Hysterolaparoscopy is an effective and safe tool in evaluation of infertility, particularly for detecting adnexal adhesions , peritoneal endometriosis and septum in the uterus. Also it can detect various structural abnormalities in multiple sites like tubes,pelvis and the uterus in the same sitting in patients.read more
I am Dr. Jayanti Kamat, director of Srishti Fertility Care Centre and Women's Clinic I am an IVF Consultant, an obstetrician and gynecologist practicing for the last 20 years.
So today I will be talking about Cancer of the cervix, Cancer cervix is the commonest cancer found in Indian women after breast cancer. Every year according to WHO studies 1, 24,000 cases have been detected and annually there are 64,000 deaths, so cancer cervix is a very deadly disease. So what is this cancer cervix, the cervix is the mouth of the uterus? Now, what are the causes of Cancer cervix there are many causes of Cancer cervix but the commonest cause is a virus called as HPV or Human Papilloma Virus, now this virus is responsible for 70% of cases of Cancer cervix. HPV is a very common virus it is usually contracted during sexual intercourse so what does this HPV virus do, it enters into a normal cell and it changes the mechanism and the machinery inside the cell and once it changes the mechanism in machinery of the cell, the cell start behaving little differently and then these abnormal cells they multiply and once they multiply they form a tumor called as cancer cervix. Now, what are the other causes of Cancer cervix that is an early age of marriage then repeated pregnancies the more the number of pregnancies more is the incidence of Cancer cervix, then sexually transmitted diseases, smoking also increases the incidence of cancer cervix? Now this HPV virus it is not that every woman who is infected with HPV virus will develop cancer cervix it all depends on the dose of the virus which infects the cells and the immunity of the person as well. In some women the HPV infection becomes a self-limiting disease in the sense, it gets cured by itself. And in some women say after the period of 5, 10 or 15 years it can cause dysplasia or changes in the cells which later on formed cancer cervix. Fortunately, friends, cancer cervix is one of the few cancer which can be detected at an early stage very easily and how can we do it, there is the simple test called for Pap Smear and also we do have vaccines as of today or HPV vaccines which helps to prevent this HPV infected cells to get converted into cancer. HPV vaccine, now this HPV vaccine is one of the few vaccines which have been invented for the prevention cancer, so we are lucky to have such a vaccine. So this vaccine it has to be given to all girls between the ages of 9 and 26 days before they become sexually active. So this vaccine will prevent the HPV cells from HPV infected cells from developing into cancer there are three roses of this vaccine which have to be completed within 6 months. Now what is this Pap test is a very simple test it can be done on a small clinic or in a big hospital it can be done anywhere, it is an OPD procedure the patient does not have to go for fasting nor it is painful, nor does it required anaesthesia. So when should this Pap test is ideally done, Pap test should be ideally done after menses preferably between the 5th and 10th day of menses and what should you expect during the Pap test procedure the gynaecologist will examine you and take a few cells from your cervix with the help of a spatula and then send those cell to the pathologist for examination. So by examination these cells the pathologist will know whether the cells are normal or abnormal. So what are the advantages of Pap smear so when the gynaecologist examine you she or he will also find out whether your cervix is normal or whether the cervix has Erosion. So this erosion can also cause white discharge so what is that erosion the cells from inside the cervix they just come out so the treatment for this erosion can be done by cautery or just burning the tissue. The gynaecologist will also see that if you have some cervical polyp that also will be visible during the Pap test procedure. So if the polyp is there the polyp can be removed at the same sitting. Now, what is the Pap test come abnormal, the next step will be colposcopy. What is colposcopy? Colposcopy is when the cervix is visualized with an instrument called as colposcope which magnifies, which gives a very magnify review of the cervix. So what does the doctor see through the colposcope, the doctor will see whether the cells are normal or abnormal, there are different criteria blood vessels, the pattern of blood vessels etc and by observing all these things the doctors will be able to make out whether there is some suspicious area which is indicative of malignancy. So from such a suspicious area the biopsy is taken and the biopsy is again sent to the pathologist, so ensure the biopsy will be the test in which we can find out whether the lady has cancer or not. So now what are the symptoms of cancer cervix, so cancer cervix in its early stage