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Dr. Madhur

Gynaecologist, Mumbai

Dr. Madhur Gynaecologist, Mumbai
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Our team includes experienced and caring professionals who share the belief that our care should be comprehensive and courteous - responding fully to your individual needs and preferences....more
Our team includes experienced and caring professionals who share the belief that our care should be comprehensive and courteous - responding fully to your individual needs and preferences.
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Dr. Madhur is a popular Gynaecologist in Bandra West, Mumbai. You can visit him at Shanti Nursing Home in Bandra West, Mumbai. Book an appointment online with Dr. Madhur and consult privately on Lybrate.com.

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Blue Flame Apartments, S V Road, Bandra West. Landmark: Opposite Jama Masjid, MumbaiMumbai Get Directions
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Care before Pregnancy (Pre-conceptional Care)

MBBS (Gold Medalist, Hons), MS (Obst and Gynae- Gold Medalist), DNB (Obst and Gynae), Fellow- Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility (ACOG, USA), FIAOG
Gynaecologist, Kolkata
Care before Pregnancy (Pre-conceptional Care)
Most of us have an idea that the couple should go to gynecologist only after they fall pregnant or when there is difficulty in conceiving. But we all know that prevention is better than cure. Then why should not we take precaution to avoid complications in pregnancy so that we can have healthy mother and healthy baby.

Some of the diseases can manifest during pregnancy, like some diseases of heart, blood pressure, blood sugar etc. But if the couple comes to doctor when they are planning pregnancy, then we can diagnose it and start treatment so that pregnancy can be safe to both the mother and the baby.

On the other hand, some pre-existing disease may turn serious during pregnancy and endanger life of both mother and baby. This includes thyroid disease, hypertension, epilepsy, renal disease, cardiac disease etc. If taken care of properly, the disease can be controlled before pregnancy so that the risk can be reduced. Again all the drugs are not safe for the baby. So, if treated before pregnancy, the mother can be put on safer but effective drugs before pregnancy.

Some diseases may run in family and often goes undetected and can affect the baby. Thlassaemia, hemophilia etc are the best examples. So, if the couple comes to us before pregnancy, we can screen them to diagnose whether they are bearer of the disease or not and then we can take care to prevent birth of defective baby.

Some diseases indicate that there may be problems in having pregnancy, like problems in periods or abdominal pain in female, sexual problems in male and female etc. If treated properly, it will avoid unnecessary time wastage for trying for pregnancy.

The woman can be instructed how to remain healthy to have normal baby, before pregnancy. She can be advised some drugs (like folic acid), can be asked to avoid harmful drugs and substances (like drugs, excessive vitamin a, excessive vitamin d, excessive caffeine, smoking etc). Even the husband can be asked how to improve his fertility (by avoiding heat exposure to his scrotum).

Again some infections can be dangerous for the baby. So, before pregnancy we can treat the women for the infections and in some cases we can vaccinate her to prevent infection.

"a stitch in time saves nine. So, why don't you consult your gynecologist when you are planning for pregnancy? have smooth journey throughout pregnancy and enjoy parenthood.
2 people found this helpful

Am skinny 31 years old, married for 1 yr, we r planning for baby, doctors told dat my ovulation day wil be on 12th day from my periods but I got my ovulation on 16th day, is it normal or wil it be a problem to get pregnant, am worried please reply me.

DGO,DNB
Gynaecologist, Kolkata
Am skinny 31 years old, married for 1 yr, we r planning for baby, doctors told dat my ovulation day wil be on 12th da...
Ovulation day ranges from 12th to 16th day in a normal menstrual cycle of 28 days. Do don't worry. You have to follow the fertile period to conceive.
1 person found this helpful
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Doctor I'm hesitating to explain my problem to u. But it's necessary, so I'm explain. 10 days ago, I have a sex with my girlfriend. At nights time, I had use a condom. But in morning time I don't use a condom. And I know that no sperms is passed in her vagina. But I am worried that if she will get pregnant. There may be a problem for me. And I shall also wants to share that, her vagina is still sealed because my penis cannot get under it more three inch. And on the same day, after having sex with me, her vagina had through a white like liquid. It may be oval. Like sperms. Her age is 20 years now. So please help me that iss she will pregnant? Please help doctors.

