Lybrate.com has a number of highly qualified Gynaecologists in India. You will find Gynaecologists with more than 40 years of experience on Lybrate.com. You can find Gynaecologists online in Mumbai and from across India. View the profile of medical specialists and their reviews from other patients to make an informed decision.
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Caesarean Section Procedure
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Termination Of Pregnancy Procedure
Treatment Of Pregnancy Problems
Well Woman Healthcheck
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Treatment Of Medical Diseases In Pregnancy
Treatment Of Menstrual Problems
Intra-Uterine Insemination (IUI) Treatment
Medical Termination Of Pregnancy (Mtp) Procedure
Gynecology Laparoscopy Procedures
Pap Smear Procedure
Urinary Incontinence (Ui) Treatment
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I had unprotected sex with my fiancé on the day of my ovulation. He ejaculated outside but during sex I had some light bleeding. Why did I bleed and what are my chances of getting pregnant? Also to inform you, my periods are regular and my cycle lasts for up to 28 days.
I am pregnant, now its 3rd month I am suffering from severe vomtings. please doctor help me I am not able to digest little bit of water also nd nt able to eat anything. Vomtings are sever help me sir/mam.
If you want to have a safe pregnancy by curtailing all sorts of complications, then you have to promptly respond to warning bells. There are certain warning symptoms that should not be neglected at all as that might put your pregnancy in danger.
- Bleeding: This kind of situation cannot be ignored as that often leads to serious issues like placental abruption or miscarriage. In this case, you are definitely in need of the assistance of any expert doctor.
- Swollen face or hands: Slightly swollen face or hands in pregnancy are normal, but if you observe excessive puffiness, especially on your feet and ankles, then it is a warning sign as it might lead to toxaemia or PIH. Therefore, consulting a doctor is very much needed in this regard.
- Abdominal pain: Round ligament pain is quite normal, and you do not have to worry about the same. But if the pain is accompanied by bleeding, then the danger of miscarriage might come into being, and thus you should be very much alert about the same.
- Blurring vision: Both blurring vision and dizziness are the commonest pregnancy symptoms. But if they get increased suddenly, visit your doctor.
- Itching: Itching is common during pregnancy mostly due to stretching of the skin. Your skin also becomes dry. But if it continues for long, then you should check the same with your doctor for avoiding liver disorder.
- Fever: Exposure to flu and cold viruses increases during pregnancy, as a result of which fever occurs. But if the fever lasts for more than 48 hours, then viral conditions can be expected, which are pretty dangerous.
- Unwanted back pain: Normal pain in pregnancy is alright, but excessive pain might indicate bladder or kidney infections, preterm labour, miscarriage or cyst. All these conditions should be essentially avoided to ensure a healthy pregnancy.
- Gushing of fluid: If you are not in labour, but are feeling wet constantly, then it is better to see a doctor. There might be a great possibility of breaking of water, and this is quite dangerous in the advanced stage of pregnancy.
- Less movement of baby: Experiencing baby kicking is quite natural during pregnancy, and if stops suddenly, then there is something wrong. Kicking patterns should be followed and then only you will be able to realize whether the baby is normal or not. If you are facing any of the above symptoms, then immediately visit your doctor.
I have hit on breast, 4 days ago. Take medicine and oil ment. But I don't relief pain. What should I do?
My wife is having some liquid squeezing out of her breast when I press her breast. But she is not pregnant. What is the reason for that. Whether it is a problem or a common feature. Pls explain. She is not yet conceived till date.
Giving birth to a baby is undoubtedly one of the most beautiful experience in a woman's life. It makes them feel complete as an individual and also strengthens their relationship with their spouse. But unfortunately, all couples cannot conceive in a natural way. But there is nothing to feel sad about as with the advancement in medical technology, one can avail the high-tech fertility treatments to fulfill their dream of holding their baby in their lap. In vitro fertilization often shortened as IVF is one of the most popular artificial reproductive techniques that help to conceive. Basically, in this process eggs and ovary are combined in the laboratory.
How is IVF helpful?
