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Management of Abortion
Caesarean Section Procedure
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Termination Of Pregnancy Procedure
Treatment Of Pregnancy Problems
Well Woman Healthcheck
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Treatment Of Medical Diseases In Pregnancy
Treatment Of Menstrual Problems
Intra-Uterine Insemination (IUI) Treatment
Medical Termination Of Pregnancy (Mtp) Procedure
Gynecology Laparoscopy Procedures
Pap Smear Procedure
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- Zika virus disease is caused by a virus transmitted by aedes mosquitoes.
- People with zika virus disease usually have a mild fever, skin rash (exanthema) and conjunctivitis. These symptoms normally last for 2-7 days.
- There is no specific treatment or vaccine currently available.
- The best form of prevention is protection against mosquito bites.
- The virus is known to circulate in africa, the americas, asia and the pacific.
Zika virus is an emerging mosquito-borne virus that was first identified in uganda in 1947 in rhesus monkeys through a monitoring network of sylvatic yellow fever. It was subsequently identified in humans in 1952 in uganda and the united republic of tanzania. Outbreaks of zika virus disease have been recorded in africa, the americas, asia and the pacific.
- Genre: flavivirus
- Vector: aedes mosquitoes (which usually bite during the morning and late afternoon/evening hours)
- Reservoir: unknown
Signs and symptoms
The incubation period (the time from exposure to symptoms) of zika virus disease is not clear, but is likely to be a few days. The symptoms are similar to other arbovirus infections such as dengue, and include fever, skin rashes, conjunctivitis, muscle and joint pain, malaise, and headache. These symptoms are usually mild and last for 2-7 days.
During large outbreaks in french polynesia and brazil in 2013 and 2015 respectively, national health authorities reported potential neurological and auto-immune complications of zika virus disease. Recently in brazil, local health authorities have observed an increase in zika virus infections in the general public as well as an increase in babies born with microcephaly in northeast brazil. Agencies investigating the zika outbreaks are finding an increasing body of evidence about the link between zika virus and microcephaly. However, more investigation is needed before we understand the relationship between microcephaly in babies and the zika virus. Other potential causes are also being investigated.
Zika virus is transmitted to people through the bite of an infected mosquito from the aedes genus, mainly aedes aegypti in tropical regions. This is the same mosquito that transmits dengue, chikungunya and yellow fever.
Zika virus disease outbreaks were reported for the first time from the pacific in 2007 and 2013 (yap and french polynesia, respectively), and in 2015 from the americas (brazil and colombia) and africa (cape verde). In addition, more than 13 countries in the americas have reported sporadic zika virus infections indicating rapid geographic expansion of zika virus.
Zika virus is diagnosed through pcr (polymerase chain reaction) and virus isolation from blood samples. Diagnosis by serology can be difficult as the virus can cross-react with other flaviviruses such as dengue, west nile and yellow fever.
Mosquitoes and their breeding sites pose a significant risk factor for zika virus infection. Prevention and control relies on reducing mosquitoes through source reduction (removal and modification of breeding sites) and reducing contact between mosquitoes and people.
This can be done by using insect repellent; wearing clothes (preferably light-coloured) that cover as much of the body as possible; using physical barriers such as screens, closed doors and windows; and sleeping under mosquito nets. It is also important to empty, clean or cover containers that can hold water such as buckets, flower pots or tyres, so that places where mosquitoes can breed are removed.
Special attention and help should be given to those who may not be able to protect themselves adequately, such as young children, the sick or elderly.
During outbreaks, health authorities may advise that spraying of insecticides be carried out. Insecticides recommended by the who pesticide evaluation scheme may also be used as larvicides to treat relatively large water containers.
Travellers should take the basic precautions described above to protect themselves from mosquito bites.
Zika virus disease is usually relatively mild and requires no specific treatment. People sick with zika virus should get plenty of rest, drink enough fluids, and treat pain and fever with common medicines. If symptoms worsen, they should seek medical care and advice. There is currently no vaccine available.