MBBS, MD Psychiatry, DNB Psychiatry
Psychiatrist, Nagpur
Doctor I'm hesitating to explain my problem to u. But it's necessary, so I'm explain.
10 days ago, I have a sex with ...
An unprotected sex (without using condom, as in your case) can cause pregnancy if the sex is done in unsafe period. Since it is 10 days after you had sex you donot have options of taking emergency contraception now. If your female partner misses her scheduled period, get a urine pregnancy test done at home. If it's positive consult a gynecologist urgently to suggest appropriate method to terminate pregnancy, if she consents. If she gets her periods, pregnancy is ruled out.
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My wife is pregnant from 6 months, she had leakage of milk from her breast ,is she alright.

M.B.S.(HOMEO), MD - Homeopathy
Homeopath, Visakhapatnam
My wife is pregnant from 6 months, she had leakage of milk from her breast ,is she alright.
Lactation, the process in which your breasts produce milk to feed your baby, begins while you are still pregnant. Lactation causes a variety of changes in your breasts, some that are unpleasant and embarrassing. Fortunately, it is possible to minimize its effects and make lactation more comfortable to handle. Symptoms Lactating begins as early as three or four months into your pregnancy. You typically begin noticing signs of it during the third trimester of pregnancy when it causes your breasts to leak a fluid that is yellowish, golden, clear or creamy in color. Although your breasts can discharge fluid at anytime, it is more evident when your breasts are sexually stimulated or massaged. In addition to discharge, lactating sometimes causes your breasts to become tender and enlarge or swell. Causes Lactation, which is triggered by the hormonal fluctuations in your body during pregnancy, is your body’s way of preparing for your baby’s birth. Your milk production system begins to work while you are still pregnant and produces colostrum, the pre-milk that is full of antibodies, nutrients and easily digestible fluid. Colostrum is what your baby drinks during the first few days after birth before your milk supply fully comes in. How to Handle Although there is no way to stop lactation from occurring while pregnant, there are ways to make it more comfortable to deal with. Purchase nursing pads at a drugstore. These pads fit discretely into your bra and absorb any fluid before it appears on or stains your clothing. Alternatively, fold up a cotton handkerchief or cut a square out of a cloth diaper and conceal the fabric inside of your bra to contain any moisture.
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Tips for Healthy Living on a Busy Schedule

PG Dip Diet, B.Sc. - Dietitics / Nutrition
Dietitian/Nutritionist, Kolkata
Tips for Healthy Living on a Busy Schedule

"I don't have time" is one of the most common excuses heard for living an unhealthy lifestyle. When you're working at a full time job, it is often easier to order in from a restaurant and spend the evening watching television to 'cool off' instead of cooking a healthy meal and hitting the gym. However, a busy lifestyle does not necessarily need to be unhealthy. Here are a few simple tips to live a healthier life.

  • Cook one pot meals: Cooking doesn't have to be complicated. Experiment with your microwave settings and recipes to find quick meals that can be made in under a minute like quiche in a mug or steamed salmon. Making pasta can be as easy as putting all the ingredients in together into a pot and letting them cook. Find recipes that require minimal grocery shopping and preparation.
  • Take the stairs: Elevators are definitely a convenience and cannot be avoided if your office or home is on the 10th floor. To balance convenience and health, get off the elevator a floor or two below yours and climb up the remaining stairs. Obviously working up a sweat by climbing stairs at the beginning of your day at work isn't a good idea so time your stair climbs at the end of the day or when a shower is nearby.
  • Avoid snacking: Eat proper meals instead of mindlessly snacking through the day. Keeping a food diary can help you recognize your eating habits and rectify them. If three meals a day does not satiate your hunger, break your meals into smaller portions eaten at more frequent intervals. Breakfast is the most important meal of the day and should never be skipped.
  • Drink plenty of water: Often we snack not because we're hungry but because the body is dehydrated. Water can also boost your energy levels and aid digestion. However, avoid filling your stomach with water before a meal to make you eat less. This can hinder your digestion process and keep your body from receiving its necessary nutrients.
  • Cut back on packaged foods: Packaged food is never really all that good for you. In most cases, it is loaded with sugar, sodium, preservatives and artificial flavouring. If you cannot avoid packaged food, pick the one with minimal ingredients.
  • Interval training: Spending an hour at the gym is not the only way to exercise. If you cannot find time for a full workout, try interval training. Get off the couch during intervals while watching your favourite soap or take a quick five minute break from your desk to exercise. Regular exercise will also help you sleep better and make you wake up feeling refreshed.
3838 people found this helpful