IVF has emerged as a hope for all those couples who have been trying to have a baby for years. It helps the woman to get pregnant if she is suffering from a problem associated with egg quality, ovulation, endometriosis or blockage of fallopian tube. It is also helpful in case your partner has a problem with sperm mortality or sperm count.
Side effects and risks associated with IVF Treatment: According to the current evidence, there are no serious side effects associated with in vitro fertility treatment. The medicines which are used for inducing the process of superovulation involved in IVF and other fertility treatments are also used in various other forms of fertility treatments. IVF was discovered some 30 years back. It has proven itself as one of the safest processes that come up with no long-term risk to the mother or the baby. Ovulation Hyperstimulation Syndrome happens to one percent of women out of all who opt for this treatment for conceiving a baby.
The specialists who are experienced are better at predicting that which woman is at a risk of OHSS. The expert medical professionals are trained for recognizing and managing symptoms.
This treatment might also cause potential complications to the baby like premature delivery or low birth weight, which increases the risk of birth defects or even death of the neonate. It is always recommended to consult an expert physician to get a better idea about the treatment and its associated pros and cons. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult an IVF Specialist.
Cancer is the abnormal, uncontrolled growth of cells in a particular body part. With continued growth, pieces of this tissue travel through the blood to different body parts and continue to grow in the new area. This is known as metastases. Breast cancer is one of the most common forms of cancer and affects about 1 in 8 women in the USA. Read on to know more details of breast cancer – breast anatomy, causes, symptoms, risk factors, detection, prevention, and of course treatment.
Anatomy: The main function of the breast is lactation through its milk-producing tissue that are connected to the nipple by narrow ducts. In addition, there is surrounding connective tissue, fibrous material, fat, nerves, blood vessels and lymphatic channels which complete the structure. This is essential to know as most breast cancers develop as small calcifications (hardened particles) in the ducts or as small lumps in the breast tissue which then continues to grow into cancer. The spread can happen through lymphatic or blood flow to other organs.
Warning signs/symptoms: The following are some symptoms that need to be watched out for if you have a predisposition to breast cancer.
- A lump in either of the breasts or armpits
- Change in size, shape, or contour of either breast
- Redness of your breast or nipple
- Discharge of clear or bloody fluid
- Thickening of breast tissue or skin that lasts through a period
- Altered look or feel of the skin on the breast or the nipple (dimpled, inflamed, scaly, or puckered)
- One area on the breast that looks very different from the other areas
- Hardened area under the breast skin
Either one or a combination of these should be an indication to get a detailed checkup done. Early diagnosis results in controlling the disease with minimal treatment and reduced complications.
Causes and risk factors: The exact cause for breast cancer is yet to be pinned down. However, risk factors are clearly identified, and women with risk factors need to watch out for warning signs.
- Family history: Of all the risk factors, the family history is the most important. Breast cancer runs in families, and if there is a first-degree relative with the breast cancer, the chances of developing it are almost double. Two genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 are the carriers of the disease, and this testing can be done in women to identify if they are at risk.
- Family history of other cancers: Even if there is no breast cancer, if there are other cancers that run in the family, watch out.
- Age: Women over 50 are at higher risk of developing breast cancer.
- Race: Caucasian and Jewish women are at higher risk of breast cancer than African-American women.
- Hormones: Greater exposure to the female hormone estrogen increases the chances of developing breast cancer. Women who use birth control pills for contraception and hormone replacement after menopause are at a higher risk of developing breast cancer.
- Gynecologic milestones: Women who have abnormal menstrual milestones need to watch out. These include those who attain menarche before 12 years of age, get pregnant after 30, attain menopause after 55, and have menstrual cycles shorter than 26 days or longer than 29 days.
- Obesity and alcohol abuse are also likely to increase a woman’s chances of developing breast cancer.
Stages: Starting from stage 0, higher stages indicate advanced disease.
- Stage 0: The growth which has begun in the milk-producing tissue or the ducts has remained there (in situ) and not spread to any other area, including the rest of the breast.
- Stage I: The tissue slowly becomes invasive and has begun to affect the surrounding healthy tissue. It could have spread to the fatty breast tissue and some breast tissue may be found in the nearby lymph nodes.