has no symptoms at all and that is why we do Pap smear? Pap smear my dear friends is a screening method and not a diagnostic method, what is the screening method that we try to find out the early stages of the disease even before the patient has symptoms and why do we do that because if this cancer is detected in early stage the treatment is very simple and if it is detected in the later stage, the treatment can get complicated and goes much agony and pain to the patient. Now cancer in the little later stage will give rise to symptoms such as white discharge, blood stained discharge, discomfort, pain during sex, bleeding immediately after sexual intercourse and even with the small gynaec examination also the patient may start bleeding, patient may have swelling of feet, sudden loss of weight or pain during urination so all these can be the symptoms of cancer cervix. So whenever lady has these symptoms she has to go and consult her gynecologist. Now what if the biopsy report comes as positive for malignancy there are various methods in which cancer cervix is treated, one is surgery where we remove the cancerous part. The next is radiotherapy, radiotherapy can be two types of radiotherapy, one is external radiotherapy whereas the radioactive source is kept outside the body of the uterus and there is another method called as the intracavitary radiotherapy whereas the radioactive source is kept inside the body of the lady. Then we have chemotherapy as well or sometimes the patient may require a combination of various therapies. So, friends, it is my earnest request to you please get a Pap test done today itself and Pap smear has to be done once in every 3 years for all women under the age of 40 and after 40 it has to be done every year, the Pap test has to be done every year after the age of 40 combined with the HPV testing as well. So we can reduce the incidence of Cancer cervix by being very vigilant, by following safe practices, by avoiding things like smoking and of course getting a Pap smear and an HPV testing done just as we have eradicated polio from India, I strongly believe that if all of us are vigilant we can surely reduce the incidence of cancer cervix in India today, thank you.
If you have any queries about Cancer Cervix, please contact me on Lybrate.read more
I am Dr. Jayanti Kamat, director of Srishti Fertility Care Centre and Women's Clinic I am an IVF Consultant, an obstetrician and gynecologist practicing for the last 20 years.
So today I will be talking about preconception care, the birth of a child is equivalent to planting a tree where we prepare the soil and then sow the seeds and that's not all we have to give it time and nourishment as well. In India, 70% of the pregnancies are unplanned this is occurred by a chance nobody plans for it just happens by itself. So these unplanned pregnancies can cause a lot of problems for both the mother and the baby. People still feel in India that we have to go to the gynecologist in the 7 months of pregnancy ke saatve mahine mein naam dalwane ka hai taki they have to go to the hospital to book themselves for delivery. This concept is not right, we all believe that healthy women make healthy babies so you have to make your body a safe place for your future baby to thrive. So first and foremost is you have to do a lot of introspection about yourself I will talk about age, so today there are a lot of women who are in the workforce they keep postponing the marriage and even if they are married they postpone the childbearing. Why is this a problem because what happens is has a woman grows older her fertility potential keeps on decreasing, her capacity to produce eggs decreases in addition to that the quality of the eggs also decreases. Moreover, if a woman conceives at a later age she has a lot of problems during the pregnancy such as pregnancy-induced hypertension, diabetes, preterm labor, difficult labor, there can be complications in the baby as well, the baby can be born premature or there is an increased incidence of congenital defects in the baby. So, women, today are not aware of all days they feel after they finish all commitments they can think about childbearing. Now when it comes to preconceptions you have to plan 3 months before your actually planning to conceive, so if you have any medical conditions such as hypertension, diabetes, seizure disorder or fit disorders, asthma, anaemia, so all these things have to be taken care of and get treated before you even plan to conceive. So don't just conceive preconceive. Then the next is medications ok, so some medication may be quiet safe during pregnancy, some medications are an absolute no-no during pregnancy because they may cause birth defects in the baby and some medications their doses need to be adjusted so as not affect the foetus. So you must be aware of all these things and you have to consult your treating physician and tell him or her that you are planning to conceive and whether the medication can be adjusted and the doses can be adjusted. The next is immunization, usually by this age women are more or less