I have already two baby. Kya agar mai bchadani niklwa du to physical relationship me koi problem hogi. During sex is wajah se satisafaction me koi problem to ni hogi.

Bachelor of Ayurveda, Medicine and Surgery (BAMS)
Ayurveda, Bundi
I have already two baby. Kya agar mai bchadani niklwa du to physical relationship me koi problem hogi. During sex is ...
Bachadani nikalwane ki zaroorat nahi jab tak koi problem na ho. Sex me koi problem nahi. Thoda hormonal disturbance hota hai jo adjust ho jata hai.
4 people found this helpful
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Sir, my wife is pregnant and she is beta thalassemia heterozygous and I may thalassemia status is normal. What may be the effect on my baby and what will be the effect in future on the health of my wife. Please advise.

MD - Obstetrtics & Gynaecology, FCPS, DGO, Diploma of the Faculty of Family Planning (DFFP)
Gynaecologist, Mumbai
Sir, my wife is pregnant and she is beta thalassemia heterozygous and I may thalassemia status is normal. What may be...
As I understand you don't have thalasaemia trait- in that case maximum is child may have thalasaemia trait- not big problem.
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As I am unmarried age approx 28 years I had sex sometimes with/without condoms but last 3-4 days I have itching in my vagina every time please suggest me what should I do for that.

Bachelor of Ayurveda, Medicine and Surgery (BAMS)
Sexologist, Jodhpur
As I am unmarried age approx 28 years I had sex sometimes with/without condoms but last 3-4 days I have itching in my...
Boil neem leaves in water. Let it cool to be lukewarm. Dip lower body in water for 30 mins. Do it 2-3 times in a day for a week. Consult for further help.
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Is licking vagina of partner and putting tongue deep inside the vagina harmful for health? if it is harmful than what all precautions are required to have oral sex on female. Please advice.

MBBS
Sexologist, Panchkula
No it is not harmful provided the vagina is clean and washed daily. No other precautions are required, cleanliness is the only precaution.
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My wife last period was not proper. But there was bleeding also in men's. There is bleeding also sometimes. Now she went for checkup and now she is pregnant from one month. Doctor is saying no gurranty for child. Please suggest me what to do. Is it true. She should go for DMC.

MS, MBBS
Gynaecologist, Gurgaon
My wife last period was not proper. But there was bleeding also in men's. There is bleeding also sometimes. Now she w...
Hi, you should go for serum beta- hcg & same test to be repeated after 48 hrs. If its level increasing more than 50% then pregnancy is healthy & you should wait.
3 people found this helpful
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BPTh/BPT
Physiotherapist,
In nose bleeding condition sit him up facing the breeze with the head slightly forward. Ask him to breath through the mouth and not to blow his nose. Apply a cold compress the nose. The soft part of nose may be pinched close with the fingers for 10min.

The Ugly Truth About Sexually Transmitted Diseases

MS sexuality, M.Phil Clinical Psychology, PhD (behaviour modification), Certified in Treatment of Resistant Depression
Sexologist, Hyderabad
The Ugly Truth About Sexually Transmitted Diseases

Sexually Transmitted Diseases/ infections (or STD/I's) are at unprecedented and epidemic proportions. 45 years of the sexual revolution is paying an ugly dividend. While a few STDs can be transmitted apart from sex acts, all are transmissible by the exchange of bodily fluids during intimate sexual contact. I want to discuss the severity of the problem as well as what must be done if we are to save a majority of the next generation from the shame, infertility, and sometimes death, that may result from STDs.