- Stage II: The cancer at this stage grows considerably or spreads to other parts. There are chances that cancer may grow and also spread.
- Stage III: It may have spread to the bones or other organs but small amounts are present in up to 9 to 10 of the lymph nodes in the armpits and collar bones which makes it is difficult to fight.
- Stage IV: The cancer is widespread to far-flung areas like the liver, lungs, bones, and even the brain.
Screening: This is one of the most effective ways to identify the disease in its early stages. This will help in controlling cancer from spreading with minimal treatment.
- Self-examination: A thorough self-examination to look for changes in terms of shape, size, colour, contour, and firmness should be learned by all women. Watch for any discharge, sores, rashes, or swelling in the breasts, surrounding skin, and nipple. Examine them while standing and when lying down.
- In most women, annual screening mammograms are advised after the age of 40. However, in women who have a strong family history or genetic makeup, it is advisable to have screening mammograms starting at age 20 every 3 years and then annually from the age of 40.
- Women in high-risk categories should have screening mammograms every year and typically start at an earlier age.
- Ultrasound screening can also be given in addition to mammograms.
- Breast MRI is another way to screen for breast cancer if the risk is greater.
Breast Cancer Prevention: Now that there is so much awareness about causes and risk factors, there are definitely ways to prevent or delay the onset of the disease.
- Exercise and a healthy diet with reduced amount of alcohol are definitely effective in minimising the chances of developing cancer.
- Tamoxifen is used in women who are at high risk for breast cancer.
- Evista (raloxifene) which is used to treat osteoporosis after menopause. It is also widely used in preventing breast cancer.
- In high-risk women, breasts are surgically removed to prevent the development of cancer (preventive mastectomy).
Treatment: As with all cancers, treatment would depend on the stage at which it is identified and include a combination of chemotherapy, radiation, and surgery. As noted earlier, if you are at risk, look out for warning signs as early diagnosis is the key to maximum recovery.
An in-vitro fertilisation procedure carried out to counter the problem of male infertility is Intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Male infertility factors include poor quality of sperm, low sperm counts, poor sperm movement or the disability to penetrate an egg. Azoospermia is one such rare condition wherein there is no sperm in the semen. Through this injection, a single sperm can be injected into the egg directly. The fertilised egg is placed into the woman s uterus or the fallopian tubes. The first successful birth using this procedure was on January 1992 after the conception took place in April 1991.
Sperm can be collected from the male through masturbation. If this procedure somehow fails then sperm can be removed through a surgery. Using a small incision, sperm can be withdrawn from the testicle and is used in the procedure. If the ejaculation of sperm is prevented due to a blockage or if the problem arises in the development of the sperm, surgery method is used.
Injecting the sperm
This is performed through the following steps. A specialised pipette or a glass tube is used to hold the egg, a single sperm is picked with the help of a sharp and delicate needle, the needle is then inserted carefully into the cytoplasm of the egg through the egg shell, then the sperm gets injected into the cytoplasm and the eggs are checked to see whether they have been adequately fertilized.
After this process is done, eggs which are fertilised successfully are selected and placed into the uterus with the help of a catheter. The number of embryos an individual needs to transfer is determined depending on the age of the person and other health issues. For this purpose, a thorough full body check-up is carried out and the medical history is checked during the preliminary consultations.
Expectations from the treatment
The treatment of fertilisation using an Intracytoplasmic sperm injection can be demanding, both physically and mentally for the woman (mother). An individual has to go through regular shots and monitoring including blood tests. There are moments when the shots can be painful for the woman undergoing the procedure.
The reason behind the procedure
When a male is having severe infertility issues, the method of ICSI is helpful. There are times when very little sperm or no sperm ejaculation, the eggs can be fertilised through this procedure. Testing of an embryo for genetic problems is also accomplished through this procedure. When in vitro fertilisation or IVF does not work even after trying repeatedly, then couples can undergo the treatment using ICSI.
When ICSI is used along with better quality eggs, it is seen to be successful on many occasions. Especially for men who have sperm ejaculation issues. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a gynaecologist.