immune to all diseases but if she gets tested for rubella or she is not immunised to rubella then she should get immunised in this period, other immunizations are like Hepatitis B and chickenpox or varicella zoster is equally important because if the women contact these diseases during pregnancy, it is going to be very difficult. Then comes to the lifestyle factors, what are the lifestyle factors your food habits so if you have used to junk food you have to stop eating junk food, eat a very healthy diet, then exercise also exercise reduces the stress level and the fit women will be able to manage her labour pains in a better way. Now coming to weight issues, even if a person woman is underweight she has problem during pregnancy she can give rise to a growth retarded baby and if a woman is overweight before pregnancy again that also can lead to problems because every woman will put on certain weight during pregnancy that is normal that is physiological, but if a woman is overweight before pregnancy she has to compact her weight which is normal for her height by following a sensible diet and exercise regime because if she is overweight she is more prone for pregnancy complications like PIS or Pregnancy Induced Hypertension, diabetes, difficult labour etc. When they are planning to conceive you should also supplement takes supplements of Folic acid .4 milligram along with other multivitamins because this will help to prevent any neural defects because spine is the first thing which is formed in the body, so if there is deficiency of Folic acid there could be a problem in the sign of the baby. Last but not the least men also matter, preconceptional care is not definitely restricted to women alone men have to take care of themselves because their overall health will reflect on the sperm. So a man also has to take control or give up smoking and excessive alcohol or substance abuse, decrease stress levels and inculcate healthy food habits and exercise into its regime. So when it comes to substance abuse suppose a woman is used to smoking or alcohol she has to control this the smoking can have a detrimental effect on the baby, you have to even think about your work life balance how we are going to adjust once the baby comes and develop a good support system as well. You even have to think about your finances and have a proper financial planning in place before you have a baby. Then coming to a family history, family history is whether anybody in your family has had a congenitally abnormal child or whether there is any disease which runs in the family, for example, Thalassemia and your previous reproductive history, that suppose you have an abortion or repeated abortions so these things also have to be taken care off. Then your menstrual history, now menstrual history is very closely related to your fertility status so you have to keep a track of your menses. Nowadays we have so many apps which help you to keep a track you have to note whether your menses are regular or irregular if they are irregular that means that you are not ovulating properly it could be PCOS as well, then coming to the menstrual flow is it very scanty or very less or is it more, so if it is more if it is associated with pain it could mean that you could have a fibroid or suppose you have a very painful menses or you have pain which stops just before menses, it could mean you are suffering from endometrosis or a pelvic inflammatory disease. In spite of following all these precautions if a couple cannot conceive after one year they need to seek the services of a fertility specialist and if the women's age is more than 32 years and even if she's married for less than six months she has to get a fertility status evaluated and seek the help of the fertility specialist.
So friends don't conceive preconceived and before you think of a baby please do plan for it so that you can avoid complications during pregnancy, during labor and can have a healthy and bubbly child, happy parenting.
If you have any queries contact me on Lybrate.read more
I am Dr. Jayanti Kamat. I am an IVF consultant, obstetrician and gynaecologist practicing for the last 20 years, I am practicing at Shrishti Fertility Care Centre and women's clinic. Today I will be talking about vaginal discharge, now vaginal discharge is a very common complaint, women of all ages complain of vaginal discharge. So what exactly is it, sometimes it is usually termed as Leucorrhea also. Now the complaint of discharge depends very much on the ideas, observation power and fascinated illness of individuals with women, now this vaginal discharge normal or abnormal should there be vaginal discharge at all. so scientifically the private parts that are the vulva and vagina are normally moised to some extent and this makes the woman comfortable, usually does not stain the under clothing but there are certain conditions in which the vaginal discharge is increased due to hormonal imbalance. So what are those conditions that is at the time of ovulation the discharge suddenly becomes watery a few days before menses it may also become then