Today, there are approximately 30 STIs. A few can be fatal. Many women are living in fear of what their future may hold as a result of STD infection. It is estimated that 1 in 5 Indians between the ages of 15 and 55 are currently infected with one or more STDs, and 19 million Indians are newly infected out of which 63% are in people less than 25 years
This epidemic is a recent phenomenon. However, most of these diseases were not around 20 to 30 years ago. Prior to 1960, there were only two significant sexually transmitted diseases: syphilis and gonorrhea. Both were easily treatable with antibiotics. In the sixties and seventies this relatively stable situation began to change. For example, in 1976, chlamydia first appeared in increasing numbers in the India. Chlamydia, particularly dangerous to women, is now the most common STD in the country. Then in 1981, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the virus which causes AIDS, was identified. By early 1993, between 4and 5million Indians were infected with AIDS, over 12 million were infected worldwide, and over 160,000 had died in India alone. Over 10% of the total indian population, 30 million people, are infected with herpes.
In 1985, human papilloma virus (HPV), began to increase. This virus will result in venereal warts and will often lead to deadly cancers. In 1990, penicillin resistant-strains of gonorrhea were present in all fifty states. 
By 1992 syphilis was at a 40-year high. As of 1993, pelvic inflammatory disease (PIV), which is almost always caused by gonorrhea or chlamydia, was affecting 1 million new women each year. This includes 16,000 to 20,000 teenagers. This complication causes pelvic pain and infertility and is the leading cause of hospitalization for women, apart from pregnancy, during the childbearing years. 
Pelvic inflammatory disease can result in scarred fallopian tubes which block the passage of a fertilized egg. The fertilized egg, therefore, cannot pass on to the uterus and the growing embryo will cause the tube to rupture. By 1990, there was a 400% increase in tubal pregnancies, most of which were caused by STDs. Even worse is the fact that 80% of those infected with an STD don't know it and will unwittingly infect their next sexual partner.

The Medical Facts of STDs:
Syphilis is a terrible infection. In its first stage, the infected individual may be lulled into thinking there is little wrong since the small sore will disappear in 2 to 8 weeks. The second and third stages are progressively worse and can eventually lead to brain, heart, and blood vessel damage if not diagnosed and treated.
Chlamydia, a disease which only became common in the mid-1970s, infects 20 to 40% of some sexually active groups including teenagers. In men, chlamydia is usually less serious; with females, however, the infection can be devastating. An acute chlamydia infection in women will result in pain, fever, and damage to female organs. A silent infection can damage a woman's fallopian tubes without her ever knowing it. A single chlamydia infection can result in a 25% chance of infertility. With a second infection, the chance of infertility rises to 50%. This is double the risk of gonorrhea. 
The human papilloma virus, or HPV, is an extremely common and rapidly growing. 46% of the sexually active coeds were infected with HPV. Another study reported that 38% of the sexually active females between the ages of 15 and 21 were infected. HPV is the major cause of venereal warts; it can be an extremely difficult problem to treat and may require expensive procedures such as laser surgery
The human papilloma virus can result in precancer or cancer of the genitalia. By causing cancer of the cervix, this virus is killing more women in this country than AIDS, or over 6,600 women in 1991. HPV can also result in painful intercourse for years after infection even though other visible signs of disease have disappeared.
And of course there is the human immunodeficiency virus, or HIV, the virus that causes AIDS. The first few cases of AIDS were only discovered in 1981.

