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Endometrial Ablation Procedure
Treatment of Treatment of Breast Cancer
Management of Abortion
Hormonal Replacement Therapy Treatment
Caesarean Section Procedure
Treatment of Gynae Problems
Gynecology Laparoscopy Procedures
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Treatment Of Menopause Related Issues
Treatment Of Menstrual Problems
Treatment of Mirena (Hormonal Iud)
Pap Smear Procedure
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Treatment
Treatment of Uterine Bleeding
Antenatal And Postnatal Exercise
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In many cases, the body responds to a stressful or traumatic situation by disassociating with it. This can result in the development of a dissociative disorder. A dissociative disorder or dissociative amnesia is a mental illness that involves the breaking down of memory, consciousness, identity and perception. It can interfere with a person's general functioning, social life and relationships. People suffering from dissociative amnesia can have long gaps in their memory of the accident and the time before and after it.
Women are at a higher risk of suffering from this condition as compared to men. It has also been found to have a genetic link as people suffering from this condition often have other members of their family who experience something similar. Manmade and natural disasters such as wars, floods, earthquakes etc that cause overwhelming stress is said to trigger this disease.
The inability to recall past events is a primary symptom of this disease. Other symptoms include
- Depression or anxiety
- Inability to remember personal information
- Substance abuse
- Mood swings
- Sexual dysfunction
- Panic attacks
- Obsessive compulsive symptoms
- Hallucinations and
- Social withdrawal
Treatment for this disease is a two step process. The first step involves relieving symptoms and controlling any behavioral changes. The second step aims at helping the person to recall and process their memories. Developing coping skills and rebuilding relationships is also focused on. Depending on the individual and the severity of symptoms showcased a doctor may choose to treat the patient using any of the following forms of treatment.
- Psychotherapy: This form of treatment is designed to encourage communication and give the person insight into their problems. It uses a number of psychological techniques.
- Cognitive therapy: Changing dysfunctional thinking patterns and their resulting emotions and behavior patterns is the focus of this form of treatment.
- Medication: Dissociative amnesia patients who also suffer from depression or anxiety can benefit from medication such as anti depressants and anti anxiety drugs. However, this medication does not treat the dissociative amnesia itself.
- Family therapy: In some cases, along with the patient it is also necessary to counsel the family. Family therapy involves educating the family members about the disorder and symptoms of recurrence.
Clinical hypnosis: This type of treatment uses intense relaxation and focused attention techniques to access the unconscious part of the mind and allow people to explore their thoughts, emotions and repressed memories.
One side ovary is present and on that side fallopian tube is not there or abnormal and other side ovary is not present and fallopian tube is proper or present. Can such a woman get pregnant?
I'm 29 years old female. I'm suffering from pcod problem since last 2 yrs. I was on medication for a years and so than I stopped using them. Now again my menstrual cycle is distributed.. I want to conceive.. please help me what can I do. Should I start on medication or what? Or please suggest some good doctor in chennai near tambaram as I'm new to this place.
Hello, My cousin is suffering from vaginal discharge and because of that she's loosing her weight too. Could you please tell some solutions for this.
I am 6 weeks pregnant. Today I saw a little brown blood outside the vagina without clot. Is there anything to worry?
Sir. I have a doubt in my heart that I have a little big testicles. From last 2 to 3 year they are same they are not growing big. But I thing that I am sufferings from hydrocele problem. If it is hydrocele will it affect my life . Will it affect my partner in conceiving for pregnancy. And how. In that case my sperm count is good.
Water birth, as revolutionary as it might sound, is not a bad idea. Common in the European countries like Australia and New Zealand, many birth centres in the United States have also started installing water birth tubs. It is the process of giving birth in a warm water tub, which is said to ease the process. The logic behind this goes that since the baby stays in the mother's womb for nine months in a water sac, therefore, birthing in a similar environment is better for the baby and less complex. Many obstetricians believe that this also prevents any kind of foetal complications.
There are both benefits and risk of water birth. They are as follows:
Benefits of water birth:
Water labour and water birth has the following advantages for the mother and the baby.
For the mother:
- The warm water provides mobility and comfort to the mother. The mother is also at a spontaneous position in water to change her location and deliver the baby.
- Pressure on the abdomen is decreased. Buoyancy helps in the efficient contraction of the uterine walls and it improves blood circulation, which again gives better supply of oxygen to the uterine muscles. The baby is provided with sufficient amount of oxygen while the mother endures lesser pain.
- Birthing in water helps in conservation of energy on part of the mother. The immersion helps to reduce collision with gravity and gives support to the mother's weight. This energy produced helps in coping with the uterine muscle contractions.
- The process of labour becomes more productive as it gives relaxation to the mother. While the mother calms down in the water, her hormones start working better and in turn the process is accelerated. The water also helps in soothing the pelvic muscles.
- The immersion helps in lowering the level of blood pressure and in reducing anxiety.
- Stress is hugely reduced as the mother is at ease and this helps in producing endorphins that serve as pain inhibitors.
For the baby:
- The baby gets a similar environment as the amniotic sac which helps in the birthing process gets added support.
- The stress of birth is greatly reduced.
Risks of water birth:
- There remains a risk of water embolism that is when the water enters into the mother's bloodstream.
- If the mother has herpes, this practice should not be followed as herpes spreads in water faster.
- This should be avoided in case of excessive bleeding and any kind of maternal infection. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a gynaecologist.