it becomes thick then it becomes take during pregnancy, after sexual intercourse and excessive discharge is seen in young girls just before they start their first menstrual period and a few years after they start their menstrual period. It is also increased in women who take oral contraceptives or birth control pills. A word about regular douching some women are under the misconception that regular douching improve genital hygiene, however washing away of natural discharge encourages the cervix to produce more discharge. Women magazines sometimes they advocate Deodorant product to sprayed on the private parts and vagina and valva to promote sexual attractiveness but on the contrary the chemicals which are present in this deodorant sprays, they irritate the skin and douching washes away all the protecting lactobacilli alters the pH and there are more chances of the women getting infection. Now what is abnormal discharge, so when can we say that the discharge is abnormal, if the discharge is accompanied with itching or redness, it causes a lot of irritation, unpleasant order or smell, burning sensation during urination, whether the colour of discharge if it is curd-like or yellow or yellowish green and if it is associated with pain during intercourse or dyspareunia. Now what are the causes of this abnormal discharge lot of women ask me why do we get this discharge and I keep myself so clean, so some of the causes are one, of course, it is poor hygiene then sexual intercourse with the Infected partner, public toilets repeated use of public toilets then douching has I have already mentioned, once you start destroying the natural perry of the vagina the women will be more prone to infection and cancer that we should never forget cancer or cancerous growth also give rise to discharge, so if the discharge is blood stained you have to be careful. Now, why should we pay so much attention to vaginal discharge because if this discharge is not treated, it can lead to complications? So what are those complications one is the pelvic inflammatory disease called as PID so here the uterus the tube and the entire reproductive tract gets infected? Then abnormal changes in cervix or mouth of the uterus now this abnormal changes can cause cellular changes, dysplastic changes and later on lead to cancer changes. Now, what about abnormal vaginal discharge in pregnant women does that affect them, yes, of course, it affects then it can cause premature rupture of membrane or the rupture of a bag of water even before the labor pain start or even before delivery. Now, this pack of water is supposed to be a protective shock absorber for the foetus and it protects the foetus from external infection. So when this bag of water ruptures the foetus will be prone to infection and the pregnancy will be at risk. The preterm delivery, what is preterm delivery? if the women deliver before nine months obviously she is going to run into complications, then chorreoamnoities i.e. infection of the Placenta and the fluid which is surrounding the foetus, endometriosis that is an infection of the lining of the uterus. Now, what is the treatment first and foremost self-medication is a straight no why you cannot see your neighbors prescription or your friends prescription and get yourself treated for vaginal discharge no, you have to get examined by a gynecologist she will ascertain the cause for your discharge and treat you accordingly. So how do we treat we usually give antifungal tablets or antibiotic tablets depending upon the cause of the infection, sometimes the treatment of the partner is also necessary to avoid the Ping Pong of infection between the partners. Then suppose a woman is suffering from chronic cervicitis or cervical erosion there are other modalities of treatment such as cryotherapy, laser cautery, then if a malignancy is discovered the treatment of malignancy will be something which is very specialized. Now what you have to do to prevent such type of vagina infection first and foremost routine cleanliness always use cotton underwear which can absorb the discharge avoid synthetic material nylon and avoid douching as I already mentioned because douching destroys the normal barriers of the vagina and makes it more prone for infection, you should avoid any type of sprays, deodorant sprays, safe sex practices and of course general health care and good nutrition which will allow you, which will give you immunity against the diseases. The very important point do not use very hot water to clean your private parts some people feel that if they use hot water they can clear away the infection very easily no and because of vaginal skin and mucosa is very delicate you can use lukewarm water or the tap water. Similarly, do not use medicated soaps like Dettol or Savlon, you can use a mild to mild soap. The thing here is you have to keep the area dry so you can just use a soft tissue paper and just pat it dry, you should not rub the private parts because again it cause the excoriation of the skin and make it more prone for infection.
So please do keep these tips in mind.