While the progress of the disease is slow for many people, all who have the virus will be infected for the rest of their life. There is no cure, and many researchers are beginning to despair of ever coming up with a cure or even a vaccine (as was eventually done with polio). In 1992, 1 in 75 men was infected with HIV and 1 in 700 women. But the number of women with AIDS is growing. In the early years of the epidemic less than 2% of the AIDS cases were women. Now the percentage is 22% 

Teenagers Face a Greater Risk from STDs
Teenagers are particularly susceptible to sexually transmitted diseases or STDs. This fact is alarming since more teens are sexually active today than ever before. An entire generation is at risk and the saddest part about it is that most of them are unaware of the dangers they face. Our teenagers must be given the correct information to help them realize that saving themselves sexually until marriage is the only way to stay healthy. 
The medical reasons for teens' high susceptibility to STDs specifically relates to females. The cervix of a teenage girl has a lining which produces mucus that is a great growth medium for viruses and bacteria. As a girl reaches her 20s or has a baby, this lining is replaced with a tougher, more resistant lining. Also during the first two years of menstruation, 50% of the periods occur with-out ovulation. This will produce a more liquid mucus which also grows bacteria and viruses very well. A 15-year-old girl has a 1-in-8 chance of developing pelvic inflammatory disease simply by having sex, whereas a 24-year-old woman has only a 1- in-80 chance in that situation. 
Teenagers do not always respond to antibiotic treatment for pelvic inflammatory disease, and occasionally such teenage girls require a hysterectomy. Teenage infertility is also an increasing problem. In 1965, only 3.6% of the married couples between ages 20 and 24 were infertile; by 1982, that figure had nearly tripled to 10.6%. The infertility rate is surely higher than that now with the alarming spread of chlamydia.
Teenagers are also more susceptible to human papilloma virus, HPV. Rates of HPV infection in teenagers can be as high as 40%, whereas in the adult population, the rate is less than 25%. Teenagers are also more likely than adults to develop precancerous growths as a result of HPV infection, and they are more likely to develop pelvic inflammatory disease. 
Apart from the increased risk from STDs in teens, teenage pregnancy is also at unprecedented levels, over 1 million pregnancies, and 400,000 abortions in 1985. Abortion is not a healthy procedure for anyone to undergo, especially a teenager. It is far better to have not gotten pregnant. Oral contraceptives are not as effective with teenagers, mainly because teens are more apt to forget to take the pill. Over a one-year period, as many as 9 to 18% of teenage girls using oral contraceptives become pregnant.
Our teenagers are at great risk. In a society that has abandoned God's design for healthy meaningful sexual expression within marriage, our children need to be told the truth about the dangers of STDs. 
Is "Safe Sex" Really the Answer?
We must now take a hard look at the message of "safe sex" which is being taught to teens through the media across the country. 
Some people believe that if teens can be taught how to use contraception and condoms effectively, that rates of pregnancy and STD infection will be reduced dramatically. It is significant to note that condoms, the hero of the "safe sex" message, provided virtually no protection from STDs. 
Will condoms prevent HIV infection, the virus that causes AIDS? While it is better than nothing, the bottom line is that condoms cannot be trusted. 
Condoms do not even provide 100% protection for the purpose for which they were designed: prevention of pregnancy. One study from the School of Medicine Family Planning clinic reported that 25% of patients using condoms as birth control conceived over a one-year period. Other studies indicate that the rate of accidental pregnancy from condom-protected intercourse is around 15% with married couples and 36% for unmarried couples. 
Condoms are inherently untrustworthy. The FDA allows one in 250 to be defective. Condoms are often stored and shipped at unsafe temperatures which weakens the integrity of the latex rubber causing breaks and ruptures. Condoms will break 8% of the time and slip off 7% of the time. There are just so many pitfalls in condom use that you just can't expect immature teenagers to use them properly. And even if they do, they are still at Risk in addition, programs that emphasize condoms tend to give a false sense of security to sexually active students and make those students who are not having sex feel abnormal. Hardly the desired result!
The list of damages from unmarried adolescent sexual activity is long indeed. Apart from the threat to physical health and fertility, there is damage to family relationships, self-confidence and emotional health, spiritual health, and future economic opportunities due to unplanned pregnancy. Condom-based sex-education does not work. 
Saving Sex for Marriage is the Common 
Diseases such as chlamydia, human papilloma virus, herpes, hepatitis B, trichomonas, pelvic inflammatory disease, and AIDS have joined syphilis and gonorrhea in just the last 30 years. There is no question that the fruits of the sexual revolution have been devastating. I have also shown how our teenagers are at a greater risk for sexually transmitted diseases than are adults and that sex-education based on condom use is ineffective and misleading. There is only one message that offers health, hope, and joy to today's teenagers. We need to teach single people to save intercourse for marriage. 
Sex is a wonderful gift, but if uncontrolled, it has a great capacity for evil as well as good. Our bodies were not made to have multiple sex partners. Almost all risk of STD and out of wedlock pregnancy can be avoided by saving intercourse for marriage. And it can be done. 

