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Management of Surrogacy
Caesarean Section Procedure
Treatment of Gynae Problems
Gynecology Laparoscopy Procedures
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Treatment Of Menopause Related Issues
Treatment Of Menstrual Problems
Treatment of Mirena (Hormonal Iud)
Pap Smear Procedure
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Treatment
Treatment of Uterine Bleeding
Antenatal And Postnatal Exercise
Management of Postnatal Care
Adiana System Treatment
I'm suffering with the problem of PCOD since last one year. Im having very irregular periods and also gaining weight. Weight issue is really bothering me. How can I come out of this?
Early signs of pregnancy
For women who have a regular monthly menstrual cycle, the earliest and most reliable sign of pregnancy is a missed period. Women who are pregnant sometimes have a very light period, losing only a little blood.
Some of the other early pregnancy signs and symptoms are listed below. Every woman is different and not all women will notice all of these symptoms.
Feeling sick during pregnancy
You may feel sick and nauseous, and/or vomit. This is commonly known as morning sickness, but it can happen at any time of the day or night.
Around half of all pregnant women experience nausea and vomiting, and around 3 in 10 women experience nausea without vomiting. For most women who have morning sickness, the symptoms start around six weeks after their last period.
If you're being sick all the time and can't keep anything down, contact your Doctor. The pregnancy condition hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) is a serious condition that causes severe vomiting and needs treatment.
Feeling tired is common in pregnancy
It's common to feel tired, or even exhausted, during pregnancy, especially during the first 12 weeks or so. Hormonal changes taking place in your body at this time can make you feel tired, nauseous, emotional and upset.
Sore breasts in early pregnancy
Your breasts may become larger and feel tender, just as they might do before your period. They may also tingle. The veins may be more visible, and the nipples may darken and stand out.
Peeing more often suggests pregnancy
You may feel the need to pee (urinate) more often than usual, including during the night.
Other signs of pregnancy that you may notice are:
constipation an increased vaginal discharge without any soreness or irritation
Strange tastes, smells and cravings
During early pregnancy, you may find that your senses are heightened and that some foods or drinks you previously enjoyed become repellent. You might notice:
a strange taste in your mouth, which many women describe as metallicthat you crave new foodsthat you lose interest in certain foods or drinks that you previously enjoyed – such as tea, coffee or fatty food that you lose interest in tobacco that you have a more sensitive sense of smell than usual – for example, to the smell of food or cooking
If your pregnancy test is negative
A positive test result is almost certainly correct. A negative result is less reliable. If you get a negative result and still think that you may be pregnant, wait a week and try again, or see a Doctor.
I went to a gyn yesterday she took a scan and prescribed me meprate for irregular periods for 5 days, before I started the medicine I got few drops of bleeding yesterday, should I continue meprate? And I also forgot to ask her whether I was pregnant. I'm confused Dr. Help.
My daughter ko period k baad neeche stomach me dard ho jate lagatar unbearable period k sirf 5 din theek rehte hai pl help age 25 years.
Hi I am 32 year old and my wife is 23 year old, We are trying to get baby but not happening as she is not getting pregnancy. Please suggest on this as how to get pregnant. You advise will be highly appreciated.
To remain fit and free from diseases, it is not just enough to make healthy lifestyle choices, but one should also make a conscious effort to convert these choices into regular habits. Healthy habits make our lives happier, reduce stress and help in keeping body and mind fit.
You can enrich your life by adding these habits to your life:
1. Exercise regularly - Starting a regular exercise regimen can help you in getting fit. Apart from the physical benefits, exercise helps release endorphins in the body which are also known as the feel-good hormone as they make you happier.
2. Eat a healthy breakfast - The breakfast is the first meal of the day, so eating a nutritious breakfast that contains a healthy balance of carbohydrates, protein and fibre will keep you satiated and provide energy. Eating breakfast also helps to curb binge eating which may promote weight gain.
3. Stop smoking - Smoking can cause damage to the cardiovascular system in the body which can lead to increased chances of blood pressure problems.