Who is supporting countries to control zika virus disease through:
- Define and prioritize research into zika virus disease by convening experts and partners.
- Enhance surveillance of zika virus and potential complications.
- Strengthen capacity in risk communication to help countries meet their commitments under the international health regulations.
- Provide training on clinical management, diagnosis and vector control including through a number of who collaborating centres.
- Strengthen the capacity of laboratories to detect the virus.
- Support health authorities to implement vector control strategies aimed at reducing aedes mosquito populations such as providing larvicide to treat standing water sites that cannot be treated in other ways, such as cleaning, emptying, and covering them.
- Prepare recommendations for clinical care and follow-up of people with zika virus, in collaboration with experts and other health agencies.
Even after having intercourse during the time of ovulation i couldnt concieve. What could be the reason
I got my periods on 7 th this month Nd it got over on 10th. I got physical on 14th with protection. Actually did not reached the climax (both of us). Any chance of pregnancy?
Sir my wife in during the periods and it's completed into 4-6 days but in this time it's in regular and don't stop it cross approximately 10 days. Pls advice what I can do. I make physical relation during periods.
Hi Doctor, I am a 26 year old female, 32 weeks 6 days pregnant with my first baby. I found out today that I was severely deficient in vitamin D (<4.20 ng/ml). I was never advised to test for this before. I was taking supercal (calcium - 1000 iu and vitamin D 200 iu), iron daily. Now I'm very much worried about my unborn babies bone and body development from the start. Scans are fine til now, except the baby measures a week small. I took d-rise 60, 000iu today. Will my baby be okay?
There are certain ways in which families can stay together without any emotional problems that pull them apart. Here are some of the effective formulas in order to create a great emotional bonding:
- Learning: Families are the place we learn qualities, abilities, and conduct. Solid families oversee and control their learning experiences and methods. They set up an example of home life. They select suitable TV programs. They manage their youngsters into the world outside the home. They do not give social powers a chance to lead their family life.
- Dedication: Solid families have a feeling of inter-dependence and dedication toward relatives. The family sticks together. They remain by each other during times of inconvenience. They remain standing for each other when assaulted by somebody outside the family. Devotion works through affection and wellbeing, needs and favorable luck, disappointment and achievement, and everything the family faces.
- Adoring: All people want to love and to be loved; the family is regularly where love is communicated. Love is the mixing of physical and mental harmony. It includes protection, closeness, sharing, having a place, and emotional space. The environment of genuine love is one of trustworthiness, comprehension, tolerance, and forgiveness.
- Responsibility: Individuals from solid families are committed to the prosperity and joy of alternate individuals. They believe in family solidarity. Responsibility serves as a firm establishment for solid family connections.
- Appreciation: People from solid families show and discuss their gratefulness for each other. Alongside our requirement for affection, our most vital human need is the requirement for appreciation. One of the reasons why we work so hard in life is not inspiration by cash, power, or position; it is the yearning to feel valuable.
- Correspondence: People from solid families work at growing great relational abilities and invest a ton of energy chatting with each other. They discuss the little, insignificant things and additionally the profound, vital issues of life. Correspondence is the backbone of connections - the way love and different feelings are communicated.
- Time together: Healthy families invest energy and quality time in expansive amounts with each other. A few families may state, "We do not get to know one another all in all family, yet what little time we are as one is quality time.” The reviews on solid families demonstrate that both quality and amount are important for good relationship arrangement and upkeep.
- Spiritual well-being: Whether they go to formal religious administrations or services, emotionally healthy relatives have a feeling of a more prominent, greater power in life; and that conviction gives them quality and reason.
- Adapting capacity: Individuals from strong families can see stress or emergency as a chance to develop and learn. They have great adapting aptitudes. A past filled with critical thinking gives the confidence to manage most things that comes our direction.
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