Delaying intercourse until teens are older is not a naive proposal. Over 50% of the females and 40% of the males ages 15 to 19 have not had intercourse. While not a majority, they are living proof that teens can control their sexual desires. Current condom-based sex-education programs basically teach teenagers that they cannot control their sexual desires, and that they must use condoms to protect themselves. It is not a big leap from teenagers being unable to control their sexual desires to being unable to control their hate, greed, anger, and prejudice. This is not the right message for our teenagers! Teenagers are willing to discipline themselves for things they want and desire and are convinced about. Our teens can also be disciplined in their sexual lives if they have the right information to make logical choices. Saving sex for marriage is the common sense solution. In fact, it is the only solution. We don't hesitate to tell our kids not to use drugs, and most don't. We tell our kids it's unhealthy to smoke, and most do not.
It is normal and healthy not to have sex until marriage. Sexually transmitted diseases are so common that it is not an exaggeration to say that most people who regularly have sex outside of marriage will contract a sexually transmitted disease. Not only is saving sex for marriage the only real hope for sexual health, it is God's design. God has said that our sexuality is to blossom within the confines of a mutually faithful monogamous relationship. What we are seeing today is the natural consequence of disobedience. We need to reeducate our kids not just in what is best, but in what is right and abstinence is right.

9 people found this helpful

Should I jump, run or jog during menstruation, is it harmful, because of it menstrual cycle becomes fast?

DHMS (Diploma in Homeopathic Medicine and Surgery)
Homeopath, Ludhiana
Should I jump, run or jog during menstruation, is it harmful, because of it menstrual cycle becomes fast?
Vigrous activitiess should be avoided during first 2-3 day of menses but this doesnot mean that you cant walk or Jog.You can do light exercie a well.
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Hii. I got married in November.. But my hymen not break. But after 4 months my hymen breaks and comes to blood my vagina. It is possible to after 4 months marriage breaks hymen.

MD - Obstetrtics & Gynaecology
Gynaecologist, Mumbai
If there was no penetration after the marriage then hymen will not broke, which is unlikely scenario. If the intercouse took place after marriage, it broke with first intercourse only. Now if you r having bleeding and it has filled the vagina, it could menses which came before time or if it started immediately after having sex then it could be related to tear in the vagina, which only after consulting a gynecologist, you would come to know.
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I am a 25 years old girl. I have. hemophilia type 7. I am going to marry my lover in 4 months. If I pregnant any problem for this.

MBBS
General Physician, Mumbai
I am a 25 years old girl. I have. hemophilia type 7. I am going to marry my lover in 4 months. If I pregnant any prob...
Haemophilia type a. Caused by deficiency of clotting factor viii type b. Caused by def. Of factor ix i'm not aware of type 7 what you wrote. Both are genetic disorders where mother is normally a healthy carrier and there is a 50% chance of her male child becoming a haemophilic. Girl child born out of a carrier mother will have a normal x chromosome or an abnormal one leading to a carrier state of the disease in the later instance. Genetic counseling is advisable for such instances of marriage. Dna testing of a foetus through amniocentesis can detect if the baby will be a carrier (female baby) or a haemophiliac (male baby). These are the consequences of marriage between a healthy male and a haemophilia carrier female. There are other rare variants of the disease which can be discussed only through counselling sessions.
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Zika virus

Advanced Aesthetics
Ayurveda, Gulbarga
Zika virus

Key facts

  •  Zika virus disease is caused by a virus transmitted by aedes mosquitoes.
  •  People with zika virus disease usually have a mild fever, skin rash (exanthema) and conjunctivitis. These symptoms normally last for 2-7 days.
  •  There is no specific treatment or vaccine currently available.
  •  The best form of prevention is protection against mosquito bites.
  •  The virus is known to circulate in africa, the americas, asia and the pacific.