Thank You.read more
I am Dr. Jayanti Kamat. I am an IVF consultant, obstetrician and gynaecologist practising for the last 20 years, I am practicing at Shrishti Fertility Care Centre and women's clinic. So today I will be talking about what to do if you are planning to have a baby, but have a difficulty in conceiving. If you're married for more than 1 year you are being tried for a baby for more than 1 year having regular sexual intercourse and not using any contraceptive then it is defined as infertility, at that time you should seek the help of infertility specialist or if the women’s age is more than 35 years and if she is married for 6 months she should seek the services of an infertility specialist. So why do we say the age of 34 years or 35 years is important that is because after the age of 30 a woman's reproductive capacity keeps on declining, so when the woman who is over 35 years it will affect her quality of oocytes, the quantity of oocytes and even if she gets pregnant there are more chances of genetic abnormalities in the baby like down syndrome, besides this she can have complications in pregnancy like pregnancy-induced hypertension, gestational diabetes, preterm delivery, premature rupture of membranes and difficult labour. So age is very important as far as infertility management is concerned. Now, why is infertility increasing has of today that is because of increasing age of marriage, postponement of childbearing, increased incidence of sexually transmitted diseases? Women today are very much into the workforce and they want to settle their career before they are planning to marry or even have a baby. Now there are two types of infertility that is one is primary infertility when the couple has never conceived and secondary infertility when the couple has conceived a child maybe it could be an abortion, it could be a miscarriage but they cannot conceive again. So when you go to an infertility specialist what do you expect firstly the doctor will take a detailed history, history of your age, your lifestyle habits and the number of times you have relations in a week, any previous treatment, any previous illnesses etc for the women a detailed menstrual history will be taken. So menstrual history like the date when you had the last menses whether your periods are regular. What is the interval between the periods, what is the blood flow during the periods is it less, scanty or excessive or is it painful or do you have pain before menses, all these things will be asked. It’s very important for a woman who is planning to conceive to keep a detailed menstrual calendar. So today we have a lot of apps on your mobile so it's very easy to keep track of your menstrual cycle. Then the doctor will ask you about the number of times you have relations in a week then about your lifestyle habits, diet etc. The next will be a physical examination, now in this physical examination we have a general examination and your specific examination so general examination will be the doctor will examine your blood pressure, pulse, whether you have anaemic or whether you are in a best of health, then a specific examination will be a per vaginal examination. So after finishing this she may advise you ultrasonography, ultrasonography is to know the structural defect in the uterus and as we all know the tubes, the reproductive system in a woman consists of a uterus, the tubes and the ovaries at the sides. Now all of us know that these tubes play a role in reproduction because they are the ones who which transport the oocytes and a fertilization takes place inside the tubes the tubes are very important so we cannot take out whether there is a block in the tubes or not just by doing a play ultrasonography. So there a specific test for that and those test are one is hysterosalpingography, where a die is injected inside the uterus and then an x-ray is taken to know whether the tubes are blocked, whether they are patent or not. In some certain cases when the doctor feels that they need more information about this, he may advise you a history of hysterolaparoscopy. Hysteroscopy is when we put an endoscope inside the uterus through the mouth of the uterus and see the inside part of the uterus, so what do we see when we first see the opening of the tubes, whether the uterus is normal, whether it has a symptom, whether it has a polyp, whether it has a fibroid so all these things can be seen. Laparoscopy is we put in another endoscope through the umbilicus of the women to see whether the tubes are patent, whether the shape of the uterus is normal, whether the surrounding organs are normal. Now this procedure of hystrolaparoscopy is preferably done under general anesthesia, at the most a woman will have to stay for few hours in the hospital or she can stay for the one whole day based on a comfort level. Then the doctor will also advise certain blood, certain blood test one are the general blood test that is the haemoglobin, the urine routine micro examination and the few other test and the specific blood test such as FSH, LH, serum prolactin, your thyroid relating hormone then AMH, so all these tests tell us the capacity of the women to produce eggs and the hormonal status in our body.
If you need any help in trying to conceive, you’re planning to conceive, you're trying to conceive for more than one year but you have not gained any success please contact me at lybrate.com.read more
Hi, I am Dr Jayanti Kamath. I am an IVF consultant, practising at Srishti Fertility Care Center and Women's Clinic, Mumbai. So today, I will be talking about the physiology of conception or how babies are made. Before we begin I will tell you about few things about the female reproductive system.
