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PCOS (Polycystic Ovary Syndrome) is also known as PCOD. PCOS is a hormonal and metabolic disorder of women which has negative impact on their cardiovascular and reproductive health. Exact cause of PCOS is not known but both genetic and environmental factors play a role in it's development. It is known to run in families.
Clinical features of PCOS
Classically PCOS is described as triad of hyperandrogenemia, anovulatory cycles and polycystic ovaries on ultrasound. Any two of these three clinical features are enough to diagnose condition.
Common symptoms of PCOS
Symptoms of PCOS are irregular cycles with episodes of heavy bleeding, infertility, thick and dark hair growth over face and trunk, acne, male pattern hair loss over forehead. Many of these girls and women are overweight or obese. People with PCOS are at increased risk of diabetes mellitus and heart diseases.
To diagnose PCOS, few blood tests to see your hormone levels and ultrasound scan of pelvis are done. Simultaneously patients need to undergo blood tests to assess their metabolic health and to rule out other hormonal disorders which can have similar clinic presentation as in PCOS.
Lifestyle modification is first and most important for patients of all age group. They should exercise regularly and maintain normal weight. Then depending on patients symptoms oral tablets are given either to manipulate hormone levels or their action. With treatment, patients have good quality of healthy life. These medicines make menstrual cycle regular, reduce abnormal hair growth over face and trunk, improve glucose tolerance and improve fertility. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult an Endocrinologist.
I am 24 years married woman, I want to get pregnant, my last ultrasound report is endometrium thickness is 13.5 mm diameter, missed period 14day from the expected period. My Ovulation day.
Trigeminal neuralgia can be best described as an ongoing condition that affects a group of nerves called the fifth cranial nerve which is responsible for sensation in the face. Individuals suffering from this pain say that the pain feels like that of an electric shock and sometimes it becomes unbearably severe. According to medical experts, the trigeminal neuralgia is the acutest pain that an individual can suffer from where the pain mostly affects the lower portion of the face along with the jaw and may also affect the lips, nose, ears and eyes. Trigeminal neuralgia is thought to affect over 1 million people across the world and 1 person in every 15,000 people suffers from this disease.
Understanding the causes of trigeminal neuralgia
The human face comprises of two trigeminal nerves, one on each side of the face and each splits into 3 branches which aid in transmitting sensations of pain as well as a touch from the teeth, mouth, and face to the brain. Most cases of trigeminal neuralgia are said to be triggered by the blood vessels, which sometimes presses the root of the trigeminal nerve. This is known to make the nerve transmit signals which lead to the feeling of stabbing and throbbing pain in the facial regions.
The exertion of pressure on the nerves is mostly caused by multiple sclerosis and tumor and some other suspected causes of trigeminal neuralgia include, pressing of the blood vessel against the root of the trigeminal nerve, demyelization of the trigeminal nerves during the advanced stages of multiple sclerosis, physical damage to the nerve caused by an injury, a surgical procedure or a severe infection, although rare, pressing of a tumor against the trigeminal nerve may also cause it and family history and genetic conditions are also responsible for causing trigeminal neuralgia
Diagnosing trigeminal neuralgia:
If the primary health care provider feels that the symptoms of facial pain are indicative of trigeminal neuralgia, then the patient’s face is required to be examined and evaluated more carefully to detect the affected parts with precision. Other conditions which may have similar symptoms including tooth problems and sinusitis would be eliminated first. Then an MRI scan would be performed which would help understand whether the trigeminal neuralgia is triggered by some underlying medical issues. But the MRI would not be able to reveal the reasons behind the irritation of the nerve unless tumor or multiple sclerosis is the cause. This is because it is not possible to visualize the blood vessel that stands next to the nerve root.
Getting the right treatment for trigeminal neuralgia:
- Interventional Treatments:
- Percutaneous Radiofrequency(RF) Ablation of Gasserian Ganglion
- Percutaneous Glycerol Rhizolysis
- Percutaneous Baloon Micro compression
- Surgical Microvascular Decompression (MVD)
- Gamma Knife Stereotactic Radiation Therapy
If you wish to discuss any specific problem, you can consult a pain management specialist.