Introduction

Zika virus is an emerging mosquito-borne virus that was first identified in uganda in 1947 in rhesus monkeys through a monitoring network of sylvatic yellow fever. It was subsequently identified in humans in 1952 in uganda and the united republic of tanzania. Outbreaks of zika virus disease have been recorded in africa, the americas, asia and the pacific.

  •  Genre: flavivirus
  •  Vector: aedes mosquitoes (which usually bite during the morning and late afternoon/evening hours)
  •  Reservoir: unknown

Signs and symptoms

The incubation period (the time from exposure to symptoms) of zika virus disease is not clear, but is likely to be a few days. The symptoms are similar to other arbovirus infections such as dengue, and include fever, skin rashes, conjunctivitis, muscle and joint pain, malaise, and headache. These symptoms are usually mild and last for 2-7 days.

During large outbreaks in french polynesia and brazil in 2013 and 2015 respectively, national health authorities reported potential neurological and auto-immune complications of zika virus disease. Recently in brazil, local health authorities have observed an increase in zika virus infections in the general public as well as an increase in babies born with microcephaly in northeast brazil. Agencies investigating the zika outbreaks are finding an increasing body of evidence about the link between zika virus and microcephaly. However, more investigation is needed before we understand the relationship between microcephaly in babies and the zika virus. Other potential causes are also being investigated.

Transmission

Zika virus is transmitted to people through the bite of an infected mosquito from the aedes genus, mainly aedes aegypti in tropical regions. This is the same mosquito that transmits dengue, chikungunya and yellow fever.

Zika virus disease outbreaks were reported for the first time from the pacific in 2007 and 2013 (yap and french polynesia, respectively), and in 2015 from the americas (brazil and colombia) and africa (cape verde). In addition, more than 13 countries in the americas have reported sporadic zika virus infections indicating rapid geographic expansion of zika virus.

Diagnosis

Zika virus is diagnosed through pcr (polymerase chain reaction) and virus isolation from blood samples. Diagnosis by serology can be difficult as the virus can cross-react with other flaviviruses such as dengue, west nile and yellow fever.
Prevention

Mosquitoes and their breeding sites pose a significant risk factor for zika virus infection. Prevention and control relies on reducing mosquitoes through source reduction (removal and modification of breeding sites) and reducing contact between mosquitoes and people.

This can be done by using insect repellent; wearing clothes (preferably light-coloured) that cover as much of the body as possible; using physical barriers such as screens, closed doors and windows; and sleeping under mosquito nets. It is also important to empty, clean or cover containers that can hold water such as buckets, flower pots or tyres, so that places where mosquitoes can breed are removed.

Special attention and help should be given to those who may not be able to protect themselves adequately, such as young children, the sick or elderly.

During outbreaks, health authorities may advise that spraying of insecticides be carried out. Insecticides recommended by the who pesticide evaluation scheme may also be used as larvicides to treat relatively large water containers.

Travellers should take the basic precautions described above to protect themselves from mosquito bites.

Treatment

Zika virus disease is usually relatively mild and requires no specific treatment. People sick with zika virus should get plenty of rest, drink enough fluids, and treat pain and fever with common medicines. If symptoms worsen, they should seek medical care and advice. There is currently no vaccine available.
Who response

Who is supporting countries to control zika virus disease through:

  •  Define and prioritize research into zika virus disease by convening experts and partners.
  •  Enhance surveillance of zika virus and potential complications.
  •  Strengthen capacity in risk communication to help countries meet their commitments under the international health regulations.
  •  Provide training on clinical management, diagnosis and vector control including through a number of who collaborating centres.
  •  Strengthen the capacity of laboratories to detect the virus.
  •  Support health authorities to implement vector control strategies aimed at reducing aedes mosquito populations such as providing larvicide to treat standing water sites that cannot be treated in other ways, such as cleaning, emptying, and covering them.
  •  Prepare recommendations for clinical care and follow-up of people with zika virus, in collaboration with experts and other health agencies.