So as you can see in this picture this is a picture of the uterus and these are the tubes, the fallopian tubes and this whitish structure over here it is called as ovary. Now this part is the vagina and this is the mouth of the uterus it is also called as the cervix so once again this is the uterus these are the fallopian tubes on either side this is the ovary this is the mouth of the uterus called as the cervix and this is the Vagina. so how babies are made first of all babies are made by the fertilization of an ovum or the female egg by a sperm from the male. So the female eggs are produced in a structure called as the ovary. So what happens every month, the egg is released from the ovary into the fallopian tube and the egg grows throughout his journey through the fallopian tube and after sexual intercourse, the sperms enter through the vagina and they meet the egg in the tube and the egg gets fertilized. It keeps on growing and then the embryo or the baby gets implanted inside the uterus and this baby grows up till nine months till the woman delivers. So this is the physiology of conception now why is this important cause when a woman cannot conceive there can be problems in this entire process. For example where the egg is manufactured that is the ovary.
There can be a problem in the ovary, the woman can have a hormonal imbalance such as polycystic ovarian disease where many eggs are produced but they do not grow or they do not become mature then there can be cysts in the ovary such as endometriotic cyst or any other cyst so these are the problems with the ovary. Then coming to the tubes. If there is any blockage in the tubes the oocyte or the XL will not be able to reach the sperm.
Why the blockage occurs?
Blockage can occur due to any infection called as pelvic inflammatory disease or tuberculosis which is a very common disease in our country. So because of that, the tubes can get blocked. So once the tubes are blocked the oocyte has a problem in meeting the sperm, then the main region that is the inside of the uterus, so there can be problems there also. There Can be fibroids, there can be a septum, there can be polyps or there can be the uterus itself can become a tumour called as adenomyosis. So these are the uterine problems which interfere with conception. Now coming lower down there is a mouth of the uterus which is very important. Suppose the mouth of the uterus is closed or there is a very narrow space over there then again the sperms will have difficulty in entering the uterus.
So these are the various problems in the female reproductive system which interfere with conception.
For more information about this or if you have a problem in conceiving please consult me at lybrate.com.
Thank you.read more
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She is very patient with all herpatients. The best thing about Jayanti Kamat is that she prescribes limited no. of medicines. The delay periods issue was increasing day by day. Even in case of long queues, the staff was managing people in a very positive manner. It was so quite pleasant in the Shrishti Fertility Care Center & Women's clinic. The complete process of delay periods treatment was so painless and quick, and i am so relieved that I chose to consult her. I consulted a number of specialists but the way she treated me was the best
Dr. Jayanti Kamat provides answers that are very helpful, knowledgeable and inspiring. Thank you so much mam.. definitely I will follow advice
Dr. Jayanti Kamat is very clear in her talk n she gave us proper guidance n counselling
Dr. Jayanti Kamat provides answers that are knowledgeable. its goid thx mam
Dr. Jayanti Kamat provides answers that are very helpful. So helpful answer
Dr. Jayanti Kamat provides answers that are very helpful. Thanku ma'am.
Dr. Jayanti Kamat provides answers that are very helpful. Thanku
Dr. Jayanti Kamat provides answers that are very helpful. Thanks
Hysterolaparoscopy is an effective and safe tool in evaluation of infertility, particularly for detecting adnexal adhesions , peritoneal endometriosis and septum in the uterus. Also it can detect various structural abnormalities in multiple sites like tubes,pelvis and the uterus in the same sitting in patients.
While genital infections are an uneasy topic to discuss and seek treatment for, ignoring them leads to severe complications like infertility and even death. Most of these can be treated with a regular course of antibiotics and some topical treatment when identified early. Genital infections can be broadly classified into sexually transmitted and non-sexually transmitted. Read on to know some more common infections in both the categories.
Sexually transmitted diseases:
- Chlamydia: Caused by the bacteria Chlamydia trachomatis, it is the most common STD and affects about 10% of 20 to 30 year olds. It is often asymptomatic, but in few cases, there could be increased vaginal discharge. Left undetected, it can lead to pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and subsequently infertility.
- Gonorrhea: The bacteria Neisseria gonorrhea causes this STD, which is very common. There could be some irritation or discharge, but is mostly asymptomatic. Like Chlamydia, if not treated, it can lead to PID and infertility.
- HIV: The most dangerous of all, it causes AIDS, with immunosuppression as a major effect and affecting overall health. The women affected by HIV are more prone to candida and other genital infections.
- Genital warts: This viral infection is caused by human papilloma virus (HPV) and manifests as multiple warts on the vulva, vagina, and cervix and can cause cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (precancerous).