I think I am having vaginal infection. There is a white thick liquid coming out of my vagina, the area is red and etching is also there. But I am having my periods so should I visit a doctor or not ? I mean in periods how will she examine me ?
2 years completed of Marriage but my wife not able to conceive just next week I taken my semen analysis my report is My total sperm count is 40 Active Motility is 40 Sluggish is 40 And my morphology normal form is 60 Abnormal form is 40 It is good for conceive a baby please reply.
I am anaya from karimnagar, I am 29 years old recently I found I have subserosa fibroid and pcod also I am taking homeo medicine from last 2 months, still now am not getting period and I am getting bleeding spotting like dat 9not much) I am planning for kids next year please advice me how can I cure my issue I am gaining weight year by year 70 kgs now.
Hello I have irregular mens after my periods I have middle stomach pain with weaknes I have tested with pregnancy kit within one month but showing negative please guide me
I have a friend. It has been 35 days since her last period. She is scared and is not sure what to do. What would you suggest?
Hello, everyone. I am glad that you are watching this video. I am consultant gynecologist at Max Superspeciality Hospital, Shalimar Bagh, Max Hospital in Pitampura and at my own clinic in Pitampura. Today I would like to talk about PCOS or Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome.
It is a very common in female endocrine disorder which is increasing tremendously. The prevalence of it now is 2.2 to 26% which itself is very high. NOw, what is it about? So, this problem is about women's hormones, they get out of balance. Then it makes the problems in periods, difficult for the women to conceive or to get pregnant. If left untreated, it can lead to long term problems such as Diabetes Mellitus, Heart disease, and endocrinal cancer.
What happens in PCOS?
In PCOS, the sex hormones get out of balance. So, the male hormones increase more than a normal range. Now, what do they do?
They stop Ovulation, they cause acne, increase the facial and the body hair.
The second factor it involves is Insulin.THe Insulin resistance is caused because of PCOS. The insulin resistance causes obesity, weight gain and then later it may cause Diabetes Mellitus. The causes of PCOS is clearly not known but they run in the family. The girls which are affected from PCOS, they get it either from the mother's family or the father's family.
So, the symptoms of PCOS are;
- Extra facial and the body hair
- Thinning of hair from the scalp
- Infertility problems
- Irregular periods
Now, coming to the diagnosis,
There are a lot of studies which are done for PCOS. PCOD is defined as any two of these three features, those are;
- The periods that come after more than 45 days or periods which comes less than 8 times in a year.
- Hyperandrogenism, Menstrual problems.
- Ultrasound features suggested of PCOS.
This is how we diagnose. Now coming to the treatment.
There are 3 key treatments for PCOS;
- Regular exercise- Walking is a very good exercise that most people can do. Then depending on your choice, you can swim, dance, play etc.
- Healthy diet- In diet, you should take green leafy vegetables, fruits, whole grains, nuts, beans, milk etc. You should avoid the intake of saturated fats like meat, cheese, fried food items, sugary food. Starchy food such as potatoes, cakes, sweet potato, maida, sooji, besan etc. You have to quit smoking if you are indulged in that too.
- Weight control- In weight control, most women benefit even with 5% of weight loss that would help them regulate their hormones better.
The women's hormones come into balance, the periods come on time, it gets easier for the patient to get pregnant. All these favourable changes take place when the patient follows all these three steps.
Now there are pills that we can give to the patients to help her regulate her own hormones. Now, there are two types of pill;
- One is birth control pills o0r oral contraceptive pills. These pills help to balance sex hormones.
- Metformin pills are the insulin sensitizers. They tackle the INsulin resistance in the PCOS patients.
Now, all these help in balancing the hormones of PCOS patients. If a patient is suffering from depression because of PCOS, then he would advise her to do some exercises that help to elevate the mood or to consult a counsellor or a gynaecologist.
So, if you want to contact me, you can do so through Lybrate or you can come to my clinic directlywhich is in Pitampura.
Thanks for the patient hearing.