Hi doctor I'm 4 and a half month pregnant I consulted my doctor she gave me a tablet name called vetocal-z after eating it I get stomach burning and from two days in suffering from lose motion I fell very tried is it any problem wil it affect my baby please give me some solution.

MBBS, DNB (Obstetrics and Gynecology), (MRCOG)
Gynaecologist, Chennai
Hi doctor I'm 4 and a half month pregnant I consulted my doctor she gave me a tablet name called vetocal-z after eati...
Hi, Vetocal Z is Calcium with Vitamin D, which is very important for you and the baby. Yes, it can sometimes cause acidity. But I doubt that it is the cause for the loose motions. The tablet or the loose motions will not affect the baby in any way. Have plenty of liquids, water, tender coconut, buttermilk etc You can ask for change of brand if the said tablet is causing too much acidity. But acidity occurs due to pregnancy also. Have bland food for few days, that will help. Take care, and enjoy the pregnancy
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When do we want to do sex to give birth? During period or normal days. I'm confused about that. Pls give a nice suggestion.

MBBS
General Physician, Faridabad
When do we want to do sex to give birth? During period or normal days. I'm confused about that. Pls give a nice sugge...
best time is on 14th day of start of cycle if your cycle is regular, [12-17 th ] say it start on 1st, but it can happen at any time. it will help. welcome for further help.
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Hi my wife just had a c section on may 27th, one month is going to finish on tomorrow, now health is in normal condition only, can I do intercourse with my wife is it safe for her.

MBBS
General Physician, Jalgaon
Late 6 wks to pass even if you want, can do without using extra force do it very lightly, use condom.
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A Quick Guide for Your Pregnancy Diet

MD - Obstetrtics & Gynaecology
Gynaecologist, Yamunanagar
A Quick Guide for Your Pregnancy Diet

One’s pregnancy is a time when one must be extremely vigilant about a proper diet and good exercise regime that will benefit the child and mother in equal measure. A balanced diet during pregnancy and enough of it is essential for your child to develop and grow in a healthy manner. You need to up your daily intake by 300 to 350 calories per day. Women carrying twins require 500 calories extra each day. Despite the fact that nausea during the initial months of pregnancy can make this troublesome, try to eat a properly balanced diet and take prenatal vitamins.

Here is a guide to a healthy diet during pregnancy:

  1. Eat a variety of food items to get a good amount of the nutrients, which your body requires. 3 main meals and 3 small meals should be taken each day.
  2. Pick fruits and ingredients that are high in fiber like whole grain breads, oats, beans, pasta and rice. In case you take a fiber supplement, increase the dose you take, slowly. This can get rid of gas and cramping. It is just as essential to drink enough fluids when you increase your fiber consumption.
  3. Ensure you are getting enough vitamins and minerals daily. Your specialist can suggest an over-the-counter supplement or recommend a prenatal vitamin for you.
  4. Eat and drink no less than four servings of dairy items and calcium-rich food products a day to guarantee that you are getting at least 1,000 milligrams of calcium on a daily basis.
  5. Eat at least three servings of iron-rich foods such as spinach, beans, lean meat and breakfast cereals every day to ensure that you are getting 27 milligrams of iron each day.
  6. While you are pregnant, you will require 220 micrograms of iodine a day to guarantee for your child's brain and sensory system growth. Look for dairy items like milk, cheese, and yogurt. In addition, baked potatoes, cooked beans, limited portions of fish like cod, salmon, and shrimp can be very healthy.
  7. Consume at least one good source of vitamin C consistently. For instance, oranges, grapefruits, strawberries, papaya, broccoli, cauliflower, brussel sprouts, green peppers, tomatoes and mustard greens. Pregnant women require 80 to 85 milligrams of vitamin C a day.
  8. Every pregnant woman needs one milligram of folate each day to counteract neural tube defects like spina bifida. Folic acid is an essential choice when you are pregnant.
  9. Consume at least one source of vitamin A each day. Sources of vitamin A are carrots, pumpkins, sweet potatoes, spinach, water squash, turnip greens, beet greens, apricots, and melon.
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