits. Please suggest solution ?
Hi. I am from India and my son is 2 years 5 months. His birth weight was 2.89 kgs. He is a very fussy eater. He does not drink milk while he is awake, so I have to feed him with a bottle when he sleeps I am giving him tonoferon drops and ostocalcium syrup but not regularly. Please suggest if I can add all change his Iron and Calcium supplements.
My 7 + year is suffering from dry cough n nose block in the night n running in day time from laat 2 days. N pain in stomach during cough. Pls suggest.
My 2 years baby fell at my home. After 2,3 minutes his forehead was in reddish and also swelled. We use little thromphophob and also ice pack for reduction of swelling. He s having little temperature. What can I do immediately.?
My son just 5 months old we are giving him only mothers milk .but we think that only mothers milk is not sufficient for stomach full so please suggested some alternative.
I am 26 year old. I want know about what is the validity of tetanus injection after vaccination. Actually I take vaccination before 24 days. After 24 day have injured by rust iron. Should I take again vaccination? I have 3 times takes vaccination in last 6 months.
It is the timely medical treatment which matters.