4. Take the stairs - Using the stairs instead of the elevator burns more calories and also increases your aerobic fitness.
5. Avoid the phone before bedtime - If you use your phone before you go to sleep, then it can harm your quality of sleep. The light of the phone screen contains certain wavelengths which disrupt the hormone melatonin that is responsible for regulating sleep.
6. Meditate regularly - Meditating on a regular basis reduces stress, enhances your concentration and promotes overall well-being.
7. Avoid processed foods - Eating natural foods such as fruits and vegetables reduces chances of gaining weight and getting affected by disorders of the digestive system. It also helps in improving the health of your skin.
8. Drink green tea - Green tea is packed with antioxidants and nutrients which restrict the formation of free radicals. It also increases the metabolic rate of the body which can cause fat loss.
9. Do balancing exercises - Simply standing on one leg for 10 seconds can enhance your mobility and balance which will be beneficial for you in carrying out your everyday movements.
One ailment that affects a large number of women all over the world is that of breast cysts. Breast cysts are essentially benign abscesses that grow on and around the mammary glands. These cysts primarily develop on account of hormonal changes and are often assumed to develop naturally along with the development of breasts. These cysts are generally filled with fluids, which can be traced around the milk ducts.
Cysts are usually reported among women approaching menopause. While some cysts are of temporary kind, there may be others with a more prolonged run. Early diagnosis and prompt medication ensure that their growth gets arrested at the earliest. Although it is necessary to be vigilant about these eruptions, one need not fear any further exacerbation. Most cysts are harmless in nature and do not proceed to breast cancer. The symptoms as well as the causes of the latter are completely disparate.
However, some classes of cysts are more threatening than the others. These mostly comprise suspended solid elements besides the regular fluid content. Some might even have thicker walls compared to the others. Accordingly, they are called complicated and complex cysts. In these cases, one must exercise caution and get them treated immediately. Some of the most popular remedies include drainage through needle aspiration.
On certain occasions, physicians also recommend biopsy. Wherein, a different mode of treatment ensues. Other ways of tackling breast cysts are ultrasound guidance using local anesthesia. In most cases however, depending upon the traits of the cysts, physicians leave them unaltered. One might choose to remove them for cosmetic as well as comfort purposes. Women come to such decision because breast cysts prove to be painful during menstrual cycles and some might even resent its appearance.
One unavoidable repercussion of needle aspiration is that the cysts tend to come back periodically. Dealing with it then becomes a fairly tedious task. This was known to cause anxiety and depression in a lot of women. Counselling and support group can prove beneficial here. But, the most crucial factor in learning to deal with breast cysts would be generating more awareness with regard to the causes and effects of breast cysts. Also, it is recommended to get your full body check up done at regular intervals to ensure that you are able to prevent any mishappening.
Hello Doctor, My age is 32 l am having some problems in conceiving My Amh level is low 0.30 I have been asked to go for Ivf with donor egg. Today is my 3rd day of menses and I am having menstrual cramps in my lower abdomen and pain in left side of low abdomen and having fever also 101 degree. My cycle has started from 5th day I am asked to take tablet ovral g one tablet for 20 days and then asked to come on 13th June for some injection. I will visit general physician today for fever and cramps. The medicine he will gve Will not clash with my Ivf cycle. Is there any precaution I need to take. Any diet changes Pls reply. Thanks.
Hello Dr. I want to ask you about my report m 18 week pregnant had my triple marker test done dese r my reports. Afp- 65.7 ng/ml Hcg-24126miu/ml Ue3-1.09 ng/ml My Dr. is not present right now I want to ask is my report normal ? Everything is alright my age is 28 n my weight is 59.3.
My age is 35 my sperm count is 40 million but my sperm motailty is 5% so please suggest medicine and my wife is 30 years old, she is suffering from pcod. We want to conceive but not been suceess please suggest medicine for both of them.
It has started since class 8. I had consulted with many doctors but due to my careless in taking meds, I couldn't get better. It is polycystic ovary problem. I go on flow for 25-30 days in a cycle.