- Genital herpes: This virus again causes multiple small vesicles and ulcers around the vagina, painful urination, and swelling of the lymph nodes. Caused by type 1 herpes virus more commonly than type 2, it has a high chance of recurrence.
- Trichomonas: This STD manifests with very few symptoms and can go undetected for a long time. It can lead to PID and infertility.
- Syphilis: Caused by Treponema pallidum, there are 3 stages. The primary stage presents with an ulcer. The secondary presents with a rash, multiple genital warts, and oral warts/ulcers. It then goes into a latent phase and may subside without progression. In some cases, it reaches the tertiary stage and can affect various body organs including the liver, heart, or brain.
Non-sexually transmitted diseases: There two major genital infections not transmitted by sex are bacterial vaginosis and candidiasis.
- Bacterial vaginosis (BV): Constant change in the bacteria mix present in the genital area produces an imbalance and leads to altered pH and therefore BV. Pregnancy, intrauterine device, and frequent douching are proven risk factors for developing BV.
- Candidiasis: The genital tract usually has yeasts, and Candida vaginalis is present in the vagina. An overgrowth of this leads to infection. This can be caused by use of antibiotics (which destroy the good bacteria), diabetes, pregnancy, and birth control pills.
Early diagnosis and intervention of these infections can prevent severe symptoms in most cases.
It is a well-known fact that the placenta is one of the most important organs related to pregnancy. However, it can also be said that when there is not enough placenta, the stage is set for a lot of complications.
This sort of condition goes by a variety of names. Among them are placental insufficiency, which is most commonly used, placental dysfunction as well as uteroplacental vascular insufficiency, which sounds like a mouthful to pronounce!
The condition refers to the case where the blood supply itself is not large enough. The placenta is the key connection, which exists between the mother and the developing child. By making use of this connection, the mother can transfer nutrients and oxygen to the child for it to develop in a sufficient manner.
Taking this into account, it can be imagined what a ruinous impact the shortage of these nutrients and even basic oxygen can have on the baby. In fact, there is a 1 in 300 chance of there being placental insufficiency for a woman who is expecting a baby.
What causes placental insufficiency?
Complications such as placental insufficiency are caused in a general sense, by some lifestyle bad habits such as smoking and the consumption of drugs. However, it also depends on the health of the mother when she conceives. Some women are already suffering from diseases, such as diabetes and chronic high blood pressure as well as disorders which relate to the clotting of blood when they get pregnant.
A case of placental insufficiency cannot be cured fully but the good news is that a lot can be done by the way of medication and practices to try to reduce the ill effects it has on the development of a baby. It can be said crucial for this purpose that the condition of placental insufficiency is detected well in advance of the expected date of delivery. When the case is such that there is a serious chance that the baby may be delivered prematurely, it is very important that a doctor is consulted.
The course of medicine, which is likely to be suggested is the administration of steroids by a qualified medical professional to the mother who is expecting a baby. The reason why this is done is so that the steroids can transfer from the mother to the developing child by making use of the placenta and can work to strengthen the lungs of the baby.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
In medical terms, the pelvic floor refers to a group of muscles in the pelvic area. These muscles provide support to the organs in the pelvic region, including the bladder, uterus (women), prostate (men), and rectum.
What is pelvic floor dysfunction?
This is a medical condition that is used to refer to a situation when you are unable to control the functioning of the pelvic floor. It means you fail to control the bowel movement. People suffering from pelvic floor dysfunction use these muscles to contract rather than to relax. It is for this reason that they cannot have a bowel movement. They often have an incomplete one.
What causes pelvic floor dysfunction?
In most of the cases, the exact reason behind this dysfunction is unknown. It is often believed that this condition is caused due to traumatic injuries to the pelvic area. This can happen after an accident and due to complications aroused after vaginal childbirth.
What are the symptoms?
There are several symptoms that are linked to this medical condition. You must visit your doctor if you come across the following signs:
- The feel of having several bowel movements within a short period of time.
- If you feel that you cannot complete a bowel movement.
- When there is constipation pain linked with bowel movements.
- A frequent urge to urinate.