I'm 30 year old woman, my both breasts have pain for 1 year, and also those are differ in sizes. What should I do?
Polycystic ovaries are quite a common problem nowadays due to sedentary habit and excessive intake of out sided junk food.
-excessive weight gain
- irregular menstrual period
- difficulty in conception
- excessive hair growth over face
-the first line of treatment is weight reduction by regular exercises and by avoiding junk food
If still the weight is not controlled then medicines are given to normalize period and to improve fertility rate.
I abort today by taking tablets from my family Dr. What precautions should I taken during heavy bleeding.
I am having an itchy and a burning sensation in my uterus. It is happening since 2 weeks. It stops when I take medicine but starts again after a few days. When I am urinating, towards the end it's causing a weird burning/ hurting in the vagina.
Hello, doctors my wife is 10 week 05 days pregnant. She is housewife. She is suffering from cold throughout the year does that affect our baby and.
My girlfriend and me have sex last night. Unfortunately I didn't use any protection like condom. please help me how can stop my girlfriend's pregnancy. please sir. The age of my girlfriend is 17 years any my age is 16 years.
For eg I am 21 yrs old I have big boils on inner vagina part. I dono wat to do please suggest something.
Boerhaave first described the spontaneous rupture of the esophagus in 1724. It typically occurs after forceful emesis. Boerhaave syndrome is a transmural perforation of the esophagus to be distinguished from mallory-weiss syndrome, a nontransmural esophageal tear also associated with vomiting. Because it often is associated with emesis, boerhaave syndrome usually is not truly spontaneous. However, the term is useful for distinguishing it from iatrogenic perforation, which accounts for 85-90% of cases of esophageal rupture.
Diagnosis of boerhaave syndrome can be difficult because often no classic symptoms are present and delays in presentation for medical care are common. Approximately one third of all cases of boerhaave syndrome are clinically atypical. Prompt recognition of this potentially lethal condition is vital to ensure appropriate treatment. Mediastinitis, sepsis, and shock frequently are seen late in the course of illness, which further confuses the diagnostic picture.
See can't-miss gastrointestinal diagnoses, a critical images slideshow, to help diagnose the potentially life-threatening conditions that present with gastrointestinal symptoms.
A reported mortality estimate is approximately 35%, making it the most lethal perforation of the gi tract. The best outcomes are associated with early diagnosis and definitive surgical management within 12 hours of rupture. If intervention is delayed longer than 24 hours, the mortality rate (even with surgical intervention) rises to higher than 50% and to nearly 90% after 48 hours. Left untreated, the mortality rate is close to 100%.
Esophageal rupture in boerhaave syndrome is postulated to be the result of a sudden rise in intraluminal esophageal pressure produced during vomiting, as a result of neuromuscular incoordination causing failure of the cricopharyngeus muscle to relax. The syndrome commonly is associated with overindulgence in food and/or alcohol. The most common anatomical location of the tear in boerhaave syndrome is at the left posterolateral wall of the lower third of the esophagus, 2-3 cm proximal to the gastroesophageal junction, along the longitudinal wall of the esophagus. The second most common site of rupture is in the subdiaphragmatic or upper thoracic area. [1, 2]
Although likely underreported, the incidence of boerhaave syndrome is relatively rare. A 1980 review by kish cited 300 cases in the literature worldwide.  a 1986 summary by bladergroen et al described 127 cases.  of these, 114 were diagnosed antemortem; the others were diagnosed at autopsy. Overall, boerhaave syndrome accounts for 15% of all cases of traumatic rupture or perforation of the esophagus.
Race-, sex-, and age-related demographics
Cases have been reported in all races and on virtually every continent, affecting males more commonly than females, with ratios ranging from 2: 1 to 5: 1.
Boerhaave syndrome is seen most frequently among patients aged 50-70 years. Reports suggest that 80% of all patients are middle-aged men. However, this condiction has also been described in neonates and in persons older than 90 years. Although no clear explanation exists for this, the least susceptible age group appears to be children aged 1-17 years.
Prognosis is directly contingent on early recognition and appropriate intervention. Early diagnosis of boerhaave syndrome allows prompt surgical repair. Diagnosis and surgery within 24 hours carry a 75% survival rate. This drops to approximately 50% after a 24-hour delay and approximately 10% after 48 hours.
The mortality rate is high. Esophageal perforation is the most lethal perforation of the gi tract. Survival is contingent largely upon early recognition and appropriate surgical intervention.
Overall, the mortality rate is approximately 30%. Mortality is usually due to subsequent infection, including mediastinitis, pneumonitis, pericarditis, or empyema.
Patients who undergo surgical repair within 24 hours of injury have a 70-75% chance of survival. This falls to 35-50% if surgery is delayed longer than 24 hours and to approximately 10% if delayed longer than 48 hours.
Cases of patients surviving without surgery exist but are rare enough to warrant case reports in the medical literature.
Esophageal rupture may lead to the development of septicemia, pneumomediastinum, mediastinitis, massive pleural effusion, empyema, pneumomediastinum, or subcutaneous emphysema.
If the esophageal rupture extends directly into the pleura, hydropneumothorax is expected. In adults, this occurs more commonly on the left side of the pleura. In neonates, esophageal rupture usually occurs on the right side.
After esophageal rupture, free air enters the mediastinum and also may spread to the adjacent structures, resulting in mediastinal abscess or superimposed secondary infection.
Other complications include acute respiratory distress syndrome, pneumomediastinum, pneumothorax, and hydrothorax.