I am 23 years old. I have PCOS. Can you suggest me some ways which can help me with my condition. I have irregular periods. I also gained weight. I also want to loose some weight.
My friend is having abdominal cramps. She is near to her periods nd recently she got intimate with her boyfriend bt she took an i-pill within 40 hrs. What could be the reason. And she also wants to know if she could get pregnant with the lubricant that comes out of the penis. Not the ejaculation bt the lubricant. And that too the penis was not inserted into the vagina but it was just touched on the hymen. Thank you.
The biological basis of mental illness
Mental illness is, in part, an illness of the brain. Learning about the brain can:
? give information from a biological and medical perspective (and some idea of its complexity)
? help you understand and support treatment
? assist you in dealing with the stigmas of mental illness
? support the realisation that no one is to blame for the onset of mental illness.
About brain research
A lot of what the community commonly thinks and knows about mental illness is based on previous experience and social stigma. It is often information that is out of date and leaves us with an impression of hopelessness. In fact:
? Over half of what we know about the brain in relation to mental illness we have learnt in the last 10 years. As a consequence, medications and treatments have improved significantly and people who are now being diagnosed with mental illness have a better prognosis than people diagnosed before that time.
? New imaging technology allows the brain to be examined while the person is experiencing mental illness, whereas before we relied on autopsy information.
? Research indicates that physical changes commonly occur within the brain in
? The brain pathways responsible for ?higher? mental functioning (feeling emotions, interpreting information) are affected.
? The linking of an illness to particular changes in the brain is extremely difficult. (Brain scanning techniques are used alongside assessment of behaviour and symptoms.)
? Brain research has already achieved much, and has further capacity to improve medications and other physical treatments.
What changes in the brain when mental illness is present?
Like other body parts, the brain is susceptible to injury and change.
Both the chemical messaging system and the physical structures of the brain can be
altered in mental illness.
The chemical, or neurotransmission system in the brain Neurons.The brain is made up of billions of cells called neurons. Each neuron is a link in a chain and can have thousands of connections to other neurons. These connections of neurons form chains through which messages are relayed in the brain.
The synapse is the meeting point of two neurons. A signal must be transmitted from one neuron across the synapse to the other neuron. These events occur within
? Neurotransmitters are the chemicals that conduct the messages across the
? When a signal arrives at the end of a neuron, the neurotransmitter spills into the gap and crosses the gap.
? Scientists have identified over 50 neurotransmitters that are messengers communicating information from one part of the brain to another, and to all
parts of the body.
? From this simple system, complicated brains are built. And this system seems
affected in many mental illnesses.
Neurotransmitter malfunctions can occur because there is:
? not enough neurotransmitter
? too much neurotransmitter
? malabsorption of the neurotransmitter.
Some important neurotransmitters and their roles are:
? dopamine: activation level, mood, movement Understanding the Brain and
Mental Illness continued.
? norepinephrine: mood, activation level
? serotonin: mood, sleep, appetite, aggression
? acetylcholine: mood, autonomic nervous system.
Malfunction in these neurotransmitters is found in many forms of mental illness. It is possible that, in biologically vulnerable individuals, high stress levels ?trigger? malfunctioning in neurotransmitters (e.G. Production of neurotransmitters cannot
keep up with the body?s demands or the neurotransmitters are
not effectively removed from the system).
There is evidence to strongly suggest that some brain structures are altered or damaged in mental illness. It is clear, however, that many parts of the brain are affected by mental illness, including the following:
The main purpose of the frontal lobe is control of movement
It is also thought to be responsible for behaviour, character, emotional state, short-term memory and planning.
Think of the behaviours that are often displayed when someone is psychotic. They often have poor concentration, they can be emotional or lack emotion and display odd behaviours.
Movement can also be random and disjointed.
The parietal lobe is involved in:
? long-term memory
? obtaining and retaining accurate knowledge of objects
? sensory speech (responsible for perceiving the spoken word).