- Painful urination.
- Pain in lower back.
- Continuous pain in pelvic region, genitals, or rectum.
- Pain during intercourse in women
How is pelvic floor dysfunction diagnosed?
It may be diagnosed through a physical examination by the doctor. You will ask several questions to know the case history and find out the cause. You may also be asked to take pelvic muscle control test by placing surface electrodes on the perineum or sacrum. A small device called a perineometer is also used for the same.
What are the best ways for treating pelvic floor dysfunction?
It can be treated without surgery. There are several techniques. Some of these are as follows:
- Biofeedback: It is done with the help of a physical therapist.He uses special sensors to watch and monitor the muscles.
- Medication: A low-dose muscle relaxant is prescribed to treat the same.
- Relaxation techniques: Your therapist may ask you to take up techniques for relaxation such as warm baths, yoga, and exercises.
- Surgery: If your physician finds out that the dysfunction is caused by a rectal prolapse or rectocele, he or she will take up surgery.
Pelvic Floor Dysfunction results in Urinary Dysfunction. Urinary incontinence is the unintentional passing of urine. It's a common problem thought to affect millions of people. There are several types of urinary incontinence, including:
- Stress Incontinence – when urine leaks out at times when your bladder is under pressure; for example, when you cough or laugh
- Urge Incontinence – when urine leaks as you feel a sudden, intense urge to pass urine, or soon afterwards
- Overflow Incontinence (chronic urinary retention) – when you're unable to fully empty your bladder, which causes frequent leaking
- Total Incontinence – when your bladder can't store any urine at all, which causes you to pass urine constantly or have frequent leaking
It's also possible to have a mixture of both stress and urge urinary incontinence.
Pelvic Organ Prolapse
Pelvic organ prolapse is a condition in which structures such as the uterus, rectum, bladder, urethra, small bowel, or the vagina itself may begin to prolapse, or fall, out of their normal positions. Without medical treatment or surgery, these structures may eventually fall farther into the vagina or even through the vaginal opening if their supports weaken enough.
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In a normal pregnancy, the baby develops with its head pointed down, and the head is usually the part which comes out first during normal delivery. However, in many cases, the baby could have its legs, feet, or buttocks pointing to the cervix. In a majority of cases, the baby may have this position, but rotates to have its head pointing down before the third trimester. However, this may not happen, and this is referred to as breech.
In a lot of cases, the doctor would try to move the baby’s head downwards usually around the 37th week, and this is referred to as external cephalic version (ECV) or even as version. The process is done externally by manipulation and hence the name external. It is done before labor and may allow for a vaginal birth. In very rare cases, it may be done during labor, but before the amniotic sac has ruptured. As a backup, there should be a provision for the patient to undergo C-section, if ECV is not successful.
- Single pregnancy, into 36 weeks of pregnancy, with no complications, and preferably not the first pregnancy
- No engagement of the fetus (any part) in the uterus
- Adequate amniotic fluid, which will provide a good environment to move the baby with minimal injury
- Suspected/known birth defects
- Multiple pregnancies (twins/triplets)
- Ruptured amniotic sac
- Fetus with a hyperextended neck
- Mother’s health is not optimal and is on cardiac medications
- Condition that mandates a cesarean section (placental separation from the uterus, placenta covering the cervix, etc.)
The fetal position is first estimated using an ultrasound. The position of the placenta and the amount of amniotic fluid are also closely monitored. Under constant monitoring, the uterus is relaxed through medications. With one hand on the fetal head and another on the buttocks, the doctor tries to rotate the fetus. Depending on how much pressure the mother is able to tolerate and how flexible the uterus is, version may be successful (success rate is about 60%).
A second attempt under epidural anesthesia may be done, if the first one did not succeed. However, the chances of success with subsequent attempts is very doubtful. The fetus is constantly monitored through ultrasound and fetal heart rate monitoring. A fetus is considered healthy if the heart rate moves up during this procedure. However, if the heart rate seems abnormally high, the procedure would be abandoned.
After the procedure, the mother and the fetus would be monitored for a while before being sent home. As the fetus is constantly monitored throughout pregnancy, the doctor would be able to tell if this procedure is required.