When a person develops certain mental illnesses, these pathways/speech may be affected. Hence someone with schizophrenia, when psychotic, may develop a language of their own or words of their own, called neologisms. Often people?s
ability to retain information is limited.
Roles of the temporal lobe include:
? auditory (hearing), the area that receives and interprets
impulses from the inner ear
? olfactory (smell), the area that receives and interprets
impulses from the nose
? taste, the area that interprets nerve impulses from the tongue.
The cells in this area receive and interpret impulses from the various parts of the body, i.E. Nose, taste buds and ear. When someone is psychotic they may be hearing voices, but the parts of the ear usually involved in hearing (the anvil hammer, etc.)
are not physically moving from sound waves. However, the impulses in the brain are working and sending messages, as if the person is hearing. This also occurs in relation to smell and taste ? people may think the food is being poisoned because it
Message Occipital lobe
The occipital lobe receives impulses from the eye and interprets them as visual impressions. The eyes do not actually do the seeing ? it is the brain that receives the impulses from the eyes and interprets them. When someone experiences visual
hallucinations, the occipital lobe is seen to be very active ? impulses are interpreted and processed ? thus the person sees objects that may not be present.
Thought to influence muscle tone ? if control is inadequate, movements are uncoordinated.
Receives impulses from the body?s sensory nerves associated with pain, temperature, pressure and touch. Here crude, uncritical sensations reach consciousness (e.G. Awareness of pain but not the ability to identify the body part involved). People with schizophrenia may wear lots of clothes on hot days because
this part of their brain is affected by the illness.
Involved in the pituitary gland?s orchestration of hormone release and in the autonomic nervous system (hunger, thirst, body temperature, heart and blood vessels, and defensive reactions such as fear and rage).
? Controls and co-ordinates the movements of various muscle groups to ensure smooth, even and precise actions.
? Maintains balance and equilibrium of the body.
? Jerky, unco-ordinated movements indicate the involvement of the cerebellum in mental illness.
The limbic system
? Is more a functional than an anatomical entity.
? Involves parts of the brain essential for organising emotional responses and processing information.
? Is involved in schizophrenia, which affects the emotions of the person and their ability to process information.
Applying the knowledge ? theories about what happens in the brain relating to
schizophrenia, depression and obsessive compulsive disorder
Current research indicates the following theories about what is happening in the brain in relation to schizophrenia:
There is an excess of the neurotransmitter dopamine. Dopamine is involved in regulating thoughts and feelings, both of which are disturbed in schizophrenia. It is also thought that high dopamine levels make someone more sensitive to stress.
Research indicates that some people with schizophrenia appear to have larger ventricles. Research also indicates that some people experiencing schizophrenia seem to have a loss of tissue in the anterior hippocampus, which may account for memory problems and irrationality. Recent research carried out in Melbourne seems
to indicate some people have this tissue reduction before the onset of psychosis, which leads to the hope that results of
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) can be used as a predictor
In depression, not enough neurotransmitter appears to be released into the gap between neurons, or too much of it is removed before it has completed its function.
When antidepressants are used, there is more neurotransmitter is available in the gap between neurons, which eases a depressed mood.
Obsessive compulsive disorder
Researchers think obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) may be linked to parts of the basal ganglia involved in fixed patterns of behaviour resulting in an imbalance among a variety of neurotransmitters.
One hypothesis is that the brain signals for a contaminant (like dirty hands) cause the cortex to send signals to preprogrammed cells in an area of the basal ganglia that produce the neurotransmitter serotonin, with other neurotransmitters also involved.
In short, we provide this basic information about the brain and mental illness for the following reasons:
To increase your familiarity with the terms so that when they are described by people in the treating profession, you might recognise them and be able to engage in a discussion that is fruitful for you.
For you to understand more about some of the behaviours associated with mental illness and their origins.
Because our experience is that many families when they first come into contact with mental illness believe that it is due solely to a negative psychological experience early in life (that the family may have caused). More information about the biological origins of mental illness gives you an opportunity to revisit these ideas. Mental Illness Fellowship Victoria - for people with mental